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Head Injuries & Concussion


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Head Injuries & Concussion

  1. 1. Head injuries and Concussions By Joseph Salinitri Preliminary P.D.H.P.E: Assessment Task 4; First Aid
  2. 2. The of Head Injuries and Concussions <ul><li>Head injuries involve damage to the brain or the structure of the skull surrounding the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Head injuries are serious injuries and none should be overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>There are 5 main types of head injury: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemorrhage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul></ul>Nature
  3. 3. C u t s <ul><ul><li>Although they look alarming, cuts to the scalp, are only likely to be serious is caused by a large blow </li></ul></ul>Examples of cuts to the skull
  4. 4. C o ncu s si o n <ul><ul><li>Concussions are “a traumatic injury to the brain as a result of a violent blow, shaking, or spinning. A brain concussion can cause immediate and usually temporary impairment of brain function such as of thinking, vision, equilibrium and consciousness ”. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. C o n t u s i o n Contusion (or bruising) may occur to the brain after an injury, which causes swelling of the brain tissue. As a result of contusion, periods of unconsciousness following an accident may be prolonged, as well as periods of amnesia after consciousness is regained. The site of contusion may be directly at the site of injury or the opposite side (contra-coup brain injury) due to the brain bouncing back (during accident).
  6. 6. C o n t u s i o n Skull Contusion, or bruising of the brain may occur at the site of the blow. Brain Area of bruising Site of impact POSSIBLE SITE OF BRAIN INJURY FOLLOWING A BLOW TO BACK OF HEAD
  7. 7. H ae m o rr hag e Haemorrhage is bleeding in the skull. It is a frequent outcome of head injuries. It is usually caused by the damaging of the blood vessels present in the dura mater (tough covering of the inside of the skull) A dissected, preserved brain that had a haemorrhage Haemorrhage
  8. 8. C om P res S ion If there is any swelling or bleeding within the skull, a point can be reached when there is no more room for expansion, this is compression . Compression of the brain is a serious issues and can lead to severe damage. In extreme cases, compression can cause brain tissue to squeeze out of the base of the skull, this is known as coning .
  9. 9. Signs and Symptoms of Serious Head injury <ul><li>Deep cuts or tears to the scalp </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Severe headache </li></ul><ul><li>Visual disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness or difficulty being aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal sized pupils, or pupils that do not respond to light </li></ul><ul><li>Paralysis, numbness or loss of function over one half of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with balance </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid flowing from eyes and/or mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Drunken behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Fits, confusion or unconsciousness </li></ul>
  10. 10. Signs and Symptoms of rising pressure within the Skull <ul><li>Intense headache, worse when lying flat and/or with physical exertion </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal or dilated pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness on one side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Noisy, irregular breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable or aggressive behaviour </li></ul>Example of Dilated pupil
  11. 11. First Aid for a <ul><li>Protect the victim’s airway by tilting back, the jaw, whilst treating them as if they have a spinal injury </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure to any scalp wounds that are bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>If conscious, lay them on the floor with head and shoulders slightly raised. If they are unconscious, place them in the recovery position whilst protecting their neck </li></ul><ul><li>Call emergency services (000 or 112) </li></ul><ul><li>Check for responses. Constantly reassure them </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly check their breathing and level of consciousness until helps arrives. </li></ul>Head injury
  12. 12. Fi r s t Ai d for cuts to the Head <ul><li>Wear protective gloves. Expose the wound. Do not drag clothing over the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear the wound surface of any obvious debris by using a gauze pad. </li></ul><ul><li>Control bleeding by putting direct pressure on wound and elevating limb. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a bandage to the wound once bleeding is controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Keep casualty warm and calm until further help arrives. </li></ul>
  13. 13. First Aid for a person with a Concussion <ul><li>Carefully clear victim’s airway (ensuring no further damage is done as there may be spinal injury) </li></ul><ul><li>Call 000 </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a clear and open airway </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them comfortable until medical professionals arrive </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bibliography <ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Red Cross Society, The. (1991). First Aid Manual. Collins Angus&Robertson Publishers Pty Ltd.: Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>Balint, Danielle (ed.). (2003). 2 Unit Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Preliminary Course 2008,First Aid. Able Publishing: Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Fermie, Dr. F., Keech, Dr. P. and Shepherd Dr.S. (2005). The Illustrated Practical Book of First Aid and Family Health. Anness Publishing Ltd </li></ul><ul><li>Lippman, J. and Natoli, D. (2008). First Aid: A training Guide for the Management of Emergencies. J.L. Publications: Australia </li></ul><ul><li>St. John Ambulance Australia. (1995). Australian First Aid; Volumes 1 and 2. St. John Ambulance Australia: Melbourne </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bibliography <ul><li>Websites: </li></ul><ul><li>BBC. (8.8.08). Two jailed over pensioner attack. (online). Retrieved: 10.8.08 </li></ul><ul><li>Better Health Channel. (1.8.08). Head Injuries- First Aid. (online). Retrieved: 1.8.08 </li></ul><ul><li>Dkimages.(no date). Head Injuries. (online). Retrieved: 10.8.08 </li></ul><ul><li>No name. (no date). Soccer Overload. (online). Retrieved: 8.8.08 </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Melbourne. (17.2.05). Anatomy and Pathology Collection. (online) Retrieved: 26.7.08 </li></ul>