Story of King David Starts in 1 Sam 16Saul has rejected God, and God has rejected Saul as king over IsraelSecretly, Samuel anointed David as the new king
The Preacher (Samuel) does itSo does Papa (Jesse)
David is brought, selected & anointed.Then he goes home to take care of business as usual.How does God train an unassuming shepherd boy to be king?There’s the matter of providence – something we can recognize better in the past than in the present.God arranges for David to learn firsthand from Saul what God’s idea of a king is – and what it isn’t.
God arranges for Saul to need a good musician to soothe him during troubling times Then, he plants the idea in the mind of one of Saul’s attendants to suggest that shepherd boy, what’s-his-name, you know, Jesse’s boy. He’s a good all-around fellow who won’t be an embarrassment to the king in his court.Went back and forth between shepherding and Saul
Goliath (1 Sam 17)Initial confrontation between Goliath and Israel’s army (vv 1-11)
1 Samuel 17:1-3 begins with two armies prepared for battle in the Valley of Elah, on the border between Judah and Philistia, about 17 miles SW of JerusalemPhilistines occupied one hill & Israel occupied another hill.Israel was at Khirbet Qeiyafa – a fortress overlooking the valley that has been discovered & excavated within the past few years.On opposite sides of the Valley of Elah, 2-3 miles apart.
1 Samuel 17:4-7 NIV A champion named Goliath, who was from Gath, came out of the Philistine camp. He was over nine feet tall. (5) He had a bronze helmet on his head and wore a coat of scale armor of bronze weighing five thousand shekels (125 lbs.); (6) on his legs he wore bronze greaves, and a bronze javelin was slung on his back. (7) His spear shaft was like a weaver's rod, and its iron point weighed six hundred shekels (15 lbs.). His shield bearer went ahead of him.Confrontation — vv 4-7 (9 feet tall; armor 125 lbs; spearhead 15 lbs)Detailed description of the armor is more than a historical curiosity.It explains Israel’s reaction to his challenge; it demonstrates that anyone who was to defeat him would not do so by his own courage & strength, but by the power of God.
1 Samuel 17:8-10 NIV Goliath stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel, "Why do you come out and line up for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose a man and have him come down to me. (9) If he is able to fight and kill me, we will become your subjects; but if I overcome him and kill him, you will become our subjects and serve us." (10) Then the Philistine said, "This day I defy the ranks of Israel! Give me a man and let us fight each other."Challenge — Twice a day for 40 days — Common in ancient warfareRepresentative combat – losers didn’t honor the outcome, but the initial conflict was designed to hype your own army and psych out the other before the battle was joined.Mike Tyson challenging us to send someone to fight him (Read With Me Bible)
1 Samuel 17:11 NIV On hearing the Philistine's words, Saul and all the Israelites were dismayed and terrified.Theological condemnation because of lack of faith (Deut 20:1-4)Deuteronomy 20:1-4 NIV When you go to war against your enemies and see horses and chariots and an army greater than yours, do not be afraid of them, because the LORD your God, who brought you up out of Egypt, will be with you. (2) When you are about to go into battle, the priest shall come forward and address the army. (3) He shall say: "Hear, O Israel, today you are going into battle against your enemies. Do not be fainthearted or afraid; do not be terrified or give way to panic before them. (4) For the LORD your God is the one who goes with you to fight for you against your enemies to give you victory."How far they have come from the Exodus — God of Red Sea
David — Interacts with the army, his big brother, and Saul (vv 12 - 39)1 Samuel 17:23-24 NIV As he was talking with them, Goliath, the Philistine champion from Gath, stepped out from his lines and shouted his usual defiance, and David heard it. (24) When the Israelites saw the man, they all ran from him in great fear.
Others fear (v 23), but David responds in faith — vv 26b1 Samuel 17:26b NIV … “Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?"Sees through the eyes of faith — God’s perspective — defy GodGod has promised to defeat the enemies of his peopleDoesn’t matter how big the enemy is — David believes God
Conflict with his big brother — vv 28-291 Samuel 17:28-29 NIV When Eliab, David's oldest brother, heard him speaking with the men, he burned with anger at him and asked, "Why have you come down here? And with whom did you leave those few sheep in the desert? I know how conceited you are and how wicked your heart is; you came down only to watch the battle." (29) "Now what have I done?" said David. "Can't I even speak?"Eliab thinks he knows David’s heart — evilEliab really looks on the outside“What did I say now? Get off my back.”
