C:\Fakepath\Poverty And Adolescence For Blog

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C:\Fakepath\Poverty And Adolescence For Blog

  1. 1. The affects of poverty on the development of adolescents By Patricia Cezeaux and John Lawrence
  2. 2. Poverty and Adolescent Development <ul><li>General cognitive development and behavior are closely tied to family income. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower income can lead to lower IQ and cognitive development scores. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of poverty are severe and can last throughout a child’s education. </li></ul>(Feldman, 2008) (McLellan, 2002)
  3. 3. Poverty and Family Life <ul><li>Employment issues can lead to high mobility and low income housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsafe neighborhoods can have increased violence rates, schools with lower academic standards and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents in these situations can lack the necessary social support and response to the child’s needs. </li></ul>(Feldman, 2008)
  4. 4. Poverty and Peer Relations <ul><li>Frustration and adjustment difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent & future behavior/academic struggles. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms that can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). </li></ul>Bully/Peer victimization directly influence: (Morales & Guerra, 2006)
  5. 5. Poverty’s Influence on Reading and Math <ul><li>The relationship between poverty and low adolescent reading/math skills are statistically significant. </li></ul><ul><li>The significance was directly related to poverty’s effect on lower parenting skills. </li></ul><ul><li>These findings support the need for early intervention programs. </li></ul>(Lee, 2009) (Emory, 2008)
  6. 6. Difficulties Continued: <ul><li>Psychological stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt and apathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression and delinquency. </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment, disorientation, and poor self-esteem. </li></ul>Acculturation is the process where an adolescent is being influenced by two differing cultures (Gladding, pg. 87-88). Possible outcomes from this process include: (Yeh & Hwang, 2000)
  7. 7. Neighborhood Poverty Risk Factors <ul><li>Child saturation refers to the percentage of the population of a given area made up of children. </li></ul><ul><li>Child saturation is higher in high poverty neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>This makes peer groups more influential </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to higher delinquency rates and is negatively associated with prosocial behavior. </li></ul>(Hart, Atkins, and Matsuba, 2008)
  8. 8. Environmental Risks of Poverty <ul><li>Adolescents in low-income were more likely to experience… </li></ul><ul><li>More marital discord </li></ul><ul><li>Foster care for at least a week in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Having a parent incarcerated </li></ul><ul><li>Attend schools with a high turnover rate </li></ul>(Evans, 2004)
  9. 9. Poverty-Related Stress (PRS) <ul><li>Financial worries </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Victimization </li></ul><ul><li>Family transitions/changes </li></ul><ul><li>Family conflict </li></ul><ul><li>… And many others </li></ul>This is not a comprehensive list. Also, these stressors are only related to poverty. All can be experienced in other income levels. (Wadsworth & Santiago, 2008)
  10. 10. Poverty and Health <ul><li>Risk factors associated with low income </li></ul><ul><li>Living with a smoker </li></ul><ul><li>Living with a single parent </li></ul><ul><li>Not reporting a high level of social support </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul>(Abernathy, Webster, and Vermeulen, 2002)
  11. 11. Poverty and Health <ul><li>Adolescents in lower income groups were more likely to be daily smokers. </li></ul><ul><li>They were also less likely to describe themselves as happy. </li></ul><ul><li>These factors led to less interest in life or physical activity. </li></ul>(Abernathy, Webster, and Vermeulen, 2002)
  12. 12. Poverty and Early Intervention <ul><li>Mother’s Day Out: Religious and Day Care Centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Head Start Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-K School Programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask older neighbor, siblings, or other family members to support reading and tutoring interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize available teacher support: Check if they give before/after school tutoring or mentoring. </li></ul><ul><li>CAMP Mentor Program= Cross-age mentoring program. </li></ul>
  13. 13. References <ul><li>Abernathy, T. J., Webster, G., & Vermeulen, M. (2002). Relationship between poverty and health among adolescents. Adolescence , 37(145), 55-67. </li></ul><ul><li>Costello, E. J., Keeler, G.P., & Angold, A. (2001). Poverty, race/ethnicity, and psychiatric disorder: A study of rural children. American Journal of Public Health , 91(9), 1494-1498. </li></ul><ul><li>Dupere, V., Lacourse, E., Willms, J.D., Leventhal, T., & Tremblay, R.E. (2008). Neighborhood poverty and early transition to sexual activity in young adolescents: A developmental ecological approach. Child Development, 79(5), 1463-1476. doi:10:1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01199.x </li></ul><ul><li>Emory, R., Caughy, M., Harris, T. R., & Franzini, L. (2008). Neighborhood social proccesses and academic achievement in elementary school. Journal of Community Psychology , 36(7), 885-898. doi:10./002/jcop.20266 </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist , 59(2), 77-92. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.77 </li></ul><ul><li>Feldman, R. S. (2008). Development across the lifespan. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Gladding, S. T. (2009). Counseling: A comprehensive profession. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hart, D., Atkins, R., & Matsuba, M. (2008). The association of neighborhood poverty with personality change in childhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(6), 1048-1061. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.6.1048 </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Lee, K. (2009). The bidirectional effects of early poverty on children’s reading and home environment scores: Associations and ethnic differences. Social Work Research, 33( 2), 79-94. </li></ul><ul><li>McLellan, F. (2002). Countering poverty’s hindrance of neurodevelopment. The Lancet, 359, 236. </li></ul><ul><li>Morales, J. R. & Guerra, N. G. (2006). Effects of multiple context and cumulative stress on urban children’s adjustment in elementary school. Child Development, 77 (4), 907-923. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Sapolsky, R. (2005). Sick of poverty. Scientific American, 293 (6), 92-99. </li></ul><ul><li>Wadsworth, M. E. & Santiago, C. D. (2008). Risk and resiliency