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Sensory Integration and Contact with Nature: Designing Outdoor Inclusive Environments


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Sensory Integration and Contact with Nature: Designing Outdoor Inclusive Environments
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Sensory Integration and Contact with Nature: Designing Outdoor Inclusive Environments

  1. 1. Nilda Cosco and Robin Moore ISX ihr' »NĹÄJITA 4!‹)l')Ą! lll! ° lhl. _(4, Nn. Z ' . Spii/ re 2009 SENSORY INTEGRATION AND CONTACT WITH NATURE: DEsIcNINc OUTDOOR INCLUSIVE ENvIRONMENTs by Nilda Cosco and Robin Moore Nilda Cosco and Rolna Alloore bring lo thr lai/ Irrrsoir the langnaguofdesigne ing outdoorenvironnirnis/ br a ruido zvarivli/ ‹ifspririal needs. .Nlonlvssorians will notirrcorrelations lwlivoril the rlvsigncrs“profcssiivriizl ooralnilari/ and Montessori concepts. Territorial developmenpfivi* uxainplr, is akin to the prepared environniviitiś ; rmviiling lai/ vits oflrar'ninkqfai' "Lirpanding lln' 'knounf zoorld by ; ir-essing against the 'nnknauvn. "” Drawing on a solid rrsrarrh hase, Cosco and lvloon' snggrsł both gnidiiig principles and specific applications (inclniiiiig illustrative irlwios) lo create rnxvironinriits that promote ; iln/ siral and nrrnlal health, allrntimz, cognitiz-zfiinclizviziizg, ami motor zlomiloprnvnljin* an inclusizn* cmninniiiłi/ of loarnvrs. INTRODUCTION This paper is based on the assumption that, regardless of chil- dren's abilities or disabilities, nature has a iaositive impact on nell- being and helps children acquire lIiIYmOHlULIS, ltealthy lifestyles (Wells; Wells 8: White). We consider well-being to be a delicate balance between healthy human processes (psychological, physi- cal, spiritual) and healthy environments (composed ot laitdscapcs, Nilda Cosco, PhD, is an rdncalitvn siwcialisl al lln' Natural Learning Initiative, North Carolina Shne Llnirorsiti/ Collvgt' of Design. Sllt' holds a PhD in landsrapz' arrliilerlnru and a niegra' in educational psi/ rlioltrgii. Her ri'srar't'li_focuses on the assrssnirnl ofinildrvoi' L'llZ'll'I'lllll‹'lll§ and lln' iinnaa! of the ontdoirrs on child llL'i'L'll'}llll('lll. Rabin . Moony MCP, is prof 'sor ollandscapt' lll't`llilt't`llll't' and LllTFClDI' al' lln' Natural Learning lnilialior, NUH/ l Cirrolinn Slate Llniet'›'sil_l/ Ctrllràit' of Drsign. Pro_ . .or ! Moore is an nrlvaiz Ilrsiçnrr and drsign rrsvarr/ iri', SpLTlllllŻllhQ ln child and (mmay IirlnIn rneiroriliioiils, Original/ ii _ironi England, lie holds drgrees in nrr/ Iiloclirri' (London LlnivrrsilI/ l and city and regional ; Ilannlng (AlawarlinsI'lls lllńllllllc' of Techno/ treli! , TIM' : VAN/ HH . Ionrmil 159
  2. 2. weather built environments . ' 3 and th ^ - . ma) carefun" designed natural enfiszcial circumstances of daily - ' nments can help maintain the balance necessarv for th h l h . ah Kuo s: Faber Tayior). e ea t Y grom th of children (Grahn et Allchildrenneed toex e ' I th › › of nature in (hei, „erydaą “lżzšelyoewheźęltlhysharmomzmg effects , › ' U experiences of nat ("e necessarš' änhdotes to the artifi ' ' ure - cial environments f th century_ without these ex . ł I o e neu. periences, children with and Without disabilities will see th emselves as a a t f . never been incorPorated P r rom nature because n has into their innermost be- ing~ If S0, as adults they 'mediclablê types 0l behaviors are will lack the passion ; or the consequence ołthedesigned anu nature necessary to protect prepared environment. our planet, 5° @Vervdäy natural , I , places-also referred to as " d " outdoor prepared eny' „ _ ł gar ens or theraPemic value for all lcrfixläżiltsu hlenretgls ? tapet-are places of l ' irec contact with natu Suppmts “Ot 001V health outcomes su h ' re (Kuo S: Faber Tavlor' Faber c a5 attenhon funcmmlng . _ a ‹ Taylor et al. ) but l th - mg alive and in harmony with the world a 5° e feelmg °f be' Undoubtedlv, thes , x . i i of the planet. Creatigšš“Züäżšnäżälfšnłrfäptlndnricàualp feel part stimulates the senses of a" _ _ n s m