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Michigan School Gardening Guide


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Michigan School Gardening Guide
For more information, Please see websites below:
Organic Edible Schoolyards & Gardening with Children
Double Food Production from your School Garden with Organic Tech
Free School Gardening Art Posters`
Companion Planting Increases Food Production from School Gardens
Healthy Foods Dramatically Improves Student Academic Success
City Chickens for your Organic School Garden
Simple Square Foot Gardening for Schools - Teacher Guide

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Michigan School Gardening Guide

  1. 1. Michigan Department of Education Michigan Team Nutrition Grants Coordination and School Support E-mail: December 2011 My Garden School Meals Resource
  2. 2. ii Introduction……………………………………………………………………….……………Page v Section 1: Selection……………………………………………………………………………….…....Page 1 A. Important First Steps Page 2 B. USDA MEMO – School Garden Q&A’s Page 3 C. How to Start a School Garden Page 5 D. Produce Options for School Gardens Page 8 E. Annual Cooking Herbs Page 11 F. Perennial Cooking Herbs Page 13 Section 2: Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques……..……………………….Page 16 A. Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables Page 17 B. Fresh Produce Safety for Schools Page 18 C. Fruit and Vegetable Summary Page 20 D. Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques Page 21 E. Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable Page 26 F. Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables Page 29 G. Tips for Enhancing Flavors Page 30 H. Flavor Enhancers Page 31 I. Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices Page 34 J. Freezing Vegetables Page 35 K. Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables Page 39 Section 3: Nutrition…………………………………………………..………………………………..Page 46 A. MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns Page 47 B. Vitamin and Mineral Summary Page 50 C. Functions of “Shortfall” Nutrients Page 51 D. Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group Page 52 E. Food Sources of Potassium Page 55 F. Food Sources of Vitamin E Page 57 G. Food Sources of Iron Page 58 H. Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium Page 59 I. Dairy Sources of Calcium Page 60 J. Food Sources of Vitamin A Page 61 K. Food Sources of Magnesium Page 62 L. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber Page 64 M. Food Sources of Vitamin C Page 66
  3. 3. iii Section 4: Recipes..…………………………………………………..………………………………..Page 67 A. Seasonal Fruits and Vegetables Page 68 B. USDA Recipes for Schools Page 69 C. Farm to School Cookbook Page 70 D. Center for Disease Control Recipe Lookup Page 71 E. Minnesota Farm to School Toolkit for Food Service Page 72 F. VT FEED's Guide for Using Local Foods in Schools Page 73 G. New Hampshire Fruit and Veggie Quantity Recipe Cookbook Page 74 H. School Garden Salad with Chickpeas Page 75 I. Garden Vegetable Rice Salad Page 76 J. Garden Tomato Pasta Page 78 K. Broccoli and Herb Frittata Page 79 L. Oven Roasted Potato and Kale Gratin Page 80 M. !NOT! Fried Rice Page 81
  4. 4. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SINCERE APPRECIATION FOR CRITICAL FEEDBACK Kathy Gutowski, Manistee Area Public Schools Katie McConkie, Lamphere Schools JoAnn Pagano, Taylor School District Deborah Grischke, United Dairy Industry of Michigan Norm Lownds, 4-H Children’s Garden, Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden Becky Henne, Michigan State University Extension Lisa Myers, Michigan State University Extension Colleen Matts, Michigan State University Adam Montri, Michigan State University Whitney Vance, Michigan Department of Education Stacy Sheldon, Michigan Department of Education This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the view or policies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. State Board of Education Kathleen N. Straus, President John C. Austin, Vice President Carolyn L. Curtin, Secretary Marianne Yared McGuire, Treasurer Nancy Danhof, NASBE Delegate Elizabeth W. Bauer Reginald M. Turner Casandra E. Ulbrich Ex-Officio Jennifer M. Granholm, Governor Michael P. Flanagan, Superintendent of Public Education
  5. 5. v Introduction This MyGarden School Meals Resource was developed to be a supplement to the MyGarden Nutrition Education Toolkit. The MyGarden Toolkit contains K-12 lessons that are written with content expectations, nutrition education, Dietary Guidelines and USDA Core Messages integrated into math, science, social studies and English Language Arts. The MyGarden Toolkit has 60 lessons tied to school gardens. As food service professionals, it is important for you to be involved in the nutrition education program at your school. A school garden can be a link to nutrition education and produce grown in the garden can be utilized in recipes for nutrition education and teach students how consumption of produce from the school garden can lead to healthier students. The MyGarden School Meals Resource is designed to teach school nutrition professionals how to link their school meal program with the school garden. The Module was developed using existing resources. Each resource is cited to allow the reader to explore the subject matter further. It contains four sections.  Section One: provides information on how to start a school garden. It also gives guidance as to where fruits, vegetables, and herbs can be grown. It also has an extensive listing of annual and perennial herbs, detailing what foods and recipes they complement.  Section Two: provides resources on storage, preparation, and culinary techniques used to utilize produce grown in the school garden. It also provides information on how to freeze or dehydrate produce should a surplus occur.  Section Three: provides information on how incorporation of fresh produce can provide important nutrients to students.  Section Four: provides recipes utilizing produce that can be easily grown in the school garden. Recipes come from United States Department of Agriculture Recipes for Schools and the Massachusetts Farm to School Cookbook. Other recipes are also included.
  6. 6. 1 Section 1: Selection Contents A. Important First Steps B. USDA - Memo C. How to Start a School Garden D. Produce Options for School Gardens E. Annual Cooking Herbs F. Perennial Cooking Herbs
  7. 7. 2 Section 1: Selection ______________________ A. Important First Steps Important First Steps Prior to linking the school garden with the school meals by using produce grown in the garden, it is important to check with your local health department to ensure it is allowable and/or appropriate food safety practices are followed in the school garden in school meals. Contact your local health department:
  8. 8. 3 ______________________________________ B. USDA MEMO – School Garden Q&A’s
  9. 9. 4
  10. 10. 5 __________________________________ C. How to Start a School Garden How to Start a School Garden School gardens are effective learning tools that create opportunities for our children to discover fresh food, make healthier food choices and become better nourished. Gardens also offer dynamic, beautiful settings in which to integrate every discipline, including science, math, reading, environmental studies, nutrition and health. There are many types of plants that can be grown in a garden including those that produce edible fruits and vegetables. The following tips will help you get started with your own project. .................................................................................................................... Organize a Garden Committee and Support Base Include administration, teachers, parents, grounds supervisor, and students in the planning process. Get permission before planning to plant a garden on school property. Define specific talents and expertise of each member of the committee and support group. List specific needs/wants and have individuals commit to those areas. Establish a projects list, realistic timeline for completion of tasks, and specific objectives for students in the garden. Visit successful school gardens to get ideas and ask questions. Enlist the expertise of your county’s Cooperative Extension Service or a Master Gardner Program. .................................................................................................................... Select a Garden Site A good site is easily accessible, receives direct sunlight for 6 to 7 hours daily, is clear of trees and roots, and has good water drainage. Check for proximity of water source. Call local utilities and school district for existence and location of underground utilities. ....................................................................................................................
  11. 11. 6 Design your Garden Start small to develop a general feel for the garden. Things to consider include: individual class beds, theme gardens, a tool shed, a green house, and fencing. Sketch out a plan for the entire area including: beds for annual crops of vegetables and flowers; theme gardens for butterfly and larval plants; medicinal and culinary herbs; teas; edible flowers; an orchard area; permanent areas to include native plants and berry patches (habitats for birds, insects, snakes and frogs). Be sure to include composting and worm bins, a tool shed, benches and a shaded outdoor classroom. If necessary, divide the project into phases as funds and energy permit. Make sure paths are wheelchair accessible – 36” wide. .................................................................................................................... Determine Cost of Labor and Materials Organic planting mix for raised planters. Multiply bed length times width times depth in feet, and divide by 27 to get number of cubic yards of soil needed. Soil amendments for in-ground planting. Add 4 to 6 inches of compost to well-dug soil and mix with existing soil. Hardware cloth (1/4 inch wire mesh) to line raised beds where moles are a problem. Wood chips or other materials for garden paths. Most tree companies are glad to donate chips. Irrigation components and controllers. You can use simple, non-electrical timers, or battery operated controllers, costing $20-$30 and $40-$50 respectively. Seeds and plants. Suggested tool list (minimum): small trowels – 1 per student; several watering cans; 3–4 shovels; 3-4 turning forks; wheelbarrow; small buckets; 1-2 hoes; 1-2 rakes; plant labels are good art projects; hoses and gentle spray nozzles. ................................................................................................................... Fundraising Determine start-up and maintenance costs, and what funds are immediately available. Is there a system established with the school regarding accounting? Determine who will keep track of the budget.
