Mind the Graph! A Discussion on the Design of the Network

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Arts, Humanities, and Complex Networks — 4th Leonardo satellite symposium at NetSci2013 (http://artshumanities.netsci2013.net/)

As communication designers we are often asked to bring complex scientific issues
in the hands of non-expert stakeholders: people that are neither expert of the domain
of interest nor familiar with the very nature, the structure and the dynamics of
complexity. It’s the case of Controversy Mapping in Social Studies, where the aim is
to preserve the richness of the controversy and, at the same time, to represent it in a
understandable way for the public(s). From one side, network visualization seems to
be the natural device to put Actor-Network Theory in action; on the other, the limits
of network visualizations suddenly emerge in engaging the public: a graph can be
scary, impenetrable and repulsive. Even though the solution is not obvious, it is a
communication problem, and, as such, can be solved.
A deeper issue emerges, even with experts and highly motivated users. Network
visualizations have become a powerful conceptual and cognitive research tool for
many disciplines, including, more recently, those soft sciences that embraced digital
technologies. Digital Humanities is one of these domains trying to exploit the heuristic
potential of network visualizations, often importing and “practicing” the quantitative
methodology —network analysis— embedded in the visualization pattern. If we
accept that humanistic inquiry is based on the recognition of knowledge production
as a constructive process, where ‘making’ is a fundamental step and interpretation
—not truth— is the goal, visualization is more a matter of creation than representation;
it’s about building the pattern, not just finding it. Data and graphs are not objective
representations of pre-existing facts: they are the generative, qualitative and uncertain
processes that allow scholars to craft out novel interpretations from tacit knowledge
spaces. That is where a fruitful and tight collaboration between designers, (soft)
sciences scholars and experts may be established.

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Mind the Graph! A Discussion on the Design of the Network

  1. 1. 2013, June 4th | Copenhagen Arts, Humanities, and Complex Networks 4th Leonardo satellite symposium at NetSci2013 Mind the Graph! A discussion on the Design of the Network Paolo Ciuccarelli | @pciuccarelli DensityDesign Research Lab | @densitydesign
  2. 2. to visualize data and information
  3. 3. to visualize data and information
  4. 4. to (visually) represent and communicate complex (social) phenomena
  5. 5. communication design
  6. 6. communication design
  7. 7. if you ask Google...
  8. 8. there is no common and well understood definition for design (Friedman, 2000) “
  9. 9. The foundation of design theory rests on the fact that design is by nature an interdisciplinary, integrative discipline (Friedman, 2003) “
  10. 10. Design is the intermediary between information and understanding. (Grefé R., Executive Director, AIGA) “
  11. 11. a story of (disciplinary) promiscuity in three chapters (so far)
  12. 12. preface
  13. 13. Communication Design & Hard Sciences
  14. 14. Yang-Yu Liu, Jeanx-Jacques Slotine, Albert-László Barabási (and Mauro Martino) Controllability of Complex Networks, 2011
  15. 15. Yang-Yu Liu, Jeanx-Jacques Slotine, Albert-László Barabási (and Mauro Martino) Controllability of Complex Networks, 2011
  16. 16. Yang-Yu Liu, Jeanx-Jacques Slotine, Albert-László Barabási (and Mauro Martino) Controllability of Complex Networks, 2011
