7th in OT Vistas – First 6 in Genesis; today is the first of 3 in Exodus. Two unusual words to note:
1. Yahweh – Tetragrammaton; YHWH (Strange letters on worship slides today); ASV “Jehovah” Reason for using WEB: Renders name of God in OT Most render “LORD”, because Hebrews would not say the name of God (fearing violating the 3rd command). Exodus 20:7 WEB "You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain, for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain. The command prohibits use of the name for any idle, frivolous, or insincere purpose (e.g. perjury, pagan incantations, or idle talk). The name is to be treated with reverence and respect because it is the name of the holy God. When they came across it in scripture, they substituted “Adonai” (“Lord”) for fear that they might not be showing proper respect for God’s name.
2. Exodus – from 2 Gk words: ex – “out of” + odos – “way” – Hence: The way out Exodus is the story of Yahweh providing Israel’s way out of Egypt.
Gen 15:5-7 — God’s covenant with Abraham
1. Descendants as numerous as stars
2. Destiny – Land to possess – Canaan
1. Displacement into another “Land” – Egypt – where they would be enslaved.
2. Deliverance from that land and from their slavery
Displacement occurred in the days of Abraham’s grandson, Jacob (also called Israel).
God providentially raised his son, Joseph to power in Egypt to provide for Israel during a time of famine.
Sets the stage for the book of Exodus
400+ years passed & things changed.
New king (different dynasty – Egypt had many ) saw Israel as threat, because of growing threat of invasion by Hyksos (also Semitic). Feared Israel would ally with their cousins and open the way for invasion.
Ironically, first thing that happened to Israel after departure from Egypt was war with Amalekites (historically known as Hyksos) who were on their way into Egypt to invade it & set up a competing dynasty. Likely coincides with end of Middle Kingdom (ended with 14th Dynasty) & beginning of Second Intermediate Kingdom (began with 15th Dynasty – Hyksos)
Led to slavery — eventually, murdering newborn baby boys
Moses is rescued & raised in the palace
Eventually flees to Midian, at age 40
40 years later … Moses has an encounter that changes the course of his life – and the course of history.
Moses sees a bush that is burning, but is not consumed & stops to look at it.
Burning Bush (Exodus 3)
Identifies himself as the God of his fathers
Not just any god, but the God of Moses’ ancestors.
Beginning at verse 7, says he is about to fulfill covenant promises to Abraham — send Moses to rescue Israel and bring them back to the land he promised Abraham.
One of most theologically significant texts in OT
God reveals his true name “YHWH”
When God reveals his name, his name reveals God’s basic character
YHWH comes from Hebrew verb “to be” (first verb a student learns in any new language)
Includes the ideas of ...
1. Independent Existence — God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob has independent existence. Everything else has a beginning & end. Only God has independent existence.
2. Absolute Uniqueness — no one like him (e.g., 15:11) Exodus 15:11 WEB Who is like you, Yahweh, among the gods? Who is like you, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders? The answer is “No one is like Yahweh.
3. Perfect Unchangeableness — (Theological doctrine of “Immutability”) We change, as experiences shape us (Republicans become Democrats; Liberals become Conservatives, etc.) But God does not change Malachi 3:6 WEB (R) "For I, Yahweh, don't change; therefore you, sons of Jacob, are not consumed.
The account of the Exodus is going to tell Israel & Egypt & us a great deal about this God whose name is Yahweh.
Moses heads toward Egypt with his brother, Aaron
God tells Moses what he can expect — 4:21-23
Ten times in Exodus, text says God hardened Pharaoh’s heart; ten times it says Pharaoh hardened his own heart.
Moses goes before Pharaoh (5:1-2)
Egypt had over 2,000 gods, but they didn’t have a god named Yahweh
Moses is going to have to convince Pharaoh that Yahweh is not a god to be trifled with.
He is also going to have to convince Israel that Yahweh is the only true God.
In the following chapters, there are two important statements by God
1. God will keep his covenantal promises — 6:6-8
Deliverance from Egypt; Deliverance into the land he promised Abraham.