  12. 12. 7 Make a list of needed items and a list of possible local resources – PTA, parents, community businesses, and local vendors. Obtain a list of grant proposals; determine who will research, write and facilitate the grant. .................................................................................................................... Garden Schedule and publicize community work days, with rain dates if necessary; follow up with a phone tree. Have students make posters to put around school with work dates. For building projects, identify an experienced carpenter or builder in the group to organize workers. Identify those with plumbing, electrical and irrigation knowledge and skills. Ask volunteers to bring needed tools including saws, hammers, post hole diggers, wheelbarrows, shovels, spades, pickaxes, digging bars, and spading forks (depending on tasks being done). Remove any unwanted current vegetation from the garden site. Move native plants or current landscaping to another appropriate site on school grounds. DO NOT USE HERBICIDES of any kind to kill weeds. They are toxic not only to weeds, but also to our watersheds and our children! If mole/vole control is needed, install ¼” hardware cloth 12 inches deep for in-ground planting or use raised planters with ¼” hardware cloth on bottom. If planting directly in the ground, turn over soil to depth of 18”, adding 4” to 6” of soil amendments as needed (based on soil type). If constructing raised planters, fill with organic planting mix. Install drip irrigation system and controller. Spread wood chips or other material on garden paths. Build fence and gate; install sign. Contact your local Cooperative Extension agency for advice on appropriate plants, planting schedules, seeds and seedling sources. Have students start planting. Make sure that the students are involved in each step of the process whenever possible! MOST IMPORTANT – Have Fun! _______________________________________________ Adapted from: How to start a School Garden, Environmental Education Council of Marin, Marin Food Systems Project: Action Guide for Starting a Food Systems Project at Your School
  13. 13. 8 ___________________________________ D. Produce Options for School Gardens Produce Options for School Gardens Herbs and Spices Containers (Indoor) Green House Hoop House Raised Bed Garden Plot Warm or Cold Season* Annual: Basil X X X X X Warm Chervil X X X X X Warm Cilantro X X X X X Warm Dill X X X X X Warm Marjoram X X X X X Warm Parsley X X X X X Warm Savory (Summer) X X X X X Warm Perennial: Bay Laurel X X X X X Warm Chives X X X X X Warm Fennel X X X X X Warm Lemongrass X X X X X Warm Lovage X X X X X Warm Mint X X X X X Warm Oregano X X X X X Warm Rosemary X X X X X Warm Sage X X X X X Warm Savory (Winter) X X X X X Warm Tarragon X X X X X Warm Thyme X X X X X Warm Vegetables Arugula X X X X Cold Asian Greens X X X X Cold Beans (green or wax) X X X X Warm Beets X X X X Warm Broccoli X X X X Warm Cabbage X X X X Warm Carrots X X X X Warm Cauliflower X X X X Warm Collard Greens X X X X Cold Corn X X X X Warm Cucumbers X X X Warm Edamame X X X X Warm Eggplant X X X Warm
  14. 14. 9 Greens (beet, collard, mustard, turnip) X X X X Cold Kale X X X X Cold Lettuce, Iceburg X X X X Warm Leeks X X X X Warm Onions X X X X Warm Parsnips X X X X Warm Peas X X X X Warm Peppers (sweet, varieties) X X X X Warm Peppers (hot, varieties) X X X X Warm Potatoes, white or sweet X X X X Warm Pumpkins X X X Warm Radishes X X X X X Warm Rutabaga X X X X Warm Salad Greens (mesclun, baby greens, etc.) X X X X X Cold Scallions (green onions) X X X X X Warm Spinach X X X X X Cold Squash, Summer X X X X Warm Squash, Winter X X X X Warm Tomatoes X X X X X Warm Fruit Apple X Warm Blueberries X X X X X Warm Cherries X Warm Grapes X Warm Melons, Variety X X X Warm Peaches X Warm Pear X Warm Plum X Warm Raspberries X X X Warm Rhubarb X X Cold Strawberries X X X X Warm
  15. 15. 10 1. Some varieties of vegetables such as summer squashes, tomatoes and even cabbage, come in varieties that are especially selected for container gardens (smaller and compact) and would be worth their selection for potted plants. 2. Some crops have shallow roots (especially perennials) and need to be watered frequently. Extra monitoring may be the best approach, such as blueberries, since they have shallow roots and are a perennial. 3. Pots that are outside (vs. hoop/greenhouse) should be either weighted down with rocks or nestled with each other to reduce the risk of blowing over and breaking in windy times. 4. Even in pots, trellises are a good way to expand growing space and keep fruit off the ground. This reduces disease, promotes even ripening, and reduces the disease known as stepinapon (being stepped on). 5. No matter what type of garden you have (from pots to greenhouse), it’s good to have good quality soil (one that includes compost or rotted leaves - aka organic matter) to help keep the moisture even. This is especially important in pots, as they have limited soil, and greenhouse plants, since it can warm up very quickly in a greenhouse and dry out the plants. 6. Note that lemongrass and basil are extra sensitive to cold temps. *Warm season items can only be grown indoors or during frost-free months. Cold season items can be grown in indoor containers, greenhouses or hoop houses most of the year.
  16. 16. 11 __________________________ E. Annual Cooking Herbs Annual Cooking Herbs Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Sweet basil is one of the most popular herbs used in cooking and grows easily from seed sown directly in the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Sweet basil reaches about 18 inches in height. However, there are many basil cultivars and some reach up to three feet tall! Typical spacing for basil plants is 12 inches between plants, and 2 to three feet between rows. Pinching basil stems promotes bushy, compact growth. Quick to harvest, leaves can be cut as early as 6 weeks following planting. Cut basil, leaving 4 to 6 leaves above ground. Remove flower spikes before bloom to ensure good leaf production and full flavor. Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) Except for its lighter green leaves, chervil closely resembles parsley and is used in much the same way. Like many other annual herbs, chervil seed can be sown directly into the garden when all danger of frost is past. Chervil grows up to 24 inches tall. Small seedlings should be thinned to three to 4 inches apart. Harvest chervil leaves just before flowers blossom. To keep foliage dense, remove flowers before they bloom. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) Cilantro is widely used in both Latin and Southeast Asian dishes but is not to be confused with Vietnamese coriander (Polygonum odoratum) which is a perennial. Still as well as using the greens, cilantro seed can be ground and then is known as the spice, coriander. Cilantro goes to seed quickly when temperatures rise. Sow seeds directly into the garden at 2-week intervals to keep a fresh supply of cilantro. Plants grow to about 2-feet tall, but leaves can be harvested when the plant reaches about 6 inches in height. Thin seedlings to 7 to 10-inches apart.
  17. 17. 12 Dill (Anethum graveolens) Probably the most popular use of this fragrant herb is in dill pickles. However, the slender shoots also make a tasty addition to salads, vegetables, and main dishes like fish. Sow seed into the garden when all danger of frost has passed in spring. Dill grows about 2 to 3 feet high and quickly goes to seed in the summer heat. Pick stems just as flowers bloom. Dill is a prolific reseeder. Seeds can be used either dried or fresh. Swallowtail butterfly larva (large green caterpillars) feed on dill, so it’s best to plant more than you believe you’ll use! Marjoram (Origanum majorana) When looking for sweet marjoram, you may find it classed as Majorana hortensis and Majorana majorana as well as Origanum majorana. This petite annual reaches only 12-inches in height. Although often substituted for oregano, a pleasing fragrance and velvety gray foliage make sweet marjoram a popular favorite as an ornamental herb as well as a culinary herb. Sow seeds outdoors in early spring when soil temperatures reach about 60°F. Sweet marjoram is also a naturally sweet addition to and indoor herb garden. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Parsley is actually a biennial, but you’ll have the best luck growing it if you treat it as an annual and plant it every spring. Although it is aggravatingly slow at germinating, the best way to propagate parsley is through seed. For best results start seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before you expect the last frost. Since it reaches only a foot tall, parsley is also and excellent plant for your indoor herb garden. (Summer) Savory (Satureja hortensis) Savory comes in both perennial and the annual summer savory. Summer savory grows up to 18 inches tall. Foliage is green with a bronze tone and a peppery flavor that makes a “spicy” herbal addition to cooking. Sow summer savory seed into your spring herb garden. Because of its petite size, summer savory is also a candidate for indoor culinary herb gardens. Adapted from:
  18. 18. 13 ____________________________ F. Perennial Cooking Herbs Perennial Cooking Herbs Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis) Bay laurel is a small evergreen tree and the source of the bay leaf. Frequently not hardy as a young plant, bay laurel is an excellent choice for container growing. They require an annual pruning to keep them from reaching their standard 40-foot height. However, generally the size of the pot controls the size of the tree. When planted in a 1-foot diameter pot, the bay laurels generally reach only about five feet in height. With only regular watering, bi-monthly fertilization, and annual top dressing of compost or nutrient rich soil, the bay laurel will thrive in the same container for up to 6 years. Move pots indoors in winter in a cool area where they receive indirect light. Bay laurels are normally available in autumn or mid-spring from nurseries and garden centers. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Native to the Orient, chives betray their flavor with a distinctive yet subtle onion-like fragrance. Propagated easily by seed or division, chives grow in grassy clumps from 10 to 18 inches tall and are prolific at self-seeding when allowed to go to seed. Harvest chive leaves at about 2 inches from the ground. As with many other herbs, its best to harvest chives before they go to bloom. Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) have a garlic scent and flavor. Their leaves are flatter and longer than those of Allium schoenoprasum. After harvest, preserve either type of chives by either drying or freezing. Fennel (Foeniculum officinalis) Fennel is a perennial herb that looks like dill, but has a very distinctive licorice scent and flavor. Fennel is best grown in a patio pot place in full sun. The herb grows up to 4 feet tall and self-seeds to the point of being quite invasive. Use young fennel leaves with fish, Italian dishes. Seeds are used in many sauces and also to flavor sausage. Like, dill, fennel also attracts swallowtail butterflies.
  19. 19. 14 Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Lemon grass is an aromatic tropical grass that provides the subtle taste and smell of lemon with a bright edge of ginger. Lemon grass grows in cascading clumps that can reach up to 6-feet high and 3-feet in diameter. It’s usually propagated by bulb planting or division of a mature clump. The sharp blades are ready for harvest when they are about ¼ to ½ inch in diameter. Mint (Mentha) Many a gardener has fallen in love with the fragrances of fresh mint cultivars, only to find that in a season or two, their garden is overrun with the stuff! Spearmint (Mentha spicata) and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) are the two most popular mints to grow. Almost all mints are hardy perennials, vigorous growers, and diligent reseeders. Although their fragrance is absolutely wonderful, mint really does need its own little corner of the world. One way to keep mint in check is to regularly harvest leaves before it has a chance to blossom. Propagate mint by division and plant transplants in sunken clay pots to keep them from spreading out of bounds! Oregano (Origanum vulgare) ‘ Oregano, although known as wild marjoram, has coarser leaves and a fragrance more similar to thyme than sweet marjoram. Plants grow to 2 feet in height and adapt well to containers. Although oregano is a perennial, beds need to be replanted every 3 to 4 years when stems become woody. Propagate oregano either by seed or by division. Unlike most cooking herbs, oregano leaves are their most flavorful after they have been dried. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) The quickest way to grow rosemary is from small plants purchased at your favorite nursery. Although rosemary seed can be sown directly into the garden, seed is slow to germinate and beginning growth is slow as well. Because rosemary is hardy in only warmer climates (zones 8-10), most gardeners prefer to grow it in outdoor pots and bring it indoors during the cold season. However, before bringing rosemary indoors, do remember to acclimate it in a “reverse” hardening off. Bring it in for short times and set it back out again, increasing the indoor length of time slowly for a couple of weeks. Over- winter put your rosemary in a cool area of your home. A mature rosemary plant can reach from 4 to 6-feet tall and be nearly as wide.