  17. 17. Philosophy Sociology History Literature (...) Communication Design & Soft Sciences
  18. 18. chapter 1
  19. 19. Centro Ricerche Immanuel Kant / Università Statale di Milano
  20. 20. Centro Ricerche Immanuel Kant / Università Statale di Milano
  21. 21. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  22. 22. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  23. 23. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  24. 24. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  25. 25. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  26. 26. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  27. 27. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  28. 28. project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini
  29. 29. The Atlas of Kant’s Legacy 100 words, 200cm x 100cm project by DensityDesign / Valerio Pellegrini a (physical) cognitive interface to support humanistic inquiries
  30. 30. Sociology chapter 2
  31. 31. Sociology (of Science) chapter 2
  32. 32. Sociology (of Scientific Knowledge) chapter 2
  33. 33. research activities are a specific type of social activity that is embedded in a wider societal context. “ http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/
  34. 34. The important decisions which involve scientists’ work are no longer made by the scientific community alone. “ (Carrada, European Commission, 2006)
  35. 35. More and more often they are the result of a complex negotiation with a number of social groups. “ (Carrada, European Commission, 2006)
  36. 36. opening the ‘black box’ of science and technology
  37. 37. Bruno Latour | sociologist of science
  38. 38. Actor-Network Theory
  39. 39. techno-scientific controversies
  40. 40. disagreement on disagreement
  41. 41. cartography of controversies (observing and describing)
  42. 42. a geography of power
  43. 43. EMAPS Electronic Maps to Assist Public Science
  44. 44. Global Warming
  45. 45. So here is the question I wish to raise to designers: where are the visualization tools that allow the contradictory and controversial nature of matters of concern to be represented? “ (Latour, 2008)
  46. 46. support observation and description
  47. 47. Tourism 10% Medicine 1,25% Earth & Planetary Sciences 2,25% Environmental Science 21,25% Tourism & Management 13,75% Biology 6,25%Geography 6,25%Law 8,75%Social Science 11,25% Business & Management 6,25%Zoology 6,25% Ecology 5% ACADEMIC FIELDS PARTITION DISTRIBUTION PROMOTERS OPPONENTS 2010 YEARS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2011 A Clarke 1 A Stronza 4 AJ Nimon 5 AM Carr 7 AN Wright 2 B Riffenburgh 5 B Stonehouse 46 C Hunter 1 D Landau 2 D Newsome 10 D Roe 2 DA Fennell 10 DJ Enzenbacher 7 DJ Telfer 5 DJ Timothy 4 E Bertram 13 E Eijgelaar 1 E Serrano 11 EJ Stewart 31 G Wall 1 HJ Lynch 4 HM Otley 6 IE Nicholson 1 J Snyder 5 J Splettstoesser 10 K Suter 3 KJ Chwedorzewska 6 KJ White 5 L Krall 1 L Sanson 1 L Tangley 3 LK Kriwoken 5 M Lamers 50 ME Johnston 6MI Ghys 4 MR McClung 1 N Wace 3 P Mason 16 PJ Beck 9 PP Wong 1 R Farreny 13 R Naveen 3 RA Herr 4 RB Powell 9 RJ Reich 2 S Pfeiffer 5 SV Levich 1 SV Scott 7 SV Shirsat 1 T Thomas 2 TG Bauer 18 V Sasidharan 1 WA Polk 3 WM Bush 3 WR Fraser 4 ML Shackley 3 DB Weaver 7 PB Davis 15 M luck 3 GR Cessford 5 D Haase 28 ND Holmes 12 CM Harris 6 CM Hall 34 RH Lemelin 12 S Muir 6 B Amelung 12 J Marquez 4 K Bastmeijer 8R Buckley 23 PT Maher 25 B Lane 11 PJ Tracey 4 C Murray 4 R Metcheva 14 K Walker 4 JS Poland 1 project by DensityDesign / Agabio, Bernardi, Panzuti, Pomè, Pontiroli The Antarctic Cruises Controversy | Academic Authors Network