sc o0 s not onlv (children with and w'th d* ' - - ł and meil_ caringadultswutalso Su l out isabilities , pports the creation ofa eration of adults (child t d . _ “ew 89"' ren o ay) that will more likely understand the processes of nature and will hldh SUPPWY a healthy Earth. Health( c l oods and a healthy planet are interwoven. v ln schoolsettin ^ 85: Outdoor prepared environm t sion of the classroom thataccomm en s are an exten. odates mosteduc t' ' < ' (at a]] levels, infants and md g a ionalactivities ' dlefS, Children's ho l element” I an _ use, Qwerand upper Y) er school programs, and Summer camps_ Because it is crucial for ch' ildren to be in touch with n ature as much as possible indoor ' environ resources for fosfering such expexeexšs Slłquldlgot be excluded as v 9S- n co or extremelv hot' l60 The NAMTA Journal ° Vol, 34, Na_ 2 o sprmg 2009 00r prepared environments and gardens can similarly t Vtilih natural materials (small trees, shrubs, s, etc. ) and foster engagement with nature. climates, ind provide rich contac flowers, tivigs, rock DESIGNING INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENTs Although most children with special needs attending regular schools will be able to enjoy almost any type of garden or outdoor environment, it is recognized that there are children with many possible disabilities or special needs that might require extra care or extra stimulation under the guidance of trained professionals. Certainly, the needs of these groups may require additional design features and accommodations, but it does not mean the design of the outdoors needs tobe fundamentally different. Thebasic premise of universal design (another commonly-used term) is that environ- ments should be designed to accommodate the needs of most people (Mace). As stated by the authors in a previous publication (Moore & Cosco "What Makes a Park" S6), At the young end of the age spectrum, a case can bc made for including the general population of children within the purview of universal design because of their vulner- ability and developmental needs (Moore, Goltsman, 8: lacofano). A small proportion of children live with some type of special need (physical, mental, or sensory impair- ment) that requires special environmental modifications but children as a whole have special needs defined by levels of maturity and skill limitations. Children are also individuals in the process of learning about the world around them. Richer environments-socially, culturally, and physically-enhance and extend the learning process (Hannaford). Design has an obvious role in helping to cre- ate spaces where such richness and diversity of experience can happen-especially for children living in deprived or stressful circumstances. The creation of such inclusive environments offers children the opportunity to experience beautiful, natural settings, and creates favorable situations for environmental engagement (see Figure 1). CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The following conceptual framework helps to explain the po- tential impact of the environment on children's behavior, especially The NAMTA Journal 16l
  3. 3. Figure 1 . A WhImSICaI planter att ' Imagination. It is a type oi semi-grrvżaiirääršbjżàllägçon an: stlmulaœs the” a semngg Aner a year or 1w0 when the b_ can a d meaning and identity to chnwen can work o" a J ' ° I901 looks wom and tired, a new generation ol rep acement stamped with metr new personality_ those with s “ ~ - pecials needs ln this ^ ' P3P”, environment and behavio v ' . r ari considered as a whole_ Behavior Settings The space around th - ~ h - ritory that ; S subdivide; fäääläääte considered as a kind of ter. bivhlzzviur svtlirrgs. t e “ay ""0 subsPaœš Called Behmńm solim? ? *"9 ECOIUKiCaI units v h th h w v ere e p rsical en- uronment and the beha . -^ . - l eco-behavioral units werezpsrt : :Cirr-: :éäsglušlykcoräiyected. These y ar er. rough direct observation of children B k ' - , ar er noticed that behavior settings have a clear structure- they are loca . . - , ted in time 