Saul hears about David’s willingness to fight — but youngSamuel, Jesse, Eliab, and now Saul look on the outside — see Goliath/DavidI may be young but I’m not a wimp — vv 36a-37a1 Samuel 17:36-37 NIV Your servant has killed both the lion and the bear; this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, because he has defied the armies of the living God. (37) The LORD who delivered me from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine." Saul said to David, "Go, and the LORD be with you."David’s greatest strength is not in his might but in the Lord’s strengthNot want Saul’s armor — diplomatically — “not used to it”Real reason is theological — see in a few verses
David and Goliath (vv 40-54)
Prepares for battle — v 401 Samuel 17:40 NIV Then he took his staff in his hand, chose five smooth stones from the stream, put them in the pouch of his shepherd's bag and, with his sling in his hand, approached the Philistine.WadiElah runs at the base of the hill below Khirbet Qeiyafa, in the Valley of ElahStones when manufactured — 2-3 inches across, made of flintWhy five? Goliath had four sons – also gargantuan – according to 2 Sa 21:22. David might reasonably expect to have to take them on, too.Israeli Ministry of Tourism refills the stream today
1 Samuel 17:41-44 NIV Meanwhile, the Philistine, with his shield bearer in front of him, kept coming closer to David. (42) He looked David over and saw that he was only a boy, ruddy and handsome, and he despised him. (43) He said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come at me with sticks?" And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. (44) "Come here," he said, "and I'll give your flesh to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field!"
David’s challenge is one of faith (vv 45-47)
Re “Yahweh will hand you over to me and I’ll strike you down and cut off your head” – reminder of recent Philistine history of what happened the last time Yahweh met Dagon1 Samuel 5:1-4 NIV After the Philistines had captured the ark of God, they took it from Ebenezer to Ashdod. (2) Then they carried the ark into Dagon's temple and set it beside Dagon. (3) When the people of Ashdod rose early the next day, there was Dagon, fallen on his face on the ground before the ark of the LORD! They took Dagon and put him back in his place. (4) But the following morning when they rose, there was Dagon, fallen on his face on the ground before the ark of the LORD! His head and hands had been broken off and were lying on the threshold; only his body remained.Dagon and the ark — fell and then beheaded
Throwing Goliath’s words back in his face — one contrast after anotherEmphatic contrasts between v 43 and v 45 G: “You come at me with sticks?!”; D: “You come at me with sword and spear and javelin”G: curses David by his gods; D: “I come against you in the name of Yahweh, the God of Israel’s armies!”G: “I’ll give your flesh to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field!”; D: “I’ll give the carcasses of the Philistine army to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field!”Huge giant with massive armor vs. sling/shepherd’s staffVs. 47 explains why David did not want Saul’s armor
1 Samuel 17:48-50 NIV As the Philistine moved closer to attack him, David ran quickly toward the battle line to meet him. (49) Reaching into his bag and taking out a stone, he slung it and struck the Philistine on the forehead. The stone sank into his forehead, and he fell facedown on the ground. (50) So David triumphed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone; without a sword in his hand he struck down the Philistine and killed him.