  48. 48. A Stronza 4 B Riffenburgh 5 D Newsome 10 D Roe 2 DA Fennell 10 DJ Telfer 5 DJ Timothy 4 E Bertram 13 1 EJ Stewart 31 zewska 6 LK Kriwoken 5 M Lamers 50 ohnston 6 R Farreny 13 R Naveen 3 S Pfeiffer 5 SV Scott 7 SV Shirsat 1 TG Bauer 18 DB Weaver 7 D Haase 28 ND Holmes 12 CM Hall 34 RH Lemelin 12 S Muir 6 B Amelung 12 J Marquez 4 K BastmR Buckley 23 PT Maher 25 B Lane 11 PJ Tracey 4 C Murray 4 R Metcheva 14
  49. 49. Tourism 10% Medicine 1,25% Earth & Planetary Sciences 2,25% Environmental Science 21,25% Tourism & Management 13,75% Biology 6,25%Geography 6,25%Law 8,75%Social Science 11,25% Business & Management 6,25%Zoology 6,25% Ecology 5% ACADEMIC FIELDS PARTITION DISTRIBUTION PROMOTERS OPPONENTS 2010 YEARS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2011 A Clarke 1 A Stronza 4 AJ Nimon 5 AM Carr 7 AN Wright 2 B Riffenburgh 5 B Stonehouse 46 C Hunter 1 D Landau 2 D Newsome 10 D Roe 2 DA Fennell 10 DJ Enzenbacher 7 DJ Telfer 5 DJ Timothy 4 E Bertram 13 E Eijgelaar 1 E Serrano 11 EJ Stewart 31 G Wall 1 HJ Lynch 4 HM Otley 6 IE Nicholson 1 J Snyder 5 J Splettstoesser 10 K Suter 3 KJ Chwedorzewska 6 KJ White 5 L Krall 1 L Sanson 1 L Tangley 3 LK Kriwoken 5 M Lamers 50 ME Johnston 6MI Ghys 4 MR McClung 1 N Wace 3 P Mason 16 PJ Beck 9 PP Wong 1 R Farreny 13 R Naveen 3 RA Herr 4 RB Powell 9 RJ Reich 2 S Pfeiffer 5 SV Levich 1 SV Scott 7 SV Shirsat 1 T Thomas 2 TG Bauer 18 V Sasidharan 1 WA Polk 3 WM Bush 3 WR Fraser 4 ML Shackley 3 DB Weaver 7 PB Davis 15 M luck 3 GR Cessford 5 D Haase 28 ND Holmes 12 CM Harris 6 CM Hall 34 RH Lemelin 12 S Muir 6 B Amelung 12 J Marquez 4 K Bastmeijer 8R Buckley 23 PT Maher 25 B Lane 11 PJ Tracey 4 C Murray 4 R Metcheva 14 K Walker 4 JS Poland 1 promoters opponents 2011 1980 project by DensityDesign / Agabio, Bernardi, Panzuti, Pomè, Pontiroli The Antarctic Cruises Controversy | Academic Authors Network
  50. 50. Tourism 10% Medicine 1,25% Earth & Planetary Sciences 2,25% Environmental Science 21,25% Tourism & Management 13,75% Biology 6,25%Geography 6,25%Law 8,75%Social Science 11,25% Business & Management 6,25%Zoology 6,25% Ecology 5% ACADEMIC FIELDS PARTITION DISTRIBUTION PROMOTERS OPPONENTS 2010 YEARS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2011 A Clarke 1 A Stronza 4 AJ Nimon 5 AM Carr 7 AN Wright 2 B Riffenburgh 5 B Stonehouse 46 C Hunter 1 D Landau 2 D Newsome 10 D Roe 2 DA Fennell 10 DJ Enzenbacher 7 DJ Telfer 5 DJ Timothy 4 E Bertram 13 E Eijgelaar 1 E Serrano 11 EJ Stewart 31 G Wall 1 HJ Lynch 4 HM Otley 6 IE Nicholson 1 J Snyder 5 J Splettstoesser 10 K Suter 3 KJ Chwedorzewska 6 KJ White 5 L Krall 1 L Sanson 1 L Tangley 3 LK Kriwoken 5 M Lamers 50 ME Johnston 6MI Ghys 4 MR McClung 1 N Wace 3 P Mason 16 PJ Beck 9 PP Wong 1 R Farreny 13 R Naveen 3 RA Herr 4 RB Powell 9 RJ Reich 2 S Pfeiffer 5 SV Levich 1 SV Scott 7 SV Shirsat 1 T Thomas 2 TG Bauer 18 V Sasidharan 1 WA Polk 3 WM Bush 3 WR Fraser 4 ML Shackley 3 DB Weaver 7 PB Davis 15 M luck 3 GR Cessford 5 D Haase 28 ND Holmes 12 CM Harris 6 CM Hall 34 RH Lemelin 12 S Muir 6 B Amelung 12 J Marquez 4 K Bastmeijer 8R Buckley 23 PT Maher 25 B Lane 11 PJ Tracey 4 C Murray 4 R Metcheva 14 K Walker 4 JS Poland 1 project by DensityDesign / Agabio, Bernardi, Panzuti, Pomè, Pontiroli The Antarctic Cruises Controversy | Academic Authors Network
  51. 51. Environmental Science 21,25% Tourism & Management 13,75% ACADEMIC FIELDS PARTITION DISTRIBUTION PROMOTERS 2010 YEARS 2008 2011 BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT LAW The Antarctic Cruises Controversy | Academic Authors Network
  52. 52. Medicine 1,25% Earth & Planetary Sciences 2,25% Biology 6,25%Geography 6,25%Business & Management 6,25%Zoology 6,25% Ecology 5% OPPONENTS DJ Timothy 4 E Eijgelaar 1 EJ Stewart 31 M Lamers 50 M luck 3 D Haase 28 K Bastmeijer 8 R Metcheva 14 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SOCIOLOGY GEOGRAPHY The Antarctic Cruises Controversy | Academic Authors Network