Essence of the covenant: “I will be your God and you ...”
2. Yahweh will declare who he is to the Egyptians/Hebrews — 7:3-5
God will declare His greatness to the Egyptians — requires 10 demonstrations to get the message across
God’s salvation comes against the backdrop of human stubbornness.
Exodus 7:14 WEB (R) Yahweh said to Moses, "Pharaoh's heart is stubborn. He refuses to let the people go.
Plagues — Same basic scenario
Moses confronts — Pharaoh’s stubborn heart is hard — plague/repent — changes his mind – relents when plague is lifted.
Plagues /Gods 1. Nile to blood – Hapi, god of the Nile 2. Frogs – Heket goddess of fertility (depicted as frog) 3. Lice from dust of earth – Geb, god of Earth 4. Flies – Khepri – god of Creation (head of a fly)
Beginning with 5-9. Not on Israelites: 5. Pestilence (death of livestock) – Hathor, goddess of protection (head of cow) 6. Boils – Isis, goddess of medicine 7. Hail – Nut, goddess of Sky 8. Locusts – Seth, god of storms & disorder 9. Darkness (3 days) – Ra, Sun god (most powerful of pantheon)
Pharaoh’s heart is hard — will not let God’s people go Preparation for the tenth plague God knows this will break Pharaoh’s heart
10. Attacks Pharaoh himself, who was deified as ultimate god of Egypt.
God will kill every firstborn in Egypt, because Egypt is killing his firstborn
Passover (12 — summarize), and then the Tenth plague — 12:29-32
430 years earlier in Gen 46 — 70 to Egypt — 600,000 men (& women & children)
Story is not over
God has Moses appear to be wandering in the desert – heading southeast toward impassable water of Red Sea, rather than northeast along the trade route known as the Way of the Philistines.
Pharaoh is told the Israelites left & appear to be hemmed in & pursues them.
When Israelites see the Egyptians coming — vv 13-14 Exodus 14:13-14 WEB Moses said to the people, "Don't be afraid. Stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh, which he will work for you today: for the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you shall never see them again. (14) Yahweh will fight for you, and you shall be still."
God parts the Red Sea — vv 16-18 Exodus 14:16-18 WEB Lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go into the midst of the sea on dry ground. (17) I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall go in after them: and I will get myself honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies, over his chariots, and over his horsemen. (18) The Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh, when I have gotten myself honor over Pharaoh, over his chariots, and over his horsemen."
Concentrate on God and his part of the covenant
Next lesson — our part of the covenant
What lessons can we learn from the Exodus?
1. Yahweh is faithful — to keep his promises — to you, today
God will do whatever is necessary to keep his promises
When times get difficult, we tend to become short-sighted
Tend to forget about God’s past acts of faithfulness
Exodus/Red Sea become the primary salvation event in the OT
Look at God’s faithfulness throughout time past — Red Seas in my life
If God did this, he will save you now — 14:13-14
2. Yahweh will be glorified! Sin says that I am the center of the universe I am to pursue my own good, my own self-interest I am to praise myself Unfortunate example — modern churches The focus of worship is on how Sunday morning makes me feel Honest: God exists for my pleasure — take my pain away — bless me Almighty “I” becomes center of worship When we put ourselves at the center of the universe — idolatry We are not the greatest good; God is He be praised above all else We must be most interested in God’s glory Anything less is idolatry Isaiah’s refrain — 42:8 We serve a most amazing God God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob — Unique — Unchangeable (YHWH) God who is absolutely faithful to his promises. God whose glory supersedes everything else.
Cannot mention Yahweh without mentioning Jesus
Name of Jesus (Yeshua) means “Yahweh saves” (ASV Jesus = Jehovah saves)
Matthew identifies him as “Emmanuel” (“God with us”)
Jesus made remarkable claims: To be sent by God; to be one with God; to be God (John 8:56-58)
Picked up stones to stone him because he was identifying himself with Yahweh of the Burning Bush.