1 Samuel 17:51 NIV David ran and stood over him. He took hold of the Philistine's sword and drew it from the scabbard. After he killed him, he cut off his head with the sword. When the Philistines saw that their hero was dead, they turned and ran.As Dagon fell and was beheaded, so also GoliathPhilistines routed and plundered — David’s victory (vv 54, 57b)1 Sam 17 is not primarily the story of the victory of a young manThe story of the Lord defeating his enemies through a young shepherdGod working through someone who trusts Him wholeheartedly
Many Lessons — Challenge that We Should Step out in faithDavid could have stayed in the back (where his big brother thought he belonged)Even though David was a qualified fighter — not my battle — sheepChosen to do the “safe” thing — stay within his comfort zoneCouched it in religious terms — “Do not test God”
But David was a man after God’s heart (Acts 13:22)This means He sees life through eyes of faith — Heb 11:6David understood that God had committed himself to his people.David believed that God would be victoriousAnd David wanted to be part of God’s victoryNot sit on the sidelinesMidst of the battle and experience first hand that the battle was the Lord’s.David believed God
David understood that true faith always drives a person to actFaith that lies dormant and doesn’t extend itself isn’t faithJames 2:26 — Faith that is lifeless is no faith at allFaith by its very definition propels people to actionSometimes we are called to step out in faith — still within our comfort zoneEven if it makes us a little uneasy, we’re okay with it Deal with a lion or a bear
Human, sinful side will tend to respond with fearFaith will always see life through God’s eyes — battle is the Lord’sWhether inside or outside our comfort zone, faith says toStep out in faith – David defeated Goliath before he ever picked up a stone, because he lived his life trusting God. He’d seen God protect him from lions & bears – and all he saw was an uncircumcised Philistine!He knew he had a rock with Goliath’s name on it!
What once was outside his comfort zone begins to fall within his comfort zoneDavid did not fear Goliath one bit — not fear — believed/knew that the battle was the Lord’sWhat are the Goliaths in your life? Apparently insuperable challenge?Then step up to the plate and step out on faith — run to battle and sling the rock
What, or who, is your Goliath?Florence Chadwick attempted to swim 26 miles from Catalina Island to the California coast in 1952 in an attempt to set a record for covering that distance. She’d already swam the English Channel (13 miles) once each way in 1950 & 1951.After 15 hours, blinded by heavy fog, she became disoriented and discouraged and gave up. When she finally decided she couldn’t go on, her escorts in a boat helped her out of the water. She quit when she was less than 300 yards from the goal. Her clouded vision kept her from victory.How do you see your challenges? When you stand on a hillside and see a 9-foot tall giant warrior taunting you, how do you view him? Is he an insurmountable obstacle or an opportunity for the glory of God to be revealed?We can’t avoid Goliath--he is necessary to our growth as Christians. Your Goliath may be an addiction, habit, attitude, a job layoff, financial problems, marital problems, illness, whatever. Run to the battle & sling the rock, and trust God for the victory.
Man Looks From the Outside In<br />Samuel does it<br />1 Samuel 16:6-7 NET When they arrived, Samuel noticed Eliab and said to himself, "Surely, here before the LORD stands his chosen king!"<br />Jesse does it, too<br />1 Samuel 16:11 NET Then Samuel said to Jesse, "Is that all of the young men?" Jesse replied, "There is still the youngest one, but he's taking care of the flock." Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and get him, for we cannot turn our attention to other things until he comes here." <br />
God Looks From the Inside Out<br />1 Samuel 16:7 NET But the LORD said to Samuel, "Don't be impressed by his appearance or his height, for I have rejected him. God does not view things the way men do. People look on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart."<br />
David Plays the Palace<br />1 Samuel 16:14-18 NET Now the Spirit of the LORD had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD tormented him. … So Saul said to his servants, "Find me a man who plays well and bring him to me." One of his attendants replied, "I have seen a son of Jesse in Bethlehem who knows how to play the lyre. He is a brave warrior and is articulate and handsome, for the LORD is with him." <br />
David’s Challenge<br />1 Samuel 17:45-47 NIV David said to the Philistine, "You come against me with sword and spear and javelin, but I come against you in the name of the LORD Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. <br />
David’s Challenge<br />This day the LORD will hand you over to me, and I'll strike you down and cut off your head. <br />
David’s Challenge<br />Today I will give the carcasses of the Philistine army to the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and the whole world will know that there is a God in Israel. <br />
David’s Challenge<br />All those gathered here will know that it is not by sword or spear that the LORD saves; for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give all of you into our hands."<br />
A Man After God’s Own Heart<br />Acts 13:22 NIV After removing Saul, he made David their king. He testified concerning him: 'I have found David son of Jesse a man after my own heart; he will do everything I want him to do.’<br />Hebrews 11:6 NIV And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.<br />
Faith Drives a Person to Act<br />James 2:14-26 NIV What good is it, my brothers, if a man claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save him? … faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead. … a person is justified by what he does and not by faith alone. … As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without deeds is dead.<br />