  53. 53. When you’re given your first hammer, everything looks like a nail.
  54. 54. we’ve a network, let’s draw a graph!
  55. 55. the irreducibility of the actor-network mind the graph! Two issues
  56. 56. the inevitable relation with the Public(s) mind the graph! Two issues
  57. 57. managing work home care elderly aging baby boom benefit caring service nursing people retirement services villages living housing residential assisted carers council advice village first long term move north yorkshire planning poor sheltered patients health senior jobs social searchfind community newcastle upon vacancies positions tyne opportunities based assistant plan worker communities research government international local google microsoft help employment courses support list education plans news available students degree choice activities career insurance alternative info psychology vocational agencies disability learning adults disabilities citizen dementia aged live adult domiciliary lives respite tests signs lewy symptoms bodies treatment body deficiency vitamin early test vascular person depression abuse women disorder quotes illness causes major child scale re2ies mental therapy anxiety beat bipolar clinical cope cure deal dealing effects manic persons postnatal postpartum severe suffer suicidal thoughts teenage disabled physical rate exercise form instead driving training schools simulation lesson classes inter2iate post questions simulator tips train children statistics neglect reportanimal domestic violence victims types application study trials family problems memory loss organizations charitable foundation financial organisations charity funeral memorial music cost information coverage world private companies benefits company quality healthcare policy eating 2ical affordable agency free hospice individual life active style improvepromote promoting meaning hearing aids device impaired devices femur fractures facilities homecare special poverty line bladder bowel diaper urine incontinence product pantsstress pads briefs diapers products urge continence urinary tract infection facility policies comparison cover best meals providers online shop cheapcompare easy instant rates architecture conditions condition chronic solicitors will writing legal getting lawyers make making need society shouldyour definition diseases issues doctors disease hygiene charities illnesses problem1983 clinic forum assessment legislation recovery scotland practice institutions centre state retardation hospitals behavioral hospital national psychiatric foods nutrition programs well guidelines facts chart calories counter dietary food good pension increase 2011 number reform corporation basiccurrent have public activity management residence accommodation independent rent purchase sale apartments houses properties flats sales development projects estates property luxury real rural center continuing rest road traffic deaths safety accidents rules safe drink accident transport sensory apps smartphones mobile weather applications department dignity funding paying being Health Housing Carers&Caring Attitudes Retirement Technology Built Environment Funding Personal Finances Government Polices table 01 | a by name surname, name surname Copyright©2006-2012DensityDesign DesignResearchLab|PolitecnicodiMilano ViaDurando10,20158Milano–I Einfo@densitydesign.org T+390223997808 ADWORDS/SINGLEKEYWORDSNETWORK speedupworshop|22-24thmay2012
  58. 58. “the usual suspects” (legibility, complication, interaction...)
