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Dropout rates in the Hispanic
37% of Hispanics do not have a high school diploma
4% of those Hispanics who drop out go on to earn their GED
23% had obtained their high school diplomas
36% of Hispanics complete some college
Causes of high dropout rate in the
High socioeconomic disparities
Poor language skills among non-native Hispanics
Neighborhood/Lower quality school resources
Majority of Hispanic students attend inner-city schools
Economically disadvantages/high poverty rate
Racially segregated schools (unintended or not)
Per pupil expenditure
Students who were held back are more likely to drop out
Effects of high dropout rates
Since a GED is required for Federal grants, dropouts are ineligible to
further their education, perpetuating a circle of poverty
8.1% unemployment rate vs. 5-6% unemployment rate for those with a
$50-58k annual income versus $81,868 income for Hispanics with
some/completed college education
Lower tax revenue for municipalities due to Hispanic
Dropouts are disproportionately embodied in the prison system,
accounting for 75% of state prison inmates
W. Norton Grubbs‟ Seven Purposes
W. Norton Grubbs traditional approaches to vocational education include
innovative solutions to integrating curriculum to suit all students who
have been deemed „less academically incompetent‟.
W. Norton Grubbs‟ notion is fashioned similarly to John Dewey‟s
„education through vocation‟.
The Seven Purposes
1. Intellectually stimulating programs created for students written off as
„academically challenged‟ and „manual-labor suitable‟. These students
are often cast aside and segregated from the general student
2. Vocational education specific to this segment, which prepared these
students for employment upon high school graduation, postsecondary
education or a combination of both.
3. Educators stressing the correlation between their educational choices
in high school and the effects they will have on their future work life.
The Seven Purposes ct‟d
4. Streamlining the haphazard „electives‟ system currently in place for a set
of electives designed specific to occupations/industries.
5. The reduction of tracking/segregation of students by introducing
educational choices to students that are of interest to them.
6. Giving students the opportunity to design their own curriculums and
learning tracks based upon their interests.
7. Networking schools with postsecondary institutions, vocational
training programs, and employers.
How will this model benefit the
Allowing students the responsibility and freedom of choice with regard
to their educational goals/career path will maintain their interest.
The use of electives models specific to industry/occupation will lessen
the confusion typically involved with selecting electives and will
provide a solid foundation within their career path choice upon
completion of electives.
The omission of the negative stigma attached to being classified
„academically challenged‟ and building programs specifically catered to
this segment will build up and motivate students.
How will this model benefit the
Hispanic Community? ct‟d
Students will receive the opportunity for „hands on‟ training and
preparation for postsecondary education
Students will take on greater responsibility when it comes to the choices
they make in high school, because they will be more aware of
repercussions in the „real world‟.
School administrations creating networks with colleges and employers
allows easier access for students to interact with and understand the
intricacies involved with college and adult life.
Ethnicity & Employment
• Hispanics living under the poverty line went form 25% to 28% in 2012
• Only about 33% of Hispanics say that they are content with their
• Unemployment rate is at 9% among Hispanics
• Drop in housing market affected 58% of Hispanic household.
• Hispanic women make 54 cents on the dollar compared to white males.
Hispanic families place emphasis on family values.
The family follow the hierarchy, headed by the father.
The Hispanic family places values on respect.
Schooling is not always the most important factor, the need to help
provide for the family overshadows education in some instances.
Religion plays a major role in the Hispanic household.
Only 16% of Hispanics do not associate with a particular religion.
Discrimination Against Hispanics
The number of Hispanics experiencing discrimination has surpassed the
number of African Americans who experience discrimination.
23% of Hispanics experience discrimination.
Less then 30% of Hispanics graduate high school, and less then 4%
Foreign born Hispanics have a drop out rate of about 14% from age 16
Socioeconomic Class & Graduation
36% of parents read to their children in lower economic communities.
Compared to the 62% in high income communities.
Low economic communities have a higher level of unemployment.
Good teachers choose to work in better conditions, therefore
impoverished communities are directly affected by these occurrences.
The need to have better teachers in these communities is imperative to
the education of students.
Hispanics make up 52 million people in the U.S.
This is 17% of the population.
The number is up 13% in 2000.
25% of all births in the United States were to Hispanic Americans.
Success for Hispanic Americans in
the United States
Statistics in the United States often place Hispanic children as
disadvantaged and underachieving academically. Against the statistics,
many Hispanic children perform at or above suitable scores of education.
The community and educators have reached out to bring students to
Excelencia in Education recognizes 2013 ‘What Works
for Latino Students in Education’ top programs in U.S.
