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The State of CQL

Sylvain Lebresne (DataStax)
A short CQL primer
New in Cassandra 2.0
Native protocol
What's next?

2/20
A better API for Cassandra
Thrift is not satisfactory:

· Not user friendly, hard to use.
· Low level, very little abstrac...
Quick historical notes
· CQL1 first introduced in Cassandra 0.8, became CQL2 in Cassandra 1.0
· "These aren't the CQL you ...
A short CQL primer
The Cassandra Query Language
· Syntactically, a subset of SQL (with a few extensions)
CET TBEues(
RAE AL sr
ue_dui,
sri ud...
Denormalization: Cassandra modeling 101
Efficient queries in Cassandra are based on 2 principles:

· the data queried is c...
This is done in CQL through the primary key
CET TBEibxs(
RAE AL noe

CL
Q

ue_dui,
sri ud
eali tmui,
mi_d ieud
sne tx,
edr...
CQL main features

· Collections (set, map and list)
· Secondary indexes
· Convenience functions (timeuuid, type conversio...
New in Cassandra 2.0
New in Cassandra 2.0
Lightweight transactions:
ISR IT ts (d nm)VLE (2 'o' I NTEIT;
NET NO et i, ae AUS 4, Tm) F O XSS

CL
...
New in Cassandra 2.0
Conditional DDL:
CET TBEI NTEIT ts ( itPIAYKY;
RAE AL F O XSS et k n RMR E)

CL
Q

DO KYPC I EIT k;
R...
Coming in Cassandra 2.0.2
Named bind variables:
L
S L C * F O t m l n W E E c e t d a > : l w A D c e t d a < : h g A D k ...
The native protocol
A binary transport protocol for CQL
Native protocol
· Binary transport protocol for CQL
· Query execution, prepared statements, authentication, compression, ....
New in Cassandra 2.0: native protocol 2
Cursors:
fr(o rw:ssineeue"EET*FO mTbe)
o Rw o
eso.xct(SLC
RM yal")

JV
AA

/ D smt...
What's next?
Cassandra 2.1 and beyond
CQL: some ideas
· Storage engine optimizations for CQL
· Secondary index for collections
· Server side functions
· User de...
User defined types
CET TP ades(
RAE YE drs
sre tx,
tet et
zpcd it
i_oe n,
saetx,
tt et
poe sttx>
hns e<et
)
;
CET TBEues(
...
Thank You!
(Questions?)
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Cassandra EU - State of CQL

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State of CQL talk at the Cassandra EU summit

