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Modelli di giornalismo e cultura convergente 14

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14a lezione, 23 marzo 2010: Vincoli, condizionamenti e tecnologie
Intensità del ciclo della notizie
Deadline accorciate e developing news
Verifica delle notizie sempre più difficile
Mixed media culture
Sensazionalismo e spettacolarizzazione
O.J. Simpson
Clinton-Lewinsky
Delitto di Cogne
Terremoto in Abruzzo
Politica pop

Published in: Education
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Modelli di giornalismo e cultura convergente 14

  1. 1. Modelli di giornalismo e cultura convergente (Paolo Costa) 14a lezione, 23 marzo 2010: Vincoli, condizionamenti e tecnologie Insegnamento: Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale - a.a. 2009-2010
  2. 2. Agenda • Intensità del ciclo della notizie – Deadline accorciate e developing news – Verifica delle notizie sempre più difficile • Mixed media culture – Sensazionalismo e spettacolarizzazione – O.J. Simpson – Clinton-Lewinsky – Delitto di Cogne – Terremoto in Abruzzo • Politica pop CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 2 paolocosta.net
  3. 3. Deadline e ciclo della notizia • La deadline è il termine ultimo entro il quale la notizia deve essere consegnata dal redattore in tipografia • Da tempo assistiamo a un accorciamento del ciclo della notizia (news cycle) – Ha frequenza giornaliera, settimanale o mensile, a seconda della periodicità della testata – L’avvento del giornalismo televisivo, con la possibilità di trasmettere più edizioni nell’arco della medesima giornata, ha accorciato l’intervallo fra le deadline – Con i canali televisivi all news, di cui CNN è stata capostipite nel 1980, il concetto di deadline ha cominciato a essere messo in discussione CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 3 paolocosta.net
  4. 4. Logica delle developing news • Virtuale convergenza fra il momento in cui i fatti accadono, quello in cui le notizie si confezionano e quello in cui il pubblico si informa • Questa tendenza si è accentuata con l’avvento del Web: i nuovi media estremizzano la logica di flusso – Cambia il rapporto del giornalista con il tempo – L’intensità del news cycle mette in crisi la capacità di controllo del giornalista: è sempre più difficile sottoporre a verifica voci e dicerie CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 4 paolocosta.net
  5. 5. L’avvento della mixed media culture • Un nuovo tipo di cultura dei media, sempre più orientata verso il sensazionalismo e lo spettacolare • I giornalisti appaiono come bestie frenetiche, che rimestano nel pettegolezzo e nella notizia incontrollata con la scusa del lavoro investigativo • Un fenomeno in atto da quasi vent’anni, manifestandosi all’inizio negli Stati Uniti – La vicenda O.J. Simpson (1994) – Lo scandalo Clinton-Lewinsky (1998) • Oggi il giornalismo italiano dimostra di essersi adattato pienamente agli standard della mixed media culture CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 5 paolocosta.net
  6. 6. La vicenda O.J. Simpson • Oriental James Simpson fu accusato, processato e assolto per l’omicidio della ex moglie Nicole Brown e dell’amico Ronald Goldman • I mezzi di informazione americani seguirono la vicenda in modo ossessivo e voyeuristico • Famosa la folle corsa di O.J. sulle autostrade di Los Angeles, il 17 giugno 1994, durante il tentativo di arresto da parte della polizia: la sua fuga fu ripresa in diretta TV e seguita da almeno 100 milioni di telespettatori CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 6 paolocosta.net
  7. 7. “All Monica, all the same” • La relazione fra il presidente USA e la stagista fu resa nota attraverso due lanci successivi sul sito Drudge Report, la sera del 17 gennaio 1998 • Newsweek aveva deciso di rinunciare alla pubblicazione dello scoop per un misto di prudenza e responsabilità • La linea di Drudge Report costrinse tutti i media ad abbassare i propri standard per inseguire la notizia • Il canale TV via cavo MSNBC riuscì a migliorare i propri indici di ascolto del 131% nel giro di 24 ore CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 7 paolocosta.net
  8. 8. Delitto di Cogne: il crimine come show • La puntata di Porta a Porta del 14 marzo 2002 mette in scena una manipolazione discorsiva, ottenuta attraverso un evidente apparato retorico e semiotico – Gli ospiti come simbolizzazioni delle diverse competenze, che forniscono una narrazione discorsiva dell’evento (gli “esperti”) – Il plastico come simulazione di ciò che non può essere visto – Le forme verbali colpevoliste, con le tesi dell’accusa all’indicativo (“la donna ha fatto, è andata, ha ucciso”) e quelle della difesa al condizionale (“sarebbe andata in camera, sarebbe uscita”) – La discorsivizzazione iconica delle scritte sul maxi-schermo (“La mamma dal carcere: non sono stata io”) Ruggero Eugeni, Andrea Bellavita, Espropriazione senza mandato. La rappresentazione del crimine nella fiction, nell’intrattenimento e nei programmi di approfondimento televisivo, in La televisione del crimine, a cura di Gabrio Forti e Marta Bertolino, Milano, Vita e Pensiero, 2005, 241-273 CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 8 paolocosta.net