  59. 59. complexity legibility mind the graph! a dynamic balance
  60. 60. feedback (from the public) the possibility to observe the temporal dynamics/trends indications or examples on how-to-use the maps more details and more aggregation (zoom in and out)
  61. 61. The possibility to interact with the maps: Filter (hide part of the information) Rank (make part of the information more visible) Aggregate (go from data points to categories) Search and focus (observe specific data points and their neighborhood) feedback (from the public)
  62. 62. ‘untidy’
  63. 63. narration & exploration mind the graph! hypothesis for a solution
  64. 64. datascape navigation mind the graph! a circular movement
  65. 65. ‘Martini glass’ model. Segel and Heer, 2010. Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data
  66. 66. from use-before-use (participatory design) to design-after-design (visualization tools as enablers)
  67. 67. chapter 3
  68. 68. chapter 3
  69. 69. Dan, Nicole, Paula / Stanford Humanities Center
  70. 70. Giovanna / Stanford Humanities Center / Grand Tour
  71. 71. first visualization tools Mapping the Republic of Letters + Stanford Vis Group
  72. 72. standing up on a high mountaintop and seeing (at a glance, ed.) broad patterns. “ mind the graph! positive feedbacks
  73. 73. Visualization, then, doesn't only present what we do know in a more accessible way – it also reveals what we don't know. “ mind the graph! positive feedbacks
  74. 74. [...] we’ve found that visualizations tend to provide starting points for further inquiry, much of which is often done the old-fashioned way: by reading books. “ mind the graph! positive feedbacks
  75. 75. misled by a spatialization algorithm mind the graph! new issues
  76. 76. an issue of visual language and rethoric mind the graph! new issues
  77. 77. the visual language and the rhetoric adopted in the tool conveyed a misleading idea of a correspondences network during the Enlightenment as a well-defined and clearly perceivable phenomenon “ (Coleman, 2010)
  78. 78. WYSiWiT mind the graph! new issues
  79. 79. What You See is What is There mind the graph! another misleading evidence
  80. 80. One of the first discoveries was actually not what we visualized, but what we could not visualize. “ (Findlen & Edelstein, 2011)
  81. 81. three strategies
  82. 82. 1. strategy of dissimulation
  83. 83. networks without graphs
  84. 84. Fineo uses alluvial diagrams to depict the relationships between multiple dimensions of categorial data.
  85. 85. 2. strategy of diversification
  86. 86. no single, predetermined, entry point to the data perform multiple and interrelated selections direct access to the documents ‘in any moment’ different views at the same time knowing the amount of letters not showed in the visualizations (ambiguity or incompleteness) Strategy of diversification | achievements
  87. 87. visualization as part of a process
  88. 88. multiplying the points of observation (objectivity / subjectivity)
  89. 89. atlas of controversy
  90. 90. […] Data are capta, taken not given, constructed as an interpretation of the phenomenal world, not inherent in it. “ (Drucker J., 2011) the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  91. 91. interpretation the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  92. 92. sense making the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  93. 93. Personally, I think Digital Humanities is about building things. If you are not making anything, you are not… a digital humanist (Ramsay, 2012) “ the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  94. 94. Digital Humanities infrastructures encourage prototyping, generating new projects, beta testing them with audiences both sympathetic and skeptical, and then actually looking at the results “ (Burdick, Drucker, Lunenfeld, Presner, & Schnapp, 2012) the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  95. 95. from reading to making the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  96. 96. ‘thinking through making’ the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  97. 97. tools for the ‘hands’ the (peculiar) nature of humanistic inquiry
  98. 98. 3. strategy of activation (dirty hands)
  99. 99. Early Modern Time & Networks: a Design + Humanities workshop 2012, August Strategy of activation | learning by doing (together)
  100. 100. Early Modern Time & Networks: a Design + Humanities workshop 2012, August Strategy of activation | learning by doing (together)
  101. 101. low level of interaction with the data and the visualizations pre-identication of all the nodes and the links integrate the network with personal information act on the visual disposition of the elements (moving, deleting or adding nodes or links) limits and needs emerged from the workshop