In Washington, D.C., a catalogue of top 22 performing post-secondary
education institutions were recognized for their attention to Hispanic
students. For 2013, three honorees received special attention for the eighth
Cañada College in Redwood City, California (for enhanced mathematics programs)
The University of Texas at Brownsville (increased Hispanic retention rates)
The University of Texas Pan American and the University of Texas at Austin
Cooperative Doctoral Program in Pharmacy (targeted Hispanics for careers in
Quote from Sarita Brown, president of Excelencia in Education
“No longer should policymakers and institutional
leaders ask how to improve college success for
Latinos — we have the largest accumulation of
proven examples and tested strategies that show them
how. Today‟s question is do leaders have the will to
put these practices into action?”
Educating Hispanic students
According to research performed by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity and
Excellence at the University of California Berkeley, for Hispanic student success, “…when
provided with appropriate instruction tailored to meet their specific needs.” Like any
children, Hispanic students require attention catered to their individual needs with
respect to cultural transition.
In the following slides, we will analyze what researcher Eugene E. Garcia defined to be
the qualities that determined academic success in California and Arizona classrooms for
Hispanic students in his 1991 study.
High Levels of Communication
Teachers would interact with groups on a regular basis and exemplified
learning environments that communication felt comfortable in. “This
organization minimized individualized work tasks, such as worksheet
exercises, and provided a very informal family-like social setting in which
the teacher either worked with a small group of students--never larger
than eight and as small as one or traveled about the room assisting
individuals or small groups of students as they worked on their projects.
Integrated and Thematic
Teachers allowed students to “vote” for what they wanted to learn about,
but would customize the learning experience to meet the standards of the
school district. “The major thrust in these classrooms was the
appropriation of knowledge centered around chosen themes, with the
understanding that students would necessarily develop basic skills as a
means to appropriate this knowledge. Students became "experts" in
thematic domains while also acquiring the requisite academic skills.
Students preferred to work in team units, which would allow them to
practice literacy and learn from each over. “Students asked each other hard
questions and challenged each other‟s answers more readily than they did
in interactions with the teacher. Moreover, students were likely to seek
assistance from other students and were successful in obtaining it.
Language and Literacy
Students in lower-level grades were able to speak either English or Spanish
to their instructors. As they progressed in school, English was preferred.
Critical to note: “students‟ writing in English emerged at or above their
grade level of writing in Spanish” and students made the transition from
Spanish to English themselves, without any pressure from the teacher to
Teachers were dedicated to their students and did not see them as
“disadvantaged” and instead saw it as a challenge to test academic
theories. Principal responses were supportive and aware of the teaching
techniques their educators were implementing. Parents were pleased with
the progress of their children and the support from teachers, including the
Resources for Hispanic students
Hispanic Scholarship Fund partners with Wells Fargo to provide over
$400 million in 150 types of scholarships to Latino students, starting in
Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute, Inc.: “The mission of CHCI
Scholarship Program is to provide critical financial assistance that will
increase graduation rates among Latino students in post-secondary
education.” Students may receive up to $2,500 a year in scholarships for
an undergraduate degree.
CDC. (2009). Building Our Understanding. Washington D.C:
http://www.cdc.gov/healthycommunitiesprogram/tools/pdf/hispanic_latinos_insight.pdf. (Juan Orrego)
Census, U. (2004). Latino Discrimination. New York:
3JpbWluYXRpb24gLSBBY2FkZW1pYyBDb. (Juan Orrego)
Fry, Richard. Hispanics, High School Dropouts and the GED. Pew Hispanic Center. May 13, 2010. Retrieved from
pewhispanic.org/files/reports/122.pdf (Patricia Clervil)
Garcia, Eugene E.(1991). The Education of Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Effective Instructional Practices. UC Berkeley: Center for
Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2793n11s (Amanda Starling)
Health Resources and Services Administration. Status School Dropout Rates for Ages 16-24 by Race/Ethnicity.
http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa02/Images/graph_PG13.gif (Patricia Clervil)
Kochhar, R. (2012). The Demographics of the Jobs Recovery. Washington D.C: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/03/21/the-demographics-of-thejobs-recovery/. (Juan Orrego)
Kochhar, R. (2012). The Demographics of the Jobs Recovery. Washington D.C: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/03/21/the-demographics-of-thejobs-recovery/. (Patricia Clervil)
Puga, Kristina. "Top Programs Advancing Latino Achievement in Higher education."NBC Latino. NBC, 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.
<http://nbclatino.com/2013/10/02/higher-education-leaders-announce-americas-top-programs-for-latino-students/>. (Amanda Starling)
Tozer, S & Senese, Guy. (2013). Schools and Society. New York: The Mc-Graw-Hill Companies (Patricia Clervil, Juan Orrego)