1nd s “ Pacc, they are com- lól The NAMTA Journal - Val. 34, Nn_ 2 . slm-„g 2009 posed ot entities and events (people, objects, behavior) and other processes (sound, shadmctc. ), their spatialand temporalboundaries are identifiable, their components are arranged in a functional way and are part of the whole, and their functions are independent of other adjacent eco-behavioral units. The concept is applied in de- sign research for analyzing human spaces by disaggregating their functional parts (eg, climbing area, sand pit, xvater play setting, tricycle path, vegetable garden, etc). Therefore, behavior settings have predictable types of behaviors that are the consequence of the designed and prepared environment. Affordance Another concept relevant to the topic of designing gardens for all children is nfordnncz'. This theoretical approach helps us to understand the impact of the physical environment on children and to identity environmental attributes that are associated with specific behavioral responses. Affordance stresses the relationship between perception and ac- tion. According to Gibson and Pick, children learn both about the functional properties of the environment (layout, objects, and events) and about themselves by picking up information through the process of identifying and using the environment in relation to their abilities (eg. the child is able to climb on an elevated object that is high enough to venture tor his/ her body scale, ability, and strength). As affordances are learned, they guide children's future behavioral responses to specific environments (Gibson à Pick). The key to creating inclusive environments is to provide mul- tiple affordances to entice the enjoyment of a wide population (see Figures 2 and 3). When children are out and about in the environment, they re- spond to these environmental affordances intuitively'. Affordances are expressed in terms of action: The tree is "swingable"; the hill is "rollable"; the puddle~which a landscape architect might consider a drainage problem! -is definitely "splashableW There is nothing more stimulating for children than this type of sensory interaction with the environment. The NAMTA Imunal i6}
  4. 4. Figur@ 2- A low “iollable" hiII stimulates the vestibul . ar system and encoura es vi o activity. Obse h - . „ _ 9 9 VOUS rve ow each ol these children is reading the alfordance" m mei, ewf, way. Notice the function ol the "loose a t ' t addmona' eXpenmenta' I expenenüal : ogšibüiütàirdboard and plastic sheet that offer Territorial Development The third concept is territorial dezrvlupziiciil. Asageiter-ilnotion the child isdvnam' ll ' * I . ‹ „d „i hour, week to iveek, month to month lt is ciciżicšl fllelnofulgthoà” m „ld : _ _' . l , om ro ucc C l ›ren t” the l" mlš l^ Orld m the first year of life-the first spring the first snow drop, the first snowflake, the first breath ofwind! All tm Ironments should say to the child: Welcome to the planet! Territorial range development recognizes ! lnt matur' h'] dren ex lore, d} i . „ „ i „ ‹ , mg C l' throughęx erierlfcźoler' 121d Wake "enk of the” expandlng 'Vmld Moore & Vinn , A ginę-T? ? Sklllxnnd spatial unclerstanding(. /lo0re; 3„ ‹ . o maintain this dynamic relationship wnh 64 Hu NAMTA . Imunal Vol. .fah No. 2 a sl„›, „g 2009 Figure 3. A low stump supports jumping with the intent ol touching the Iowhanging tree branch. Again, the stump-plus-Iow-hanging-branch combination 'tells' the child, “try to touch me. " the environment, children repeatedly act at their territorial limits, constantly expanding the "known" world by pressing against the "unknown" For each child to exercise her or his exploratory skills beyond the known, space must be designed with soft, extendable territorial boundaries. In institutions with a range of ages, levels of ability, and a variety of child-caregiver relationships, environments with higher levels of diversity will more effectively Satisfy' users' exploratory needs. How does a Montessori school environment enable or afford these continuing, expanding contacts as the child develops and matures and extends their territory day to day? Small infant gar- dens support the venturing of children into the natural world in a confident way. Larger landscapes will provide space for running The NAMTA Jvuriiul I65