  20. 20. 15 Sage (Salvia officinalis) The distinctive scent and flavor of sage almost spells stuffing to your senses! Sage is a popular cooking herb widely used in poultry stuffing and as a flavor for soups and stews. Depending on cultivar, mature sage reaches from 2 to 4 feet in height. Colorful foliage that ranges from gray green to deep purple, makes sage an attractive addition to an herb garden as well as a flavorful one to your recipes. (Winter) Savory (Satureja montana) Although winter savory isn’t as “sweet” as summer savory, it is still a favorite herb for seasoning meat dishes. Also different from its annual relative, winter savory is a woody perennial that reaches from 1 to 2 feet-tall. Winter savory is most often propagated from cutting, although it also grows from seed. Nearly an evergreen, winter savory leaves can be harvested at almost any time, but best retain their pungent flavor when dried and stored for winter use. Tarragon Tarragon is an International favorite. French tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculoides), and Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida) are used for seasoning vinegars, butters, rice, vegetables, and nearly all types of meat. French tarragon is a woody perennial that reaches 2 feet high and is propagated from stem cuttings or division. Of the three varieties of tarragon, French tarragon is the most popular. Russian tarragon is also a perennial but is distinguished by coarser growth and a more bitter taste than French Tarragon. Mexican tarragon is actually the mint marigold. Because it is heat and drought resistant, it is often grown in warm climates as a substitute for French or Russian cultivars. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) The woody growth of this low growing perennial adds to it charm. Thyme’s wiry stems generally reach no more than 10 inches high. Both the gray-green leaves and lilac tinted flowers are very aromatic, but for cooking, it’s best to cut stems when the first flowers begin to bloom. Thyme is propagated by cuttings, division, and direct seeding. Thyme is at home as a bed edging or an addition to a rock garden and is comfortable in an indoor garden as well. Adapted from:
  21. 21. 16 Section 2: Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques Contents A. Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables B. Fresh Produce Safety for Schools C. Fruit and Vegetable Summary D. Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits, Vegetables, and Salads E. Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable F. Steaming Fruits and Vegetables G. Tips for Enhancing Flavors H. Flavor Enhancers I. Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices J. Freezing Vegetables K. Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables
  22. 22. 17 Section 2: Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques _____________________________________ A. Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables 1. Refrigerate ripe fruits and vegetables with exceptions of potatoes, bananas, and dry onions. 2. Store produce at a temperature of 40°F to 45°F. 3. Store produce that tends to lose moisture rapidly, such as lettuces and greens in containers to help minimize moisture loss. 4. Wrap fresh herbs in damp paper or plastic bags to help reduce wilting and store at 36°F to 45°F. 5. Cover leafy herbs, such as basil, watercress, and parsley with plastic wrap; place in a jar of water; and store in the cooler. 6. Most produce should not be peeled, washed, or trimmed until just before it is used. Leafy tops of vegetables such as carrots or beets are exceptions and should be removed and discarded. You need to leave 1 inch of the leafy top on the produce. 7. Some fruits such as bananas, avocados, apples, and melons absorb odors and should be stored separately from other fruits and vegetables to prevent odors from permeating other foods. Containers should be aired regularly. 8. Some fruits and vegetables, such as onions, garlic, lemons, and melons give off odors that permeate other foods. 9. Refrigerate melons immediately after they have been cut. 10.Store dried fruits in air-tight containers to maintain their flavor. Even though they may seem completely dry, they still have about 30% moisture. Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual Source: Adapted Culinary Institute of America. (2000). Fruits and Vegetables, Grains and Legumes. Techniques of Healthy Cooking. New York. John Wiley & Sons.
  23. 23. 18 _____________________________________ B. Fresh Produce Safety for Schools Fresh Produce Safety for Schools Fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet, and introducing children to them in schools may help to improve their present and future health. It’s important to handle fresh produce safely to reduce the risks of foodborne illness. The following tips will help minimize the chance of cross-contamination of produce in your programs. These tips are part of the farm to fork continuum. ........................................................................................................................... Receiving Check produce for freshness by randomly examining the entire contents of a box rather than just the items on the top. If a product does not meet your standards of freshness, refuse to accept it. Accept only produce that is not bruised or damaged. When selecting fresh-cut produce—such as apple slices or bagged mixed salad greens—choose or accept only those items that have been kept cool. Use a food thermometer to ensure the temperature is 41ºF or lower upon delivery. Clean Produce Wash all fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly with cold running water—never in standing water—before serving. Scrub firm produce, such as melons and cucumbers, with a clean produce brush. Produce labeled as pre-washed can be used without further washing. Clean Equipment and Hands Wash, rinse, sanitize, and air dry all food-contact surfaces, equipment, and utensils including cutting boards, knives, countertops, and sinks before and after use. Wash hands thoroughly for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm running water before and after handling fresh produce. Storage Separate fresh produce from other refrigerated foods in refrigeration units. Cover and store washed cut produce above unwashed, uncut fresh produce. Store all produce off the floor. Mark each item with the date it was received and practice First-In, First-Out inventory management methods. Discard wilted or discolored product immediately. Always store cut fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator. Refrigerate cut melons immediately.
  24. 24. 19 ........................................................................................................................... OTHER RESOURCES Fruits & Vegetables Galore is a tool for school foodservice professionals packed with tips on planning, purchasing, protecting, preparing, presenting, and promoting fruits and vegetables: Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Handbook: FDA’s Safe Handling of Raw Produce and Fresh-Squeezed Fruit and Vegetable Juices: For more information: ........................................................................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Food Distribution Division and the Food Safety Unit (page 5)
  25. 25. 20 _____________________________ C. Fruit and Vegetable Summary Fruit and Vegetable Summary Proper selection, purchasing, handling, and preparation of vegetables will enhance the taste, presentation, and nutritional value of vegetables. Nutrition Vegetable Potatoes Fruits Fruits and vegetables offer a wide variety of nutrients and are generally high in carbohydrates and fiber, low in protein, good source of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamins A and C. Characteristics Fresh Frozen Dried Freeze-dried Culinary Techniques Purchase freshest and finest quality raw product Cut only when ready to use Cook as quickly as possible Cook as close to service as possible Cook small batches at a time Cook until tender Flavor Enhancement Herbs Spices Onions Garlic Fruit juices Fruit purees Presentation Prepare in small batches. They cannot be held long. Serve whole, diced or mashed. If cut too far in advance, fruits may turn dark. Preserve color with citrus juices. Changes that occur during cooking: Flavor changes Effects of overcooking Texture Color loss Water Content Texture-mushy Color Intensifies Vitamin loss Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  26. 26. 21 ______________________________________________________________________ D. Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits, Vegetables, and Salads Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits 1. Use fresh fruits at their peak of ripeness. Most fruits have the highest vitamin content when they are at their peak of ripeness. They taste the best when they are ripe. Heat and light can destroy nutrient content. Fruits that are not ripe enough are generally tart when they should be sweet, and crunchy when they should be soft. 2. Wash fresh fruits in cool water before they are peeled or stemmed. Fruits can lose nutrients if they are bruised or cut and then put in water. Berries are a good example. Wash strawberries before they are hulled. The skin may not be clean so washing before processing removes the dirt and pesticides. Wash apples in cold water. Apples are covered with an edible wax that is not removed during washing. Fruits served with the skin left on should be washed carefully. This includes oranges and melons. 3. Cut fresh fruit in the largest pieces that are acceptable for serving, considering the age of student. When fruit is cut in many smaller pieces more total surface area of the fruit is exposed and more vitamin C is lost. Avoid crushing fruits since this injures the fruit cells and causes more vitamin C loss. 4. Prepare fruit dishes so that they have an appealing appearance. Follow the recipe or directions for preparing fruit to maintain the correct color and shape of fruit pieces.
  27. 27. 22 Some fruits, like peaches, bananas, apples, and avocados, turn brown when they are exposed to air. This is called surface oxidation. An acid like lemon juice, lime juice, pineapple juice, or orange juice retards oxidizing because these juices are good sources of the antioxidant vitamin C. A commercial product that contains vitamin C can also be used to prevent browning. Look for the chemical name of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on the product label. Other acids in fruit juices may also be used. 5. Prepare fruit dishes so that they have appropriate texture. Most fruits have a texture that is unique for that fruit. When fruit doesn’t have that texture, it is unacceptable for use. Mushy apples or green bananas are not appealing and should not be served. Kiwi fruit should be soft while a fresh apple should be crisp. Cooked apples used for fruit cobbler should be soft but not mushy. Raisins should be chewy. Follow the recipe or directions for exact cooking times to get the right texture. As a general rule, fruits should be cooked for a short time only. 6. Store bananas and avocados at room temperature. Bananas and avocados should not be refrigerated since it stops their ripening. Once they are ripe, they can be refrigerated for a short time if they are not to be served immediately. After bananas have been refrigerated, the skin darkens and they are unacceptable for use as a whole fruit. The bananas may be peeled and used in fruit salad or in a baked product. 7. Use frozen fruits at the peak of freshness. Thaw frozen fruits in the refrigerator. Some frozen fruits can be served even though they contain ice crystals. It is desirable to add frozen peaches, strawberries and other berries to a fruit mixture before they are completely thawed. They can be placed as a choice on a salad or fruit bar. As they thaw, they become mushy. ................................................................................................................
  28. 28. 23 Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Vegetables 1. Schedule cooking of fresh and frozen vegetables for “just-in-time” service. Cook vegetables in small batches to prevent them from being broken or overcooked. 2. Loosely packed frozen vegetables, such as whole kernel corn can be cooked without thawing. Solid-pack frozen vegetables such as spinach should be thawed long enough to break apart easily and then cooked. Broccoli spars will cook more uniformly if they are partially thawed. 3. Wash fresh vegetables before cooking. Trim, pare, or cut as desired. Discard discolored parts, or tough ends of stems, as needed. 4. Cook vegetables only until crisp-tender. Vegetables continue to cook when held on a hot steam table or in a holding cabinet. Vegetables will be overcooked if held too long. 5. Heat canned vegetables only to serving temperature. Serve soon after heating. Canned vegetables will be overcooked when held too long. .................................................................................................................... Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Salads Prepare salads using good quality vegetables and fruits that contrast in color, flavor, texture, and shape. Color o Use contrasting colors of food items when making salads. For example, rather than filling a pear half with cottage cheese, fill the pear half with carrot raisin salad or cheddar cheeses. o Use colorful foods in combination with those of little or no color or use garnishes to brighten food. For example, add a slice of cucumber, a tomato wedge, or a piece of brightly colored fruit, a sprig of parsley, or a dash of paprika. Flavor o Balance flavors in salad combinations. o Combine mild with strong flavors, salty with bland, or tart with sweet: for example, tomatoes and lettuce. Texture o Includes soft with crisp foods, fibrous with smooth foods, tender with chewy foods, and juicy with crunchy foods. For example, celery sticks stuffed with peanut butter.