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Cassandra EU - State of CQL

  1. 1. The State of CQL Sylvain Lebresne (DataStax)
  2. 2. A short CQL primer New in Cassandra 2.0 Native protocol What's next? 2/20
  3. 3. A better API for Cassandra Thrift is not satisfactory: · Not user friendly, hard to use. · Low level, very little abstraction. · Hard to evolve (in a backward compatible way). · Unreadable without driver abstraction. Cassandra has often been regarded as hard to develop against. It doesn't have to be that way! 3/20
  4. 4. Quick historical notes · CQL1 first introduced in Cassandra 0.8, became CQL2 in Cassandra 1.0 · "These aren't the CQL you are looking for" · CQL3 (CQL for short thereafter) introduced in Cassandra 1.2 · Semantically, CQL1/CQL2 are closer to the Thrift API than to CQL3. · CQL3 is the version that's here to stay: no plan for a CQL4 any time soon. 4/20
  5. 5. A short CQL primer
  6. 6. The Cassandra Query Language · Syntactically, a subset of SQL (with a few extensions) CET TBEues( RAE AL sr ue_dui, sri ud nm tx, ae et pswr tx, asod et ealtx, mi et pcuepoiebo, itr_rfl lb PIAYKY(sri) RMR E ue_d ) · INSERT and UPDATE are both upserts · No joins, no sub-queries, no aggregation, ... · Denormalization is the norm: do the work at write time, not read time 6/20 CL Q
  7. 7. Denormalization: Cassandra modeling 101 Efficient queries in Cassandra are based on 2 principles: · the data queried is collocated on one replica set · the data queried is collocated on disk on those replicas Denormalization is the technique that allows to achieve this in practice. But this means CQL exposes: · how to collocate data on the same replica set · how to collocate data on disk (for a given replica) 7/20
  8. 8. This is done in CQL through the primary key CET TBEibxs( RAE AL noe CL Q ue_dui, sri ud eali tmui, mi_d ieud sne tx, edr et rcpet sttx> eiins e<et, sbettx, ujc et i_edboen sra ola, P I A Y K Y (u e _ d, e a l i RMR E sri m i _ d) ) CQL distinguishes 2 sub-parts in the PRIMARY KEY: partition key: decides the node on which the data is stored clustering columns: within the same partition key, (CQL3) rows are physically ordered following the clustering columns · · This is important, because CQL only allow queries for which an explicit index exists: - Gtls 5 eal i ue 5b2-b ibx - e at 0 mis n sr 1-3a8 no 8/20 SLC *FO ibxsWEEue_d5b2-b ODRB eali DS LMT5; EET RM noe HR sri=1-3a8 RE Y mi_d EC II 0 CL Q
  9. 9. CQL main features · Collections (set, map and list) · Secondary indexes · Convenience functions (timeuuid, type conversions, ...) · ... For more details: · http://cassandra.apache.org/doc/cql3/CQL.html · http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cql/3.1/webhelp/index.html 9/20
  10. 10. New in Cassandra 2.0
  11. 11. New in Cassandra 2.0 Lightweight transactions: ISR IT ts (d nm)VLE (2 'o' I NTEIT; NET NO et i, ae AUS 4, Tm) F O XSS CL Q UDT ts STpswr=nwas WEEi=2I pswr=odas; PAE et E asod'eps' HR d4 F asod'lps' Triggers: CET TIGRmTigrO ts UIG'ytigrCas; RAE RGE yrge N et SN m.rge.ls' CL Q ALTER DROP: CET TBEts ( itPIAYKY po1it po2tx,po3fot; RAE AL et k n RMR E, rp n, rp et rp la) CL Q ATRTBEts DO po3 LE AL et RP rp; Preparing TIMESTAMP, TTL and LIMIT: SLC *FO mTbeLMT? EET RM yal II ; UDT mTbeUIGTL?STv=2WEEk='o' PAE yal SN T E HR fo; 11/20 CL Q
  12. 12. New in Cassandra 2.0 Conditional DDL: CET TBEI NTEIT ts ( itPIAYKY; RAE AL F O XSS et k n RMR E) CL Q DO KYPC I EIT k; RP ESAE F XSS s Secondary indexes everywhere (almost): CET TBEtmln ( RAE AL ieie CL Q eeti ui, vn_d ud cetda tmui, rae_t ieud cnetbo, otn lb PIAYKY(vn_d cetda) RMR E eeti, rae_t ) ; CET IDXO tmln (rae_t; RAE NE N ieie cetda) SELECT aliases: SLC eeti, EET vn_d dtO(rae_t A ceto_ae aefcetda) S raindt, 12/20 FO tmln; RM ieie CL Q
  13. 13. Coming in Cassandra 2.0.2 Named bind variables: L S L C * F O t m l n W E E c e t d a > : l w A D c e t d a < : h g A D k y = Q; EET RM ieie HR rae_t t o N r a e _ t = t i h N e Ck : Prepared IN: SLC *FO uesWEEue_dI ? EET RM sr HR sri N ; CL Q Limited SELECT DISTINCT: CET TBEts ( RAE AL et eeti it vn_d n, cetda tmsap rae_t ietm, cnetbo, otn lb PIAYKY(vn_d cetda) RMR E eeti, rae_t ) ; SLC DSIC eeti FO ts; EET ITNT vn_d RM et 13/20 CL Q
  14. 14. The native protocol A binary transport protocol for CQL
  15. 15. Native protocol · Binary transport protocol for CQL · Query execution, prepared statements, authentication, compression, ... · Asynchronous (allows multiple concurrent queries per connection) · Server notifications (Only generic cluster events currently) · Existing drivers for Java, C#, Python, C++, Golang, ... Example usage of the Java driver (https://github.com/datastax/java-driver): Cutrcutr=Cutrbidr)adotcPit"2...".ul(; lse lse lse.ule(.dCnaton(17001)bid) Ssinssin=cutrcnet"yesae) eso eso lse.onc(mKypc"; fr(o rw:ssineeue"EET*FO mTbe) o Rw o eso.xct(SLC RM yal") / D smtig.. / o oehn . 15/20 JV AA
  16. 16. New in Cassandra 2.0: native protocol 2 Cursors: fr(o rw:ssineeue"EET*FO mTbe) o Rw o eso.xct(SLC RM yal") JV AA / D smtig.. / o oehn . Batching prepared statements: P e a e S a e e t p = s s i n p e a e " N E T I T m T b e ( 1 p ) V L E ( , ?A ; rprdttmn s eso.rpr(ISR NO yal p, 1 AUS ? J V )) "A Bthttmn b =nwBthttmn(; acSaeet s e acSaeet) b.d(sbn(,"1); sadp.id0 v") b.d(sbn(,"2); sadp.id1 v") b.d(sbn(,"3); sadp.id2 v") ssineeueb) eso.xct(s; One-shot prepare and execute: s s i n e e u e " N E T I T u e s ( d p o o V L E ( , ? " s m I , p o o y eJ V e s o . x c t ( I S R N O s r i , h t ) A U S ? ) , o e d h t B t sA A ) ; SASL for authentication 16/20
  17. 17. What's next? Cassandra 2.1 and beyond
  18. 18. CQL: some ideas · Storage engine optimizations for CQL · Secondary index for collections · Server side functions · User defined types · ... 18/20
  19. 19. User defined types CET TP ades( RAE YE drs sre tx, tet et zpcd it i_oe n, saetx, tt et poe sttx> hns e<et ) ; CET TBEues( RAE AL sr i ui PIAYKY d ud RMR E, nm tx, ae et adessmptx,ades drse a<et drs> ) ; ISR IT ues(d nm)VLE (3-a71 "yvi Lben"; NET NO sr i, ae AUS 244-6, Slan erse) UDT uesSTadess"ok]={ PAE sr E drse[wr" sre:'7 Mrnr Iln Bv #1' tet 77 aies sad ld 50, zpcd:944 i_oe 40, sae 'A, tt: C' 19/20 poe:{603960 } hns 5-8-00 }WEEi =244-6; HR d 3-a71 CL Q
  20. 20. Thank You! (Questions?)

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