  5. 5. and more expansive activities for older children, for enjoying the fresh air or conducting "scientific" explorations. HEALTHY Errccrs or NATURE Research shows that natural environments influence health in positive ways. Attention Functioning and Cognitive Development Exposure to natural settings is associated with improvement in Cognitive functioning. ln a longitudinal study, Wells explored the effects of nature on Cognitive functioning with children between the ages of seven and twelve years who were from low-income, urban families living in housing with different degrees of surrounding "naturalness" (e. g., views from windows, presence of plants and trees near the home). Study findings suggest that an increase in naturalness is related positively to an increase in child attention functioning. Research by Cornell and colleagues demonstrated how Wayfind- ing, a Cognitive task involving planning, memory, spatial cognition, and problem solving, could be also facilitated by landscape attri- butes. ln order to navigate their environment, individuals need to become familiar with contextual sensory cues (spatial cognition). When children ages six and twelve were asked to independently find their way to a place near their home that they selected, the six- year-olds traveled in a linear route and beyond distance limits set by their parents. The tivelve-year-olds traveled to more distant loca- tions and experimented with different routes. Richly differentiated landscapes, designed to offer multisensory cues beginning in early childhood, can encourage children to develop independence through continuous exploration and expansion of territorial limits. Self-Esteem ln the preceding example, Cornell et al. demonstrate how as environments become familiar, development of Cognitive skill al- lows children to continuously take the next step to expand their territory by exploring unfamiliar environments. By building skill, children feel more competent (with themselves and with peers) and self-esteem improves. The forest school project in the United ' [66 The NAMTA Journal 0 Vol. 34, Nu. 2 I Spring 2009 Kingdom is 1 current education effort explicitly aimed at prtwiding , . - w t` ‹ ther than scien- Chüdre" mth natural SettŁngSŚ wi? esljlłlüłiatżfirhrrrfmse self-esteem tific learning as the goal, t eaim o w IC IS 4 (Swarbrick, et al. )- Academic Performance . ‹ - , ' ' d d`rected Academic tasks require directcd attention. Sustairłe l f set- atœmmn is menmily fatiguing. increasing the natura ness o rings (cg, windows with natural views) or increasing exposures to restorative natural environments, EVE" brief 9XP°~WT95I hell” . `. . . - , ' ` d therefore individuals maintain and impro e directed attentionganchimprich- score higher in academic performance (TGHHESSĆ: bs lanœd k; Wells; Berto; Berman e' 3U EW” a few trees of 5 niehis- im act high-exposure strategic locations may have a meašu P Motor Development Child motor development may be enhanced when children are] offered a more complex environment than is provided by trädlilürrieäd playground settings. A natural landscape or a play' SPaœ : alf dv to integrate natural elements offers such an enirironmenti f S “l , of children ages five to seven years assessed theimpaCf O_ a P “Y environment intervention on child motor functioning (Fyörloflli Children in the experimental group WŚTC Prmmáeą “Mh a “asie playscape for nine months and children in a comParlwn gmup provided with traditional play- ground settings. Motor function- ing was assessed twice (pre- and post-intervention), Assessment included balance, coordination, speed of limb movement, flex- | n working with nature within the Montessori nhil°S°Pl1Y› not only can we underscore the importance of children's ~ ' ` 'ch. natural ibility, trunk strength, functional being nutami: I: : can also strength, running speed, dynamic settinäsv b balance and cross-coordination. PWPW@ "m59 settings y For nine months both groups addingextradataits.970771915» › , - - ' , a played foratleastonehourdail} potential discoveries : nn within the assigned play settings. pedagogicaltinkstostrenot e Post-intervention assessment theimpactonchlldremwllha" of motor fitness revealed that manner ot needs. the experimental group showed The NAMTA Journal 167