  29. 29. 24 Shape o Use a pleasing combination of different sizes and shapes of foods within a salad combination, such as cubes, julienne strips, slices, shredded bits, and wedges. Select vegetable combinations that combine texture, flavor, shape, and color and also add nutritive value. Combine lettuce and spinach. Serve celery, carrots, and zucchini sticks with vegetable dip. Toss cut-up celery, tomatoes, green peppers, and cauliflower with vinaigrette dressing. Dress up cole slaw and enhance nutritive value by adding shredded red cabbage, carrots, or green peppers. Arrange tomato, cucumber, and onion slices on salad greens. Pour tart dressing over vegetables. Quarter tomatoes leaving bottom intact fill middle of quartered tomatoes with cole slaw, meat, or cheese filling. Note: Rinse salad greens gently in cold water. Separate leaves in order to rinse them thoroughly. Drain well. Place salad greens in a clean covered container and chill in the refrigerator. Consider color, texture, flavor, and shape when preparing fruit salad combinations. Use fresh fruits, unsweetened frozen fruits, or fruits canned in juice or light syrup for fruit cups. Drain and mix fruit for salads. Garnish fruits with low-fat yogurt. Serve chilled mixed fruit, orange sections, and sliced bananas sprinkled with lemon juice and flaked coconut. Add peach slices to Waldorf salad. Combine orange sections, pineapple chunks, sliced bananas, and diced apples. Garnish with slivered almonds, peanuts, walnuts, or pecans. Note: To keep apples, peaches, or bananas from darkening, dip them in citrus or pineapple juice, or in a solution of citrus juice and water. ....................................................................................................................
  30. 30. 25 Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Desserts Offer an interesting variety of nutritious fruit desserts. Sugary sweet cakes, cream pies, cookies and candy contain lots of sugar and not much else. Consider serving: Fruit in season and the best quality available. Fruit, whether fresh, poached, marinated, or stewed with an appropriate sauce. Fresh fruit tarts. o Vary the fruit and type of dough for greater interest. o Fruit tarts served warm are commonly made with firmer textured fruits such as apples, pears, plums, apricots, and peaches, whereas, fruit tarts served cold are frequently made with the softer textured fruits such as bananas, kiwis, strawberries, grapes, and raspberries. o Use whole grain flour for dough to provide greater nutrition, also. o Canned and frozen fruits are used to produce fruit pies. Remember to rely on the natural flavor and sweetness of the fruit rather than the addition of lots of extra sugar. Canned and frozen fruits packed in heavy syrup will not need extra sugar. .................................................................................................................... Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  31. 31. 26 ___________________________________________ E. Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable Tips for vegetable preparation are also at the bottom of each recipe. Basil: Wash and dry leaves. To prevent browning, chop right before adding to dish. Broccoli: For florets, remove crowns from stems and cut into florets. (OR, use this quick technique from Donna Miner, Chicopee High School Kitchen Manager: Hold broccoli bunch securely by stems, off the cutting board. Cutting away from you, holding the knife diagonally, use a chopping motion to remove the florets.) To use stems, remove bottom 1-2 inches and discard. Peel with a sharp knife or vegetable peeler. Slice thinly. Cooking time: Cook broccoli until it turns bright green and is tender but firm, as it will continue to cook and become darker, mushy and unappetizing if not removed promptly. Butternut Squash: Serve peeled butternut squash, halved or cubed. Cabbage: To prepare cabbage for cooking, first remove the outer layer with your hands. Cut in half lengthwise through the root. Remove the core by slicing in on either side and pulling it out. To shred, lay flat end down, and slice thinly OR use food processor OR coarse end of cheese grater. Carrots: To purchase, sliced carrots and carrot sticks are sometimes avail-able from farm vendors (could grow your own). To dice, slice across sticks. To dice whole carrot, peel and cut in half lengthwise. Lay flat end down, cut into 2-4 long strips (the number of strips depends on carrot size or dice size required), then slice across strips. Sliced carrots also look attractive sliced across on the diagonal. Cauliflower: For florets, with the base down, cut in half through the core. Hold one half up, bend the core towards you to remove (or remove with knife). Repeat with second half. Break florets off by hand. (They can be cut with a knife, but this result in some cauliflower crumbles.) Cilantro: For chopped cilantro, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife, hold the bunch as closely together as possible, then slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop finely, keep the point end down and rotate the knife as you chop. OR chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the cilantro. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry. Celery: To dice, if using whole bunch, leave bunch intact. Slice each rib twice lengthwise. (Slice from 1-2 inches above root end to end of bunch. This will hold the bunch together.) Cut crosswise. To dice individual ribs, tear needed ribs off from root end. Slice each rib 2-3 times lengthwise, then across into a dice. Corn: Can sometimes be purchased already shucked. After it is shucked, if needed, run your hand down each ear to remove extra silk. To remove kernels, point the end of the
  32. 32. 27 ear away from you. With a sharp knife, shave off the kernels, away from you—right into a bowl or soup pot. Cucumber: To slice, peeling is optional. Cut across cucumber. To dice, peel and slice in half lengthwise. Then, with flat side down, cut each half into 2-4 strips, depending on size needed and size of cucumber. Cut across. Dill: For chopped dill, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife and holding the bunch as closely together as possible, slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop finely, keep the point end down and rotate the knife as you chop. OR chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the dill. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry. Garlic: For an alternative to fresh garlic, use whole peeled cloves or minced garlic in oil. To use fresh garlic, pull cloves from garlic bulb. (If the bulb is too tight, wrap in towel and whack on counter to loosen.) To remove skins, crush cloves with the flat part of a large knife, then peel. To mince, use a food processor or mince by hand. By hand, crush cloves with the flat part of knife. Mince, keeping the point of the knife on the counter and rotating as you chop. Green Beans: Are sometimes available with ends snapped off. If you snap the ends yourself, you only need to snap one end. Lemon: To zest, use a zester or grate the whole lemon against the fine side of a grater, removing only the yellow outer skin. (Technique to remove zest from grater: Fit plastic wrap against the small holes of a grater. Grate yellow skin onto the plastic. Remove plastic and then use the dull end of the knife blade to scrape off the zest from the plastic.) An alternative technique is to peel with a sharp vegetable peeler, leaving as much of the pith (white) behind as possible. Chop in food processor with sharp blade. Onions: To slice, remove both ends. Make a small slit, top to bottom; remove skin with hands. Cut in half. With the flat end down, slice in one direction. To dice, proceed as above, then cut slices in the opposite direction. Alternatively, use a traditional technique: To slice, cut whole onion in half, point to point—through root end to top of the onion. Peel and lay flat side down. Slice. To dice, cut whole onion in half, point to point—through root end to top of the onion. Peel and lay flat side down. Then, with your knife parallel to the board, slice 2-5 times, towards BUT NOT THROUGH the root end (number will depend on size of onion). Then cut across the onion 2-5 times. Once again, avoid cutting through the root end. Finally, cut across onion. Parsley: For chopped parsley, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife and holding the bunch as closely together as possible, slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop finely (mince), follow directions above, then continue to either chop keeping the point end down and rotating the knife, or chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the parsley. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry.
  33. 33. 28 Peppers: To slice and dice, cut in half, lengthwise. Remove top and seeds with hands. Cut half lengthwise. Then cut into strips lengthwise. Turn strips and cut across to dice. Potatoes: To wash, scrub with vegetable brush. Peel if needed. Cut potatoes should be held in cold water unless using immediately or they will brown. Drain. If potatoes will be cooked in the oven, dry first. To dice, cut in half lengthwise, or simply cut red potato in half. Lay flat end down. Cut in one direction, then in the other direction. Salad: To wash and store greens, ideally salad greens should be cut first, then washed in cold water and spun very dry in a salad spinner. (Fresh washed and dried lettuce will last up to three days in a sealed container.) If no spinner is available, Chicopee used this technique with success: Wash whole salad leaves by soaking in ice water. Shake the leaves dry and let them drain thoroughly in a colander. To cut or rip iceberg: Iceberg is best cut with a plastic knife or ripped by hand to prevent browning. Scallion: To slice, remove root ends. Keeping rubber band on to hold scallions together, slice from green to white end, removing rubber band as necessary. Use white and green parts. Scallions look pretty sliced on the diagonal. Thyme: Remove leaves and discard stems. Tomatoes: To core, slice and dice tomatoes, use a tomato corer or knife to remove top core. Slice. To dice, lay slices on top of each other, cut in one direction, and then in the opposite direction. _____________________________________________________________________ Adapted from:
  34. 34. 29 ________________________________________ F. Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables* Consider Vegetables and Fruits Main Ingredients Broccoli Cauliflower Snow peas Peas Green Beans Carrots Apples Cooking Liquid Water Stock Court bouillon Fruit or vegetable juices Flavor Enhancer Herbs Spices Citrus Zest Additional vegetables that are added to the steaming liquid Equipment Convection steamer Conventional steamer Steam-jacketed kettle with rack and lid *Pick a main ingredient, cooking liquid, flavor enhancer, and piece of equipment. Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  35. 35. 30 _________________________ G. Tips for Enhancing Flavors Tips for Enhancing Flavors Your role as school nutrition professional is to prepare and serve school food in order to make food healthy, taste good, and look good. As you season food and enhance flavors, your efforts are helping to season your customer’s health for a lifetime. Learning to use a wide variety of flavor enhancers requires experience. Flavors are enhanced in four ways: Seasonings, such as stocks, fruits and vegetables Spices Herbs Cooking methods These tips can guide you in expanding your use of seasonings. General Rules for Enhancing Flavor During Food Preparation 1. For cold foods such as salad dressing and cold salads, add the seasoning several hours in advance to allow the flavors to develop. When adding additional seasonings to salad dressing, make the additions the day before and allow the flavor to develop overnight. 2. In quick-cooking foods as vegetables, add the herbs at the start of cooking. Adequate time should be allowed for the dried herbs to absorb enough moisture to release the flavor. 3. In slow-cooking foods such as soups or stews, add herbs in the final 45 minutes to 60 minutes of cooking. Whole spices or herbs (bouquet garni) are best suited to long cooking recipes and should be removed before the food is served. 4. The development of flavor through the use of seasonings is a creative process. Always start with a small amount and increase until the product has an acceptable taste and aroma. In general start with ¼ tsp per pint or pound of a food product. When using garlic or pepper, start with only 1/8 tsp. 5. Use two times as much of a fresh herb or spice as of the dried form. For example 2 tsp of fresh basil = 1 tsp dried whole leaf basil. 6. Use twice as much of a dried leaf herb as of the ground form. For example use ½ tsp dried thyme leaves = ¼ tsp ground thyme. 7. A total of 1 to 3 Tbsp herbs and spices per 50 portions of a recipe is generally adequate. 8. In general, double the spices and herbs in a recipe when increasing from 50 to 100 servings. Increase the spice or herb by 25 percent for each additional 100 servings. Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  36. 36. 31 _________________ H. Flavor Enhancers Flavor Enhancers Remember the Dietary Guidelines for Americans messages “Prepare foods with little salt” and “Choose fats wisely for good health.” For many people, seasoning vegetables with salt and fat has been a common practice. Our customers are accustomed to vegetables seasoned that way. As Child Nutrition Program professionals, we must accept the challenge to prepare vegetables with different seasonings that appeal to our customers. Serving children in school and in child care programs gives us many opportunities to help them learn to enjoy fruits and vegetables. We can bring out the best flavors in vegetables by: Adding seasonings such as herbs and spices. Adding other flavorful ingredients including other vegetables, such as onion or green pepper. Choosing a healthy cooking technique, such as browning or roasting. Cooking “just in time” for service. Enlist the interest and support of teachers to have their students grow herbs in the classroom, or even sponsor an herb garden on the school campus. Keep pots of herbs growing in the windows in the dining area or kitchen (when the facility makes it possible). Growing herbs is intended as an educational experience for students and not for growing all you need in the CNP. Although you may use some of their herbs in the CNP, you will need to purchase herbs. Display an herb pot on the serving line when the herb is used to season a food. Begin your journey to reducing fat and salt as flavoring in vegetables by using smaller amounts of salt, and if you do add some fat, use less and choose a less saturated fat. Also consider varying the cooking method used for vegetables. .................................................................................................................... Spices As you recall, we talked earlier about seasoning with herbs and spices to enhance flavors. In this lesson we want to be more specific about how these products are used to make fruits and vegetables more appealing to our students. What are the spices most often used in your school or child care program? The flavor of most spices is intense and powerful. Use a smaller amount of spice when you are presenting a vegetable seasoned with spice for the first time. Give students time to become familiar with the flavor.