  102. 102. How can we make visualizations function as interfaces, in an iterative process that allows the user to explore and tinker? “ (Unsworth, 2005) design challenges
  103. 103. a digital environment design challenges
  104. 104. exploration and creation of explicit and implicit relationships design challenges
  105. 105. 1. the interface as an environment for interpretative activities 2. allowing the construction of the network 3. Exploiting the multidimensional nature of the data 4. Understanding and revealing data sources 5. Data manipulation and enrichment design principles
  106. 106. manipulation, enhancement and creation of data through the interface design challenges
  107. 107. Search, Show Context, Expand on Demand (Van Ham and Perer, 2009)
  108. 108. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  109. 109. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  110. 110. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  111. 111. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  112. 112. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  113. 113. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  114. 114. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  115. 115. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  116. 116. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  117. 117. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  118. 118. project by DensityDesign / Giorgio Uboldi, Giorgio Caviglia Knot / the prototype
  119. 119. design and humanities
  120. 120. from building to design
  121. 121. Process is the new god; not product. [...] The theory after theory is anchored in MAKING, making in the poetic sense of poiesis, but also in the sense of design carried out in action. “ (Schnapp & Presner, 2009)
  122. 122. Digital humanists have much to learn from communication and media design ... “ (Burdick & Willis, 2011)
  123. 123. [...] how to juxtapose and integrate words and images, create hierarchies of reading, forge pathways of understanding, deploy grids and templates to best effect, and develop navigational schemata that guide and produce meaningful interactions “ (Burdick & Willis, 2011)
  124. 124. ... a practice of representation, a form of modeling ... efficient computation and human communication (Unsworth, 2002) ... visualization, representation, visual thinking, interface (McCarty, 2003) ... interfaces, aesthetics and usability (Kirschenbaum, 2004) ... qualitative, interpretive, experiential, emotive, generative ... (Schnapp & Presner, 2009) Digital Humanities vocabulary
  125. 125. McCarty, Rough Intellectual Map for Humanities Computing, 2003
  126. 126. design without designers
  127. 127. bringing digital practitioners and humanities scholars together with experts in art and design to consider the past, present, and future of visual epistemology in digital humanities. “
  128. 128. learning from communication design, interaction design and industrial design will be vital to 21st century humanistic inquiry” “
  129. 129. light incorporation towards a new (hybrid) way of knowing
  130. 130. humanistic inquiry as a design process towards a new (hybrid) way of knowing
  131. 131. A digitization of the design process, where interfaces become design tools themselves, asked to perform typical design activities (i.e. selecting, organizing, manipulate, modeling, representing) “ (Caviglia, 2013)
  132. 132. hard incorporation (hybridization) towards a new (hybrid) way of knowing
  133. 133. next challenges (back to the future)
  134. 134. Infographics / “LaLettura” - Sunday Cultural Supplement of Corriere della Sera / http://bit.ly/z1Uzvh Qualitative networks / cultural artifacts
  135. 135. Mark Lombardi’s diagrams
  136. 136. narrative structures consisting of a network of lines and notations which are meant to convey a story. “ (Lombardi, 1999)
  137. 137. Infographics / “LaLettura” - Sunday Cultural Supplement of Corriere della Sera / http://bit.ly/z1Uzvh Qualitative networks / cultural artifacts
  138. 138. project by DensityDesign / Michele Graffieti
  139. 139. project by DensityDesign / Michele Graffieti Infographics / Domus - Architecture and Design Magazine / http://j.mp/14iZMqh Qualitative networks / cultural artifacts
  140. 140. project by DensityDesign / Michele Graffieti Infographics / Domus - Architecture and Design Magazine / http://j.mp/14iZMqh Qualitative networks / cultural artifacts
  141. 141. visual tools vs. cultural processes
  142. 142. The design of digital tools for scholarship is an intellectual responsibility, not a technical task “ (Drucker, 2009)
  143. 143. Paolo Ciuccarelli @pciuccarelli paolo.ciuccarelli@polimi.it DensityDesign Lab www.densitydesign.org Facebook + Twitter + Flickr + Vimeo + Pinterest: densitydesign grazie thank you tak

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