  6. 6. Significant improvement for all motor test items except flexibility. Notably, the experimental group showed marked improvement in balance and cross-coordination, skills that improve as a result of diverse movement activity. The author concluded that the natural playscape affordcd a more complex environment, and observa- tions of both groups indicated that the children in the natural playscape easily adapted to their environment and exhibited more functional play. CoNcLusioN A growing research literature (including results of research con- ducted by the Natural Learning Initiative) suggests that exposure to the natural environment is linked to positive behavioral outcomes. Attributes of outdoor natural environments (gardens) have been associated positively with physical activity, attention functioning, Cognitive development, self-esteem, academic performance, and motor development. Scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic effects of contact with nature continues to grow. Most of the research has been conducted with adults-because it is easier to navigate university protocols. As research findings identify restorative ef› fects on Cognitive functioning triggered by the perceptual process of interaction with nature, it is reasonable to assume that the effects are at least as relevant to children as to adults. When Maria Montessori stressed the importance of working outdoors with nature, in nature, she demonstrated a remarkable understanding that this was not frivolous instruction buta profound insight, no doubt informed by her close observation of "nature- effects" on the children around her. ln working with nature within the Montessori philosophy, not only can we underscore the impor- tance of children's being outdoors in rich, natural settings, but we can also prepare those settings by adding extra details, prompts, potential discoveries, and pedagogical links to strengthen the impact on children, with all manner of needs. DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations are adapted from Moore and Cosco, "Well-Being by Nature. " 16S The NAMTA Journal 0 Vol. 34. No. 2 - Spring 2009 _ _y , ~ , . d_ and sliclierfram ÓTIBH! the garden site to YBCLFUŁ year miin 91l" iiiiiitir All! ! s the essence of yiheahngyy m gardens (m. “y9]]. be1ng. mami] are t grow Children need outdoor spaces warmêd bY Thev nee sun o '~ d. . „ . . _ 1_ ate ardens so a the sun, depending on latitude and season oc g jacent buildings will not overshadow them. › , y d I el termin. _ Sm biitezfverv' 'hodest degree 0l mfwgmphmal change ‹ _ „ '. ~, -- blmsfrom across the site Wy; ] m05: likely gne difficult access pro e h_ building and garden entrances, ?SPECMIW f” chlldre" m tea? 'n wheelchairs or mobility devices. Here we are referring : Tsotselraęl site topography m* “"5 “d “P” “med a5 dwg" o y y features for children's enjoymenł- Conserve ›iaturalfcatiires oftlic site. _ Hu_ ` k t ro in sy I Natural features such as mature trees, TOC 0” C PP g y d the rovide natural ocks, and watercourses should be gpnsergfeü : smerštpes (egg. Shade identity w the sue and Potenila y us y ' y w lantings trees) Conserve as much M1950” a5 P°55'b]°' w g" e ne P the best possible start in life. , . - d aces. For children who cannot go 0”' °°rS' _g , d *Side b y cal Staff can make the connection between inside ag 0U u ) ' _ . . th r eri as we aS PhYSWaHY Importlns "amm elements mm e gab the children by Visibly transplanting outdoor Plams Prepare y indoors. ' liildreiis spaces. Locate the garden adjriccnt to c l ms › hildren's spaCeSy Such 35 P 35mm ' Locating gardens next to c l nd multiPurpose rooms will save time and energy On c assroomäy a ' › , t' lt al thera ists, who the Pa" of Staff such as Play Ieaderünę homactelriallg back aäd forthi must move items of equipment an p ay . . . . - ' ' ' Ii us . v : ble from public use facilities siic Locale the garden s0 that it IS zisi enhances and : Uniting arms _ _ , . forces ' 'i' le from the facilitv Entrance» l* "em When the garden is visib . . ~ d „ . d , famil members, an a friendly, welcoming message to Clflll nfsntañ Y . . „ y o - visitors. It also ensures supen ision r The NAMTA Journal 169