  37. 37. 32 Spices are nearly always sold in the dried form and are generally available whole or ground. You may purchase a spice blend, such as curry powder, chili powder, and Italian seasoning. You can make your own blends and customize the blend to meet the tastes of different age groups. Whole spices keep longer than ground spices. Spices should be stored in sealed containers in a cool, dry place, away from extreme heat and direct light. Recipes for spice blends are included in Seasonings for Healthy School Meals, Culinary Techniques for Healthy School Meals available from NFSMI. .................................................................................................................... Herbs Keep these points in mind when buying or using herbs. Most herbs are available both fresh and dried. Aroma is a good indicator of quality in both fresh and dried herbs. The scent of an herb can be tested by crumbling a few leaves between the fingers and smelling the leaves. Herbs can be used to flavor many foods. They should be used to enhance and balance, not to overpower, the flavors in the dish. Purchase only the amount of dried herbs that can be used within 6 months and store away from heat. Discard herbs that have a musty or flat aroma. .................................................................................................................... Presentation and Garnishing The first glimpse of the serving line forms the customer’s perception of the meal. Fruits and vegetables on the menu add color, texture, flavor, and shape to the meal. If the food is attractively arranged on the line, looks good, and has a pleasing aroma, the customer’s expectations may be met. The way food is presented is a key to the foods customers select and enjoy eating. The presentation of food begins with the menu, the way food is cooked, the temperature of the food when it is served, and finally how it looks on the customer’s tray. Think of how a serving line looks and smells when it contains steamed carrots seasoned with a bit of ginger or green beans seasoned with rosemary or onion. These vegetables provide color, flavor, and aroma. Serving appealing foods gives the food service staff a feeling of satisfaction.
  38. 38. 33 When properly cooked, displayed, and served, fruits and vegetables require very little garnishing. They are often used to garnish other menu items. You have seen a tomato wedge or pepper ring on a tray of sliced meat or an orange wedge on a pan of pudding. Breads, meat, and grain dishes lack the wonderful colors of fruits and vegetables. We think of orange, yellow, red, and green when we think of vegetables and fruit. .................................................................................................................... Garnishes Keep these points in mind about garnishes. Garnishing in the CNP takes time; keep garnishes simple and appropriate for the age group served. The flavor of the garnish should accent or be the flavor of the menu item. The size of the garnish should be appropriate for the food. An orange wedge or a few grapes make a sandwich place look good. Use vegetable combinations, cuts, and shapes in the menu to serve as garnishes. o Combine contrasting colors  Yellow carrots and green peas or snow peas  Broccoli and cauliflower o Combine contrasting shapes  Carrot strips and round peas  Chopped tomato with cut green peas  Chives on baked or mashed potatoes  Onion rings on green beans  Cucumber rounds in leafy salads  Beets diced and onion rings for salads  Potatoes with diced green peppers Include fruit to garnish other menu items or as part of the menu for color, texture, and shape. Some examples are: Lemons (slices, sections, plain or with paprika, parsley, or cloves) Pineapple (slices, shredded, sticks, sauce) Apples (sauce, rings, spiced, jelly, butter) Canned fruits spiced or stuffed with cranberry sauce .................................................................................................................... Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  39. 39. 34 ________________________________________ I. Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices Vegetables can be made more appealing with herbs, spices, and other seasonings. Seasoning vegetables with herbs and spices reduces the need for added salt. Try the suggestions below to enhance the natural flavor of vegetables. Flavor Enhancers Vegetables Allspice Winter squash, sweet potatoes Basil Cabbage, carrots, green peas, spinach, tomatoes Caraway Beets, cabbage, cauliflower, green beans, wax beans, zucchini Cardamom Winter squash, sweet potatoes Celery Seed Cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, sauerkraut, tomatoes Chili Powder Corn, tomatoes Cinnamon Beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, onions, tomatoes Curry Cabbage, celery, lima beans Dill Seed Beets, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, green beans, green peas, wax beans Garlic Powder Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes Lemon Juice Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower Mace Cauliflower Marjoram Broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green peas, spinach, zucchini Mint Carrots, green peas, spinach Mustard Seed Cabbage Nutmeg Celery, spinach, winter squash Onion Powder Cabbage, green beans Oregano Green peas, tomatoes, zucchini Parsley Tomatoes, corn Rosemary Cauliflower, spinach turnips Red Pepper Celery Sage Green beans, onions, tomatoes, wax beans Tarragon Cauliflower Thyme Carrots, celery Vinegar Green leafy vegetables Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  40. 40. 35 ___________________ J. Freezing Vegetables Freezing Vegetables Words to know To be able to freeze vegetables, you need to understand the words that are used in freezing instructions. Blanch (scald). Blanching is the process of placing vegetables in boiling water or steam for a certain period of time. Blanching is a very important step and needs to be done right. It stops the action of enzymes in vegetables. If you do not blanch vegetables, they will lose some of their color, flavor, and texture after they have been stored in the freezer. Freezer burn. This is the drying out or dehydration of food. It happens when the food is not packaged correctly and results in a loss of flavor, color, and texture. The food, however, is safe to eat. Headspace. This is the amount of space left between the top of the food and the top of the container. Food expands when it freezes, so it is important to leave enough room. Overblanching. This occurs when vegetables are blanched too long. It destroys enzymes but causes a loss of vitamins, minerals, flavor, and color. Quick-freeze. This is the process used when freezing raw foods. Turn the freezer down to -10°F, and place the packaged foods in single layers on the freezer shelves. As soon as the foods are frozen hard, stack the packages. Slow freezing causes large ice crystals to form. These ice crystals puncture the cells of the food, and the food will be mushy when thawed. The texture of food that is quick-frozen will be better than the texture of foods frozen slowly. Underblanching. This is blanching that did not last long enough to slow down the enzymes. If vegetables are underblanched, they are just warmed. The heat actually speeds up the enzymes. It is worse than not blanching. .................................................................................................................... How much to freeze? Frozen vegetables are best if used within a year. They will keep longer, but quality and nutritive value decline gradually. Selecting the vegetables What kinds of vegetables do you like? You should select vegetables your family likes. Where will you get the vegetables to freeze? You can grow them in your garden, or you can buy fresh vegetables to freeze. No matter what kind of vegetables you choose, they should be young and tender. Do not use vegetables if they are bruised, too ripe, or immature. The frozen vegetables will not be better than the fresh ones. Freezing cannot improve a poor product. ....................................................................................................................
  41. 41. 36 Basic Steps 1. Wash the vegetables. It is a good idea to wash the vegetables in several changes of cold water. Lift the vegetables out of the water as you wash them. If you let the water drain off, dirt may be left on the vegetables. 2. Assemble equipment. It will save you time if you gather all of the equipment you need for freezing vegetables. You will need a blancher with a basket and cover (or large saucepan and cover and a basket for the vegetables), a sharp paring knife, a cutting board, kitchen scales (optional), a colander, cooking spoons, clean dish towels, pot holders, and a wide-mouth funnel. 3. Assemble packaging containers. Containers for frozen foods should be moisture-vapor resistant. (Moisture resistant means liquid cannot get out of the container or get into it. Vapor resistant means odor or vapors from other foods cannot get into the container.) The container or packaging material should be odorless, tasteless, greaseproof, and easy to close tightly. The most common types of containers are freezer weight polyethylene (plastic) bags and rigid polyethylene containers or cartons. Freezer bags are easy to use and work well for food frozen without liquid. Be sure the bags you use are made for freezing. A rubber band or a twist-tie is used to seal the bag. Plastic cartons are also good for freezing vegetables. When you choose containers, be sure they are the right size for your family. You may need half pints, pints, or quarts. You also want them to be airtight. (If the lid does not fit well, or if the bag has a hole in it, the vegetables will freezer burn.) 4. Blanch the vegetables. Blanching is very important in freezing vegetables. Do not let anyone talk you into skipping the blanching of your vegetables. Blanching inactivates enzymes that can cause undesirable quality changes during storage even at 0 ºF. When you are ready to blanch vegetables, place 1 gallon of water in the blancher and bring it to a boil. When the water is boiling rapidly, place 1 pound of vegetables in the basket and lower into the water. Put the lid on the saucepan and begin counting the blanching time. When the time is up, remove the basket immediately from the boiling water. If too many vegetables are blanched at once, the water does not return to a boil quickly, and the vegetables will be under blanched. 5. Cool the vegetables. Plunge the hot, blanched vegetables into cold or ice water. The quicker the vegetables are cooled, the better the frozen product. Keep changing the water so it will always be cold. It should take about as long to cool the vegetables as it did to blanch them. As soon as the vegetables are cool, drain them thoroughly.