Yahweh sent Moses to deliver Israel from slavery & take them home.
He has come in Jesus, to deliver us from sin & take us home to heaven.
He is the way out of sin & into righteousness. He is the way out of darkness & into light. He is the way out of death & into life.
Will you let Jesus be your way out of whatever plagues you today?
101121 ot vistas 07 yahweh & the way out
Yahweh brought him (Abram) outside, and
said, "Look now toward the sky, and count
the stars, if you are able to count them." He
said to Abram, "So shall your seed be." He
believed in Yahweh; and he reckoned it to
him for righteousness. He said to him, "I am
Yahweh who brought you out of Ur of the
Chaldees, to give you this land to inherit it."
He (Yahweh) said to Abram, "Know for sure
that your seed will live as foreigners in a
land that is not theirs, and will serve them.
They will afflict them four hundred years. I
will also judge that nation, whom they will
serve. Afterward they will come out with
Eventually, a new king came to power in Egypt
who knew nothing about Joseph or what he had
done. He said to his people, "Look, the people of
Israel now outnumber us and are stronger than
we are. We must make a plan to keep them from
growing even more. If we don't, and if war
breaks out, they will join our enemies and fight
against us. Then they will escape from the
When Yahweh saw that he turned aside to
see, God called to him out of the midst of
the bush, and said, "Moses! Moses!" He
said, "Here I am." He said, "Don't come
close. Take your sandals off of your feet, for
the place you are standing on is holy
ground." Moreover he said, "I am the God of
your father, the God of Abraham, the God of
Isaac, and the God of Jacob." Moses hid his
face; for he was afraid to look at God.
But Moses protested, "If I go to the people of
Israel and tell them, 'The God of your ancestors
has sent me to you,' they will ask me, 'What is
His name?' Then what should I tell them?" God
replied to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM. Say this to
the people of Israel: I AM has sent me to you."
God also said to Moses, "Say this to the people
of Israel: Yahweh, the God of your ancestors—
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the
God of Jacob—has sent me to you. This is My
eternal name, My name to remember for all
Yahweh said to Moses, "When you go
back into Egypt, see that you do before
Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put
in your hand, but I will harden his heart
and he will not let the people go. You shall
tell Pharaoh, 'Thus says Yahweh, Israel is
my son, my firstborn, and I have said to
you, "Let my son go, that he may serve
me;" and you have refused to let him go.
Behold, I will kill your son, your firstborn.' "
Afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said to
Pharaoh, "This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel,
says, 'Let my people go, that they may hold a feast
to me in the wilderness.' " Pharaoh said, "Who is
Yahweh, that I should listen to his voice to let
Israel go? I don't know Yahweh, and moreover I
will not let Israel go."
Therefore tell the children of Israel, 'I am
Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the
burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of
their bondage, and I will redeem you with an
outstretched arm, and with great judgments: and
I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to
you a God; and you shall know that I am Yahweh
your God, who brings you out from under the
burdens of the Egyptians. I will bring you into the
land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac,
and to Jacob; and I will give it to you for a
heritage: I am Yahweh.'
I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply
my signs and my wonders in the land of
Egypt. But Pharaoh will not listen to you, and
I will lay my hand on Egypt, and bring forth
my armies, my people the children of Israel,
out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
The Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh,
when I stretch forth my hand on Egypt, and
bring out the children of Israel from among
Exodus 14:13-14 WEB …
"Don't be afraid. Stand still, and
see the salvation of Yahweh,
which he will work for you today
… Yahweh will fight for you,
and you shall be still."
Isaiah 42:8 WEB "I am Yahweh.
That is my name. I will not give
my glory to another ...
John 8:56-59 WEB Your father Abraham
rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was
glad." The Jews therefore said to him, "You
are not yet fifty years old, and have you
seen Abraham?" Jesus said to them, "Most
certainly, I tell you, before Abraham came
into existence, I AM." Therefore they took up
stones to throw at him …
John 14:6 NLT Jesus told him, "I am
the way, the truth, and the life. No one
can come to the Father except through