  7. 7. lnñints' and livddlvrs' kęardrns. Provide direct access from the building to infants' and toddlers' gardens (see Figure -l). Random paying prgyides access to minbhwns and planting beds. The central lawn is crowned as a low "hill" Plants were selected for varied texture, color and ven-round inn; -t Ad' Cl‹`l< h. '~ ~ - Ĺ " . ""' “Iüużäiläfr C ÄT* “litr ä relaxing place for staff to tako time out the yjrden „argmmaiiiifactiircd shade structure partly covers gc u a mx s sufficient light for healthy plant groivth. Staff added a colorful banner to respond to air movement , Make garden entranrrs ivvlctmiing mni child _frieniilir_ and bv Placing Plavfulartificšts 'ICT *t -rough Colorful Plantmgs “rawiam a( Stratgvic 'UCHIDA bcàllpturcs, bcnches, arch- cmàted bv young : e0 kym" di ; mlade afflfżlCli-S and gardens exiting báildings (espihllif c . isp aye I. Tti-avoid glare when ‹ y or children with sight impairments), Figure 4. An infant garden Oilers comlort for teachers and children The varied textures colors. a dl . ' „ - envimmn"enl'? r9h'3"°9$ 0l lhe plants offer sensory, hands-on experiences in a safe , e lawn. which has slight undulations to challenge children learning to walk. :saw d rt II - . _ ammatic plgrąsemĹšläiżolilęleüšpaceńme raised planler II'I the background is lull ol Seamless . ransition b 9 _. ice ow the covered pOYCh ol the classroom oflers a etween Indoors and outdoors. 170 ThriVrlillTA . Iülłlllllf - i/ „L _i4_ Iva 2 , _spring 2009 translucont awnings, porgolas, shade trees, or other shelding devices should be located at exit thresholds. Accessibility/ Usability Provida acrcssilvilitiyjlii' rhiliirrn using ivlievlclmirs, rninsportvrs, rvnlkvrs, (ots, eli'. Children with physical impairments use a variety of mobility devices. Gardens should bc universally designed to provide stimu- lating experiences regardless of abilities or ciisabilities. For example, make sure that hands-on landscapes are at appropriate heights for users of these devices, including children in pronc positions. Wc recommend working directly with the sta ff, children, .ind parents to assess the particular physical requirements and appropriate design Llimensions for tho user group rather than rolying solely on basic ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requirements. Plants are such flexible and diverse materials that settings can bo designed to accommodate a broad variety of needs. Provida llSHbliill/ Aftll' clziliiri-ii wiih sensari/ iinpiiirmrnts. The necds of sight- and hearing-impaired children should be met in ways that are nonintrusix-e for other children. Sighrimpaired children need acoustic, tactile, and fragrance cues for orientation and wayfinding. Hearing-imiwaired children need visual cues. For children with sight impairments, check the design of the garden for protruding objects; pathivays should be designed ivith strongly' delineated edges to facilitate easy, safe movement. Plantings should offer fragrances that coincidc with thc risual ivayfinding structure of the garden. Wind chimes are useful cue devices Design gardens i0 inrlndv children wil/ l a : vida rangi* of siwrial necds. Discussions with staff should bo facilitated to identify the functional necds of users: children with emotional, learning, physical, sensory, and developmental impairments~temporary or permanent. Acronmzadati' needs ; w (mili cha/ lengi* and rrsl. Provide a range of physical/ social settings so that each indi- vidual can explore and discover his or her own level of challenge. ln order to grow, children need to bo challcnged. One child may bc challenged by the idea of simply going outside. Another will need to overcome shyncss in playing with other children. Yet another will The : V/-LMTA Journal l7l