  42. 42. 37 6. Package and label the product. Place the vegetables in the appropriate kind of container. If you are using plastic bags, be sure to press all of the air out of the bags before you seal the bags. If you are using a plastic carton, leave 1/2 inch headspace so there will be room for the food to expand. Be sure to label each package before it is frozen with the name of the vegetables, the amount, and the date frozen. You may want to use freezer tape and a wax pencil. 7. Quick-freeze the packages. Place a single layer of packages directly on the freezer shelf. After 24 hours, you can stack the packages. Quick freezing should be done at -10 ºF. Be sure the freezer stays at -10 ºF or lower at all times. Vegetables can be held in the freezer up to 12 months. .................................................................................................................... Directions for freezing Below are directions for freezing several vegetables. If you would like information on freezing other vegetables, contact your county Extension office. Broccoli Select firm, young, tender stalks with compact heads. It takes about 1 pound of fresh broccoli to make 1 pint. 1 crate (25 pounds) yields about 24 pints. Remove leaves and woody sections. Separate heads into convenient size sections and immerse in brine (4 teaspoons salt to 1 gallon of water) for 30 minutes to remove insects. Split lengthwise so florets are no more than 1 ½ inches across. Blanch 3 minutes or steam 5 minutes. Cool promptly, drain, and package, leaving no headspace. Seal, label, and quick-freeze. Corn Use only tender, fresh gathered corn that is in the milk stage. Two to 2 ½ pounds yield 1 pint. A bushel yields about 16 pints. Work with small quantities. Shuck, silk, and wash the corn in cold water and sort according to size. Corn can be frozen by different methods: Whole-kernel corn - Blanch 4 minutes.Cool promptly, drain, and cut from cob. Cut kernels from cob at about 2/3 the depth of the kernels. Package, leaving 1/2 inch headspace. Seal, label, and quick-freeze. Corn-on-the-cob – Blanch small ears (1 ¼ inches or less in diameter) 7 minutes; medium ears (1 ¼ to 1 ½ inches in diameter) 9 minutes; and large ears (more that 1 ½ inches in diameter) 11 minutes. Cool promptly and drain. Pack ears into containers or wrap. Seal and quick freeze.
  43. 43. 38 Green Beans Pick young, tender pods when the seed is first formed. Two-thirds to 1 pound yield 1 pint. A bushel yields about 40 pints. Freeze beans as soon as possible after picking. Wash in cold water, trim ends, and break into 2- to 4-inch lengths. Blanch beans 3 minutes. Cool quickly. Drain thoroughly. Package in moisture- vapor resistant bags or cartons, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal, label, and quick freeze. Carrots Freeze mild-flavored, tender carrots. Remove tops, wash, and peel. Leave small carrots whole. Cut others into ½ inch cubes thin slices, or lengthwise strips. Heat in boiling water, depending on size: small, whole - 5 minutes; diced or sliced or lengthwise strips - 2 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water and drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Peas Select well-filled, flexible pods with tender seeds. Shell; discard hard peas. Heat in boiling water 2 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water; drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Squash Summer: Select young, small-seeded and tender-rind squash. Wash and cut in ½ inch slices. Heat in boiling water 3 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water and drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Winter: Select firm, mature squash. Wash, cut into pieces, and remove seeds. Cook pieces until soft in boiling water, in steam, in a pressure cooker, or in the oven. Remove pulp for rind and mash or press though a sieve. To cool, place pan containing squash in cold water and stir squash occasionally. Pack into containers, leaving 1 inch headspace. Seal and freeze. .................................................................................................................... Using frozen vegetables One of the best things about the food preservation project is eating the foods you preserve. Follow the instructions below for thawing and cooking vegetables. Thawing and Cooking Most vegetables should not be thawed before they are cooked. You can take them from the freezer to the range and cook them. Greens and corn-on-the-cob should be partially thawed before cooking. __________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: Mississippi State Extension Service
  44. 44. 39 _____________________________________________ K. Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits, and Vegetables Renee Boyer, Extension specialist and assistant professor, Virginia Tech; Karleigh Huff, graduate student, Virginia Tech Introduction Why dry? Drying (dehydrating) food is one of the oldest and easiest methods of food preservation. Dehydration is the process of removing water or moisture from a food product. Removing moisture from foods makes them smaller and lighter. Dehydrated foods are ideal for backpacking hiking and camping because they weigh much less than their non-dried counterparts and do not require refrigeration. Drying food is also a way of preserving seasonal foods for later use. How dehydration preserves foods Foods can be spoiled by food microorganisms or through enzymatic reactions within the food. Bacteria, yeast, and molds must have a sufficient amount of moisture around them to grow and cause spoilage. Reducing the moisture content of food prevents the growth of these spoilage-causing microorganisms and slows down enzymatic reactions that take place within food. The combination of these events helps to prevent spoilage in dried food. The basics of food dehydration Three things are needed to successfully dry food at home: Heat – hot enough to force out moisture (140°F), but not hot enough to cook the food; Dry air – to absorb the released moisture; Air movement – to carry the moisture away. Foods can be dried using three methods: In the sun – requires warm days of 85°F or higher, low humidity, and insect control; recommended for dehydrating fruits only; In the oven; Using a food dehydrator – electric dehydrators take less time to dry foods and are more cost efficient than an oven.
  45. 45. 40 Preparing Fruits and Vegetables for Drying Many fruits and vegetables can be dried (Table 1). Use ripe foods only. Rinse fruits and vegetables under cold running water and cut away bruised and fibrous portions. Remove seeds, stems, and/or pits. Most vegetables and some fruits (Tables 2 and 3) should undergo a pretreatment, such as blanching or dipping. Blanching is briefly precooking food in boiling water or steam, and it is used to sop enzymatic reactions within the foods. Blanching also shortens drying time and kills many spoilage organisms. Table 1. Fruits and Vegetables Suitable for Drying Fruits Vegetables Apples Beets Apricots Carrots Bananas Sweet corn Cherries Garlic Coconuts Horseradish Dates Mushrooms Figs Okra Grapes Onions Nectarines Parsnips Peaches Parsley Pears Peas Pineapples Peppers (red, green, and, chili) Plums Potatoes Pumpkin Steps for steam blanching (fruit and vegetables): Use a steamer or a deep pot with a tight-fitting lid that contains a wire basket or could fit a colander or sieve so steam can circulate around the vegetables. Add several inches of water to the steamer or pot and bring to a rolling boil. Loosely place fruits/vegetables into the basket, no more than 2 inches deep. Place basket into pot (fruits/vegetables should not make contact with water). Cover and steam until fruits/vegetables are heated for the recommended time (Table 2 and 3). Remove basket or colander and place in cold water to stop cooking. Drain and place fruits/vegetables on drying tray.
  46. 46. 41 Steps for water blanching (vegetables only): Use a blancher or a deep pot with a tight-fitting lid. Fill the pot two-thirds full with water, cover, and bring to a rolling boil. Place vegetables into a wire basket and submerge them into the boiling water for the recommended time (Table 2). Remove vegetables and place in cold water to stop cooking. Drain and place vegetables on drying tray. Steps for syrup blanching (fruits only): Combine 1 cup sugar, 1 cup light corn syrup, and 2 cups water in a pot. Add 1 pound of fruit. Simmer 10 minutes (Table 3). Remove from heat and keep fruit in syrup for 30 minutes. Remove fruit from syrup, rinse, drain, and continue with dehydration step. Dipping is a pretreatment used to prevent fruits such as apples, bananas, peaches, and pears from turning brown. Ascorbic acid, fruit juices high in vitamin C (lemon, orange, pineapple, grape, etc.), or commercial products containing ascorbic or citric acid may be used for dipping. For example, dipping sliced fruit pieces in a mixture of ascorbic acid crystals and water (1 teaspoon ascorbic acid crystals per 1 cup of water), or dipping directly in fruit juiced for 3 to 5 minutes will prevent browning. Fruits may also be blanched as a means of treatment.
  47. 47. 42 Table 2. Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Vegetables Vegetable Blanching Drying time (hrs)*Method Time (mins) Beets cook before drying 3 ½ - 5 Carrots steam 3 – 3 ½ 3 ½ - 5water 3 ½ Corn not necessary 6 – 8 Garlic not necessary 6 – 8 Horseradish not necessary 4 - 10 Mushrooms not necessary 8 – 10 Okra not necessary 8 – 10 Onions not necessary 3 – 6 Parsley not necessary 1 – 2 Peas steam 3 8 -10water 2 Peppers not necessary 2 ½ - 5 Potatoes steam 6 – 8 8 -12water 5 - 6 Pumpkin steam 2 ½ - 3 10 - 16water 1 *Dried vegetables should be brittle or crisp. Table 3. Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Fruits Fruit Blanching * Drying Time (hrs) ** Method Time (mins) Apple steam 3 – 5 6 – 12syrup 10 Apricots steam 3 – 4 24 – 36+syrup 10 Bananas steam 3 – 4 8 – 10syrup 10 Cherries syrup 10 24 – 36 Figs not necessary 6 – 12 Grapes: seedless not necessary 12 – 20 Nectarines steam 8 36 – 48syrup 10 Peaches steam 8 36 – 48syrup 10 Pears steam 6 24 – 36+syrup 10 Pineapples not necessary 24 – 36 Plums not necessary 24 - 36 * Fruits may be dipped in ascorbic acid or citric acid in place of blanching. ** Test for dryness by cutting the fruit. There should be no moist areas in the center. Times are estimated for use of the dehydrator or oven methods. + Drying times for whole fruits. Cutting fruit into slices may shorten drying time.