  9. 9. Delitto di Cogne: il crimine come show • Obiettivo della manipolazione è la spettacolarizzazione dell’evento, ottenuta mediante contrapposizione fra una posizione razionale e una passionale • Vespa ricopre in forma esplicita la posizione passionale, assegnandosi il compito di banalizzare e drammatizzare – Si contrappone ai racconti con le sue domande, finalizzate sempre a instillare il dubbio nelle ricostruzioni – Le domande non aspettano risposta, ma servono solo da controcampo patetico e popolare • Il rapporto con lo spettatore è di tipo pedagogico: gli viene detto non solo qual è la realtà, ma anche qual è il modo di affrontarla CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 9 paolocosta.net
  10. 10. Il sisma in Abruzzo come media event • Un evento strutturato in modo da determinare una copertura preminente da parte dei mezzi in informazione • Concetto introdotto da Daniel Dayan e Elihu Katz (1992) – Evento creato dalla televisione o comunque deformato dalla televisione nei suoi significati, in quanto oggetto di un’attenzione febbrile e spasmodica – Vero e proprio genere, funzionale alle logiche del mezzo CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 10 paolocosta.net
  11. 11. Porta a Porta: il giornalista-sciamano • La puntata di Porta a Porta del 6 aprile 2009 si propone come cerimonia mediatica, nella quale Vespa smette i panni del giornalista per vestire quelli dell’officiante – Un grande successo di audience (6,7 milioni telespettatori e il 27% di share) – Il conduttore come intermediario magico (mentre il giornalista aiuta il lettore a capire, Bruno Vespa aiuta l’audience a mettersi in contatto con l’aldilà dell’evento) – Gli ingredienti narrativi ad hoc (la colonna sonora, le lacrime del padrone di casa, il peccatore (Giampaolo Giuliani), il rapporto speciale di Vespa con il luogo – Il potere politico che rende omaggio alla potenza del sacerdote (il Governo riferisce in TV anziché in Parlamento) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 11 paolocosta.net
  12. 12. Porta a Porta del 6 aprile 2009 CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 12 paolocosta.net
  13. 13. Politica pop • Emerge un nuova forma di messa in scena mediatica della politica, caratterizzata dalla sua popolarizzazione, ovvero della sua resta in forma “pop” – Ibridizzazione di generi, registri e ruoli (informazione/ intrattenimento, realtà/fiction, giornalista/intrattenitore) – Spettacolarizzazione (il politico come showman o addirittura come rockstar) – Personalizzazione • I media sono i motori e i veicoli di questo processo, i politici ne sono gli attori Giampiero Mazzoleni, Anna Sfardini, Politica pop. Da "Porta a Porta" a "L'isola dei famosi“, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2009 CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 13 paolocosta.net
  14. 14. La rockstar dell’anno per Rolling Stone CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 14 paolocosta.net
  15. 15. Larry King Show, CNN Ross Perot (1992) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 15 paolocosta.net
  16. 16. Tonight Show, NBC (Jay Leno) Arnold Schwarzenegger (2003) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 16 paolocosta.net
  17. 17. Tonight Show, NBC (Jay Leno) Sarah Palin (2003) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 17 paolocosta.net
  18. 18. Celebrity Big Brother, Channel 4 George Galloway (2006) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 18 paolocosta.net
  19. 19. L’Isola dei famosi, Rai Vladimir Luxuria (2008) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 19 paolocosta.net
  20. 20. Elle, Achette Filipacchi Media Yulija Tymošenko (2005) CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 20 paolocosta.net
  21. 21. Il corpo mediale del leader CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 21 paolocosta.net
  22. 22. La logica dei media nella politica • Per esigenze di mercato la logica dei media si sta piegando progressivamente all’infotainment e alle soft news (dittatura dell’audience) • Ciò ha delle conseguenze dirette per la politica pop, sempre più attenta ai nuovi formati – Soft news politiche, ovvero notizie politiche trattate con un linguaggio leggero (breve, veloce, sensazionalistico) – Infotainment politico o politainment, ovvero contenuti della politica “divertenti” CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 22 paolocosta.net
  23. 23. Il ruolo dell’informazione politica • Le soft news rispondono effettivamente a una domanda del mercato? • L’infotainment riesce a trasmettere conoscenze “sostantive” della politica e quindi a mettere il cittadino nella condizione di formarsi un’opinione consapevole e a scegliere fra le varie opzioni sul campo? Thomas E. Patterson, Doing Well and Doing Good: How Soft News and Critical Journalism Are Shrinking the News Audience and Weakening Democracy – And What News Outlets Can Do About It, Harvard, John F. Kennedy School of Government: Harvard University, 2000 Delli Carpini, Michael X. and Bruce A. Williams, Let us entertain you: Politics in the new media environment, In Mediated politics: Communication in the future of democracy , a cura di Lance Bennett and Robert Entman, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001, 160-191 CIM | Comunicazione Digitale e Multimediale A 23/03/2010 23 paolocosta.net

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