  8. 8. find planting a flower in a pot a new and exciting experience. Other children might seek rest rather than challenge. They need quiet, peaceful corners to restore their attention functioning or staminai Provide a broad range ofgroizp settings lo nccommodale children 's bring together as zuell as bring alone. Children have a wide range of social and psychological needs that are constantly changing. lt is fundamental to the role of the outdoor environment that each child have freedom to find her or his own most comfortable and enjoyable setting. A choice ofsettings that range in degrees of privacy should be provided (see Figure 5). They should be of different sizes to accommodate a variety of groups. Also, consider the variety of mobility devices the children may be using. Fncilimie child-nature interaction. Provide as many options as possible for children to experience nature through their senses and/ or through hands-on activities. The essence of an outdoor environment for well-being is to support children's experience of the sensory richness and living quality of š g. 'x 1 Figure 5. Tables and moveable chairs provide a shady space tor indi dual chi Idren or small groups in this sensory garden. This “bounded selling” offers an abundance ol allordanœs ! or children and adults alike. l72 Thc NAMTA Journal ° V01. 34, Na. 2 I Spring 2009 ~ diversitv of ' - hould contain thc greatest . Mmm' Natural Settmgh S ' d t rmancc . ., ' llectiveyear-mun Pe' ° Plants possible, sçlectfdt fofratltliextcgnv time of vear there Should be from earlv xšPrmg m a e ` ' I | :ies that ' . ' ' the garden. Se ect SP9 a new natural event happening m b harvested and v ~ fruit and other P375 that can e ` . produce flowers, , Y Ć ł „s and Crafts Pmledsl used by the children as pla} objects or in a especially during winter months- Prnvidr nctiviliesfür Tl'l“75l"3 smw' . . - ' ~ ful . - . f a child in a stress One of the most meaningful ach-Yrlfêä: ?gda of me_to Start a situation i5 tO be able w 'menene l . . . h tivities _ . . ' The feasibilitv Of SUC ac new life within another 5Pecles' '. . d su m; * ' ' l commitment to facilitate an PP depends on the institutiona Planung activities. - ~ ' ' lieir use . - , ' 2 [mi uul! engage iliildren m t Provide attractivr movable ! MHS l « of the outdoor cnviranmentłals of children's Play is the desire to ma_ One of the fundament sma" “Iagons khat can be moved around nipulate the erwironmen . . . f deli ht and Provide or a sandbox with WYS Wl" be äourœs O g zf' ' i' l ^ . d environmenl y d a lovely example °' 3 PTWM* _ Figure 6. A scalloped smw? , 'abägäüsżšsory materials. The lip keeps obiects lrom used to explore textures. W3 9T- ° sliding otf and holds sutticient water tor sPl35“l"9- The NAMTA Journal 173
  9. 9. excellent o ortuniti ' . should Statfäwered : sitio: cihgiłlldlreägnndetäehašlšersyłtlo interact. Sand protect it from animals. The sand should be re llgccedn nm m use m periodically. Watering cans left casuallv in rhcp ard or lopped up age children to water the plantx ‹ 8 en Wlll encour. The group activit r s a ^ p' - purpose, sensory activita : aebll: lšzršeössšflyoscäašligpüeçltjçä a Illumf children using „vheelchašrs md stand_ . e a ow; < framesto reach th , ~ - of loose, natural objects r d; _mg w e anety allows children to intergctegšsišlv VŻŻIÄCŻŻŹÄYOŹIŹŚĹOraSŹR' Thefçhape table has a 10W l. t g ‹ _ an esta . The hold "Jater When : lzesasstżaäęäecttäsbfé-? TÄ sliding off (as well as to Provide a natural Enclosure. . ow- angmg tree branches rš~gn` r-à Figure 7. A llowerin tree f1 ~ . base antice childœręs curgsäçsaiżöäxfàaläg: ršźgetleętuons in the mirror tiles at its nsa ion ol “floating” in the blossoms 174 The NAMTA Journal - Val. 34, Na 2 . gprmg 2009 Irzlegralr thc arts (in children 's vyvs). Therapeutic gardens offer innumerable opportunities for in- tegration of the arts. The reflective tile surface at the base of the tree shown in Figure 7 stimulates children to enjoy the multiplied movement of the branches and flowers during the blooming season The effect is mesmerizing, as children feel suspended between the tree crown and the reflected image. REFERENCES Barker, R, "On the Nature of the Environment. " Envirmi» ›nvnml I7s_i/ clzo!0g_i/ : Pvuplv mid Their Physical Svttingsl Ed. H. Proshansky, W. lttelson, K: L. Rivlin. New York: Holt, Rinehart 8: Winston, 1976. Berman, M. , ]. Jonides, 8x S. Kaplan. "The Cognitive Ben- efits oflnteractingwith Nature. " hvurnalfar Psi/ clzulngical Science 19.12 (2008): 1207. Berto, R. "Exposure to Restorative Environments Helps Restore Attentional Capacity. " lormml of Environmental Psychology 25 (2005): 249-259. Cornell, E. H., D. C. Hadley, T. M. Sterling, M. A. Chan, S: P. Boechler. (2001). "Adventure as a Stimulus for Cogni- tive Development. " Inumal of Environmental Psychology 21 (2001): 219-231. Faber Taylor, A. , F. Kuo, 8( W. Sullivan. "Coping with ADD: The Surprising Connection to Green Play Settings. " Environment fr Behavior 33.1 (2001): 34. Fjartoit, l. "Landscape as Playscape: The Effects of Natu ral Environments on Children's Play and Motor Devel- opment. " Children, Youth and Enrirrxmwzmtt 14 (2004): 21-44. Grahn, R, F. Màrtensson, B. Lindblad, P. Nilsson & A. Ek- man. "Ute pá Dagis" ("Out in thc Preschool") Stari and Land 145 (i997). Gibson, E. , Gz A. Pick. An Ecological Approach tu Fercepntal Learning and Development. New York: Oxford Ul', 2000. The NAMTA Journal l75
  10. 10. Hannaford, C. Smart Moves: Why Learning ls Nat/ ill in Your Hrad. Arlington, VA: Great Ocean Publishers, 1995. Hart, R. Children's Experience of Place. New York: Irving- ton, 1979. Kuo, F. , 6x A. Faber Taylor. "A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a National Study. " American / ournal ofPub/ ic Health. 94.9 (2004, September): 1580-1586. Mace, R. What ls Universal Design? College of Design, North Carolina State University, I997. May 27, 2002 <http: // design. ncsu. edu/ cud/ univ_design/ ud. htm>„ Moore, R. "The Power of Nature: Orientations ofGirls and Boys Toward Biotic and Abiotic Settings on a Recon- structed Schoolyard. " Children 's Environments Quarterly 3.3 (1986): 52-69. Moore, R. , S. Goltsman, 8: D. lacofano, eds. The Play For All Guidelines: Planning, Design, and Management ofOut- door Play Settings For All Children. 2"** ed. Berkeley: MIG Communications, 1992. Moore, R. , K: N. Cosco. "Well-Being by Nature: Thera- peutic Gardens for Children" Therapeutic Gardens in Healthcare Settings. Landscape Architecture Technical information Series (LATIS) Forum on Therapeutic Garden Design. Washington, DC: American Society of Landscape Architects, 2006. April 8, 2009 <htip: // www. naturalearning. org/ docs/ MooreCoscoTherapeu- ticGardenLATlS. pdf>. Moore, R. , & N. Cosco. "What Makes a Park Inclusive and Universally Designed? A Multi-Method Approach. " Open Space People Space. Ed. C. Ward Thompson d: P. Travlou. London: Taylor & Francis, 2007. 85-110. Moore, R. , Sz D. Young. "Childhood Outdoors: Towards a Social Ecology of the Landscape. " Children and the Environment. Ed. l. Altman K: j: Wohlwill. New York: Plenum, 1978. 83-120. 176 The NAMTA Joumal v Val. 34, No. 2 * Spring 2009 _ . " lf-E t wmwW“W&$ and Successful Interaction as Part o t e 46 Project. " Supportfor Learning 19 0004)! 1424 - , . „ ~ , t Ef. Tennessen, QM. , K: B. CimPrlch' “al” m Nature fects on Attention. " Journal ofEnvironmentnl Psychology 15 (1995): 77-85. W ll N M "At Home with Nature: Effects of CIENKIE* e sćlhildrens Cognitive Functioning. " Environment and on BghuvlDV 32 (2000): 775-795. w 115 N &M White. "Nature and the Life Course: Con- e , dogs betiween Childhood Nature Experiences and : eter-Life Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors. " Pżper Environmental Design Research Association conference, Philadelphia, 2002› JP The NAMTA Journal 177