  48. 48. 43 Drying Fruits and Vegetables Natural sun drying Sun drying is recommended for drying fruit only. Sun drying is not recommended in cloudy or humid weather. The temperature should reach 85°F by noon, and the humidity should be less than 60 percent. All food that is dried outdoors must be pasteurized. Dry in the sun by placing slices of food on clean racks or screens and covering with cheesecloth, fine netting, or another screen. Food will dry faster if racks are placed on blocks and the rack is not sitting on the ground. If possible, place a small fan near the drying tray to promote air circulation. Drying times will vary (Tables 2 and 3). Turn food once a day. Dry until food has lost most of its moisture (fruits will be chewy). Fruits should be covered or brought in at night to prevent moisture being added back into the food. Drying with a food dehydrator Place food dehydrator in a dry, well-ventilated indoor room. Arrange fruits or vegetables in a single layer on each tray so that no pieces are touching or overlapping. Dehydrate at 140°F. Check food often and turn pieces every few hours to dry more evenly. See Tables 2 and 3 for drying times. Oven drying Dry food in an oven that can be maintained at 140°F. Leave door 2 inches to 3 inches ajar. Place a fan in front of the oven to blow air across the open door. Spread the food in a single layer on racks or cookie sheets. Check food often and turn pieces every few hours to dry more evenly. Drying time will vary (Tables 2 and 3). Do not leave oven on when no one is in the house. When food is dehydrated, 80 percent of the moisture is removed from fruits and up to 90 percent of the moisture is removed from vegetables, making the dried weight of foods much less than the fresh weight (Table 4).
  49. 49. 44 Table 4. Pounds of Dehydrated Food from Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Fresh fruits (20 lbs) Dehydrated weight (lbs) Apples 2 Peaches 1½ - 2½ Pears 2¼ Prunes/Plums 2¼ Fresh vegetables (20 lbs) Dehydrated weight (lbs) Snap beans 1¾ Beets 2 Carrots 1¾ Onions 2½ Squash (summer) 1½ - 2 Tomatoes ¾ Pasteurizing Sun-Dried Fruits All sun-dried fruits must be pasteurized to destroy any insects and their eggs. This can be done with heat or cold. To pasteurize with heat, place dried food evenly in shallow trays no more than 1 inch in depth. Fruits should be heated at 160°F for 30 minutes. To pasteurize with cold, fruits can be placed in the freezer at 0°F for 48 hours. Conditioning Dried Fruits Dried fruits must be conditioned prior to storage. Conditioning is the process of evenly distributing moisture present in the dried fruit to prevent mold growth. Condition dried fruit by placing it in a plastic or glass container, sealing, and storing for 7 days to 10 days. Shake containers daily to distribute moisture. If condensation occurs, place fruit in the oven or dehydrator for more drying and repeat the conditioning process. Storing Dried Fruits and Vegetables Cool-dried food should be placed in a closed container that has been washed and dried before storing. Store in a cool, dry, and dark place. Dried foods can maintain quality for up to a year depending on the storage temperature. The cooler the storage temperature, the longer dehydrated foods will last.
  50. 50. 45 Reconstituting Dried Fruits and Vegetables Dried fruits and vegetables may be reconstituted (restoring moisture) by soaking the food in water. Time for reconstituting will depend on the size and shape of the food and the food itself. Most dried fruits can be reconstituted within 8 hours, whereas most dried vegetables take only 2 hours. To prevent growth of microorganisms, dried fruits and vegetables should be reconstituted in the refrigerator. 1 cup of dried fruit will yield approximately 1½ cups of reconstituted fruit. 1 cup of dried vegetable will yield approximately 2 cups of reconstituted vegetable. Reconstituted fruits and vegetables should be cooked in the water in which they were soaking. _____________________________________________________________ Adapted from: Virginia Cooperative Extension, Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  51. 51. 46 Section 3: Nutrition Contents A. MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns B. Vitamin and Mineral Summary C. Functions of “Shortfall” Nutrients D. Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group E. Food Sources of Potassium F. Food Sources of Vitamin E G. Food Sources of Iron H. Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium I. Dairy Sources of Calcium J. Food Sources of Vitamin A K. Food Sources of Magnesium L. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber M. Food Sources of Vitamin C
  52. 52. 47 Section 3: Nutrition ______________________________________ A. MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns Food Intake Patterns The suggested amounts of food to consume from the basic food groups, subgroups, and oils to meet recommended nutrient intakes at 12 different calorie levels. Nutrient and energy contributions from each group are calculated according to the nutrient-dense forms of foods in each group (e.g., lean meats and fat-free milk). The table also shows the discretionary calorie allowance that can be accommodated within each calorie level, in addition to the suggested amounts of nutrient-dense forms of foods in each group. Daily Amount of Food from Each Group Calorie Level (1) 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200 Fruits (2) 1 cup 1 cup 1.5 cups 1.5 cups 1.5 cups 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups 2.5 cups 2.5 cups 2.5 cups Vegetables (3) 1 cup 1.5 cups 1.5 cups 2 cups 2.5 cups 2.5 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3.5 cups 3.5 cups 4 cups 4 cups Grains (4) 3 oz-eq 4 o z-eq 5 oz-eq 5 oz-eq 6 oz-eq 6 oz-eq 7 oz-eq 8 oz-eq 9 oz-eq 10 oz-eq 10 oz-eq 10 oz-eq Meat and Beans (5) 2 oz-eq 3 oz-eq 4 oz-eq 5 oz-eq 5 oz-eq 5.5 oz-eq 6 oz-eq 6.5 oz-eq 6.5 oz-eq 7 oz-eq 7 oz-eq 7 oz-eq Milk (6) 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups Oils (7) 3 tsp 4 tsp 4 tsp 5 tsp 5 tsp 6 tsp 6 tsp 7 tsp 8 tsp 8 tsp 10 tsp 11 tsp Discretionary calorie allowance (8) 165 171 171 132 195 267 290 362 410 426 512 648 1. Calorie Levels are set across a wide range to accommodate the needs of different individuals. The attached table “Estimated Daily Calorie Needs” can be used to help assign individuals to the food intake pattern at a particular calorie level.
  53. 53. 48 2. Fruit Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices. In general, 1 cup of fruit or 100% fruit juice, or ½ cup of dried fruit can be considered as 1 cup from the fruit group. 3. Vegetable Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried vegetables and vegetable juices. In general 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetable or vegetable juice, or 2 cups of raw leafy greens can be considered as 1 cup from the vegetable group. Vegetable Subgroup Amounts are per Week Calorie Level 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200 Dark green veg. 1 c/wk 1.5 c/wk 1.5 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk Orange veg. .5 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 1.5 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk Legumes .5 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk Starchy veg. 1.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 6 c/wk 6 c/wk 7 c/wk 7 c/wk 9 c/wk 9 c/wk Other veg. 3.5 c/wk 4.5 c/wk 4.5 c/wk 5.5 c/wk 6.5 c/wk 6.5 c/wk 7 c/wk 7 c/wk 8.5 c/wk 8.5 c/wk 10 c/wk 10 c/wk 4. Grains Group includes all foods made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, such as bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits. In general, 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or ½ cup of cooked rice, past, or cooked cereal can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the grains group. At least half of all grains consumed should be whole grains. 5. Meat & Beans Group in general, 1 ounce of lean meat, poultry, or fish, 1 egg, 1 Tbsp. peanut butter, ¼ cup of cooked dry beans, or ½ ounce of nuts or seeds can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the meat and beans group. 6. Milk Group includes all fluid milk products and foods made from milk that retain their calcium content, such as yogurt and cheese. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not part of the group. Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. In general, 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1½ ounces of natural cheese, or 2 ounces of processed cheese can be considered as 1 cup from the milk group. 7. Oils include fats from many different plants and from fish that are liquid at room temperature, such as canola, corn, olive, soybean, and sunflower oil. Some foods are naturally high in oils, like nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados. Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft margarine. 8. Discretionary Calorie Allowance is the remaining amount of calories in a food intake pattern after accounting for the calories needed for all food groups – using forms of foods that are fat-free or low-fat and with no added sugars.
  54. 54. 49 Estimated Daily Calorie Needs To determine which food intake pattern to use for an individual, the following chart gives an estimate of individual calorie needs. The calorie range for each age/sex group is based on physical activity level, from sedentary to active. Calorie Range Children Sedentary -------- Active 2 - 3 years 1,000 --------- 1,400 Females 4 – 8 years 9 - 13 14 – 16 19 – 30 31 – 50 51 + 1,200 -------- 1,800 1,600 -------- 2,200 1,800 -------- 2,400 2,000 -------- 2,400 1,800 -------- 2,200 1,600 -------- 2,200 Males 4 – 8 years 9 – 13 14 – 18 19 – 30 31 – 50 51 + 1,400 -------- 2,000 1,800 -------- 2,600 2,200 -------- 3,200 2,400 -------- 3,000 2,200 -------- 3,000 2,000 -------- 2,800  Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.  Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. ___________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  55. 55. 50 ____________________________ B. Vitamin and Mineral Summary Vitamin and Mineral Summary Nutrient Best Sources Functions Stability Fat Soluble Vitamin A Green and yellow vegetables, milk, margarine, egg yolk Anti-infection vitamin, healthy eyes, skin and mucous membranes, night vision Safe with usual cooking Vitamin D Fortified milk, sun Calcium absorption Stable Vitamin E Vegetable oil, green leaves, seeds Protects cells against damage and cancer Safe with usual cooking Vitamin K Turnip greens, soybean, vegetable oil Blood clotting Destroyed by alkali Water soluble Vitamin C Citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, cabbage Healthy gums, bones and teeth, cells and blood vessels; wound healing; boosts iron absorption Unstable in light, heat, air and alkali Thiamin Bread and cereal, pork, potatoes, legumes Vital for normal growth and energy, healthy nerves, appetite, and digestion Destroyed by heat, air, and alkali Riboflavin Milk, bread, cereal, green leaves Growth, healthy eyes, prevents sores around mouth and nose Destroyed by light Niacin Fish, meat, poultry, bread, cereal, legumes, peanuts Prevents pellagra, nervous depression Safe with usual cooking Vitamin B6 Pork, grains, bran, legumes, seeds Helps use protein and amino acids Safe with usual cooking Folacin Green leafy vegetables Vital for normal red blood cells, helps make DNA Destroyed by heat and air Minerals Iron Meat, legumes, green leaves As part of red blood gets oxygen to all cells Safe with usual cooking Calcium Milk, dairy products, green leaves Normal bones and teeth, blood clotting, regulates heart beat Safe with usual cooking Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  56. 56. 51 _____________________________ C. Function of “Shortfall” Nutrients Function of “Shortfall” Nutrients Nutrient Function Vitamin A Vitamin A plays a significant role in vision, growth and development, immune function, and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, and hair. Vitamin C As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin C protects all living cells. Vitamin C helps strengthen blood vessels, maintain healthy gums, and aids in the absorption of iron. Vitamin D Helps promote the absorption of calcium and enhances bone mineralization. Vitamin E As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin E protects living cells. Vitamin E helps in the formation of red blood cells and muscles. Calcium Calcium is the key nutrient in the development and maintenance of bones. Calcium aids in blood clotting and muscle and nerve functioning. Magnesium Magnesium plays a key role in the development and maintenance of bones, and is involved in energy metabolism. Potassium Potassium assists in muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in cells, transmitting nerve impulses, and releasing energy during metabolism. Diets rich in potassium lower blood pressure, blunt the adverse effects of salt on blood pressure, may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, and may decrease bone loss. Dietary Fiber Fiber helps maintain the health of the digestive tract and promotes proper bowel functioning. __________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: Nutrition and Your Health. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2005 Advisory Committee Report National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  57. 57. 52 __________________________________________________ D. Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group Food Group Major Contribution(s) 1 Substantial Contribution(s) (>10% of total)2 Fruit Group Vitamin C Thiamin Vitamin B6 Folate Magnesium Copper Potassium Carbohydrate Fiber Vegetable Group Vitamin A Vitamin E Potassium Vitamin C Thiamin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Carbohydrate Fiber Alpha-linolenic Acid Vegetable Subgroups: Dark Green Vegetables Vitamin A Vitamin C Orange Vegetables Vitamin A Legumes Folate Copper Fiber Starchy Vegetables Vitamin B6 Copper Other Vegetables Vitamin C
  58. 58. 53 Grain Group Thiamin Vitamin A Folate Riboflavin Magnesium Niacin Iron Vitamin B6 Copper Vitamin B12 Carbohydrate Calcium Vitamin A Phosphorus Fiber Zinc Potassium Protein Linoleic Acid Alpha-linolenic Acid Grain Subgroups: Whole Grains Folate (tie) Thiamin Magnesium Riboflavin Iron Niacin Copper Vitamin B6 Carbohydrate (tie) Vitamin B12 Fiber Phosphorus Zinc Protein Enriched Grains Folate (tie) Riboflavin Thiamin Niacin Carbohydrate (tie) Iron Copper Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Niacin Vitamin E and Nuts Group Vitamin B6 Thiamin Protein Riboflavin Vitamin B12 Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Copper Potassium Linoleic Acid Milk Group Riboflavin Vitamin A Vitamin B 12 Thiamin Calcium Vitamin B6 Phosphorus Magnesium Vitamin D Zinc Potassium Carbohydrate Protein Niacin Oils and Soft Margarines Vitamin E Linoleic Acid Alpha-linolenic Acid
  59. 59. 54 1. Major contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides more of the nutrient than any other single food group, averaged over all calorie levels. When two groups or subgroups provide equal amounts, it is noted as a tie. 2. A substantial contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides 10% or more of the total amount of the nutrient in the food patterns, averaged over all calories. Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  60. 60. 55 _________________________ E. Food Sources of Potassium Food Sources of Potassium Food Sources of Potassium showing calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Potassium (mg) Calories Sweet potato, baked, 1 potato (146 g) 694 131 Tomato past, ¼ cup 664 54 Beet greens, cooked, ½ cup 655 19 Potato, baked, flesh, 1 potato (156 g) 610 145 White beans, canned, ½ cup 595 153 Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 8-oz container 579 127 Tomato puree, ½ cup 549 48 Clams, canned 3 oz 534 126 Yogurt, plain, low-fat 8-oz container 531 143 Prune juice, ¾ cup 530 136 Carrot juice, ¾ cup 517 71 Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp 498 47 Halibut, cooked 3 oz 490 119 Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup 485 127 Tuna, yellowfin, cooked, 3 oz 484 118 Lima beans, cooked, ½ cup 484 104 Winter squash, cooked, ½ cup 448 40 Soybeans, mature, cooked ½ cup 443 149 Rockfish, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz 442 103 Cod, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz 439 89 Bananas, 1 medium 422 105 Spinach, cooked ½ cup 419 21 Tomato juice, ¾ cup 417 31 Tomato sauce, ½ cup 405 39 Peaches dried, uncooked, ¼ cup 398 96 Prunes, stewed, ½ cup 398 133 Milk, non-fat, 1 cup 382 83 Pork chop, center loin, cooked, 3 oz 382 197 Apricots, dried, uncooked, ¼ cup 378 78 Rainbow trout, farmed, cooked, 3 oz 375 144 Pork loin, center rib (roasts), lean, roasted, 3 oz 371 190
  61. 61. 56 Buttermilk, cultured, low-fat, 1 cup 370 98 Cantaloupe, ¼ medium 368 47 1%-2% milk, 1 cup 366 102-122 Honeydew melon, 1/8 medium 365 58 Lentils, cooked, ½ cup 365 115 Plantains, cooked, ½ cup slices 358 90 Kidney beans, cooked, ½ cup 358 112 Orange juice, ¾ cup 355 85 Split peas, cooked, ½ cup 355 116 Yogurt, plain, whole milk, 8 oz container 352 138 Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  62. 62. 57 ___________________________ F. Food Sources of Vitamin E Food Sources of Vitamin E Food Sources of Vitamin E ranked by milligrams of vitamin E per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount AT (mg) Calories Fortified ready-to-eat cereals, ~1 oz 1.6-12.8 90-107 Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 oz 7.4 165 Almonds, 1 oz 7.3 164 Sunflower oil, high linoleic, 1 Tbsp 5.6 120 Cottonseed oil, 1 Tbsp 4.8 120 Safflower oil, high oleic, 1 Tbsp 4.6 120 Hazelnuts (filberts), 1 oz 4.3 178 Mixed nuts, dry roasted, 1 oz 3.1 168 Turnip greens, frozen, cooked, ½ cup 2.9 24 Tomato paste, ¼ cup 2.8 54 Pine nuts, 1 oz 2.6 191 Peanut butter, 2 Tbsp 2.5 192 Tomato puree, ½ cup 2.5 48 Tomato sauce, ½ cup 2.5 39 Canola oil, 1 Tbsp 2.4 124 Wheat germ, toasted, plain, 2 Tbsp 2.3 54 Peanuts, 1 oz 2.2 166 Avocado, raw, ½ avocado 2.1 161 Carrot juice, canned, ¾ cup 2.1 71 Peanut oil, 1 Tbsp 2.1 119 Corn oil, 1 Tbsp 1.9 120 Olive oil, 1 Tbsp 1.9 119 Spinach, cooked, ½ cup 1.9 21 Dandelion greens, cooked, ½ cup 1.8 18 Sardine, Atlantic, in oil, drained, 3 oz 1.7 177 Blue crab, cooked/canned, 3 oz 1.6 84 Brazin nuts, 1 oz 1.6 186 Herring, Atlantic, pickled, 3 oz 1.5 222 Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  63. 63. 58 ______________________ G. Food Sources of Iron Food Sources of Iron Food Sources of Iron ranked by milligrams of iron per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Iron (mg) Calories Clams, canned, drained, 3 oz 23.8 126 Fortified ready-to eat cereals (various), ~1 oz 1.8-21.1 54-127 Oysters, eastern, wild, cooked, moist heat, 3 oz 10.2 116 Organ meats (liver, giblets), various, cooked, 3 oz (Organ meats are high in cholesterol.) 5.2-9.9 134-235 Fortified instant cooked cereals (various), 1 packet 4.9-8.1 Varies Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup 4.4 149 Pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, 1 oz 4.2 148 White beans, canned, ½ cup 3.9 153 Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp 3.5 47 Lentils, cooked, ½ cup 3.3 115 Spinach, cooked from fresh, ½ cup 3.2 21 Beef, chuck, blade roast, lean, cooked, 3 oz 3.1 215 Beef, bottom round, lean, 0” fat, all grades, cooked, 3 oz 2.8 182 Kidney beans, cooked, ½ cup 2.6 112 Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 3 oz 2.5 177 Beef, rib, lean, ¼” fat, all grades, 3 oz 2.4 195 Chickpeas, cooked, ½ cup 2.4 134 Duck, meat only, roasted, 3 oz 2.3 171 Lamb, shoulder, arm, lean, ¼” fat, choice, cooked, 3 oz 2.3 237 Prune juice, ¾ cup 2.3 136 Shrimp, canned, 3 oz 2.3 102 Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup 2.2 100 Ground beef, 15% fat, cooked, 3 oz 2.2 212 Tomato puree, ½ cup 2.2 48 Lima beans, cooked, ½ cup 2.2 108 Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup 2.2 127 Navy beans, cooked, ½ cup 2.1 127 Refried beans, ½ cup 2.1 118 Beef, top sirloin, lean, 0” fat, all grades, cooked, 3 oz 2 156 Tomato paste, ¼ cup 2 54 Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual
  64. 64. 59 ________________________________ H. Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium ranked by milligrams of calcium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Both calcium content and bioavailability should be considered when selecting dietary sources of calcium. Some plant foods have calcium that is well absorbed, but the large quantity of plant foods that would be needed to provide as much calcium as in a glass of milk may be unachievable for many. Many other calcium-fortified foods are available, but the percentage of calcium that can be absorbed is unavailable for many of them. Food, Standard Amount Calcium (mg) Calories Fortified ready-to-eat cereals (various), 1 oz 236-1043 88-106 Soy beverage, calcium fortified, 1 cup 368 98 Sardines, Atlantic, in oil, drained, 3 oz 325 177 Tofu, firm, prepared with nigari, ½ cup (Nigari is calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride.) 253 88 Pink salmon, canned, with bone, 3 oz 181 118 Collards, cooked from frozen, ½ cup 178 31 Molasses, blackstrap, 1 Tbsp 172 47 Spinach, cooked from frozen, ½ cup 146 30 Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup 130 127 Turnip greens, cooked from frozen, ½ cup 124 24 Ocean perch, Atlantic, cooked, 3 oz 116 103 Oatmeal, plain and flavored, instant, fortified, 1 packet prepared 99-110 97-157 Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup 106 80 White beans, canned, ½ cup 96 153 Kale, cooked from frozen, ½ cup 90 20 Okra, cooked from frozen, ½ cup 88 26 Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup 88 149 Blue crab, canned, 3 oz 86 84 Beet greens, cooked from fresh, ½ cup 82 19 Pak-choi, Chinese cabbage, cooked from fresh, ½ cup 79 10 Clams, canned, 3 oz 78 126 Dandelion greens, cooked from fresh, ½ cup 74 17 Rainbow trout, farmed, cooked, 3 oz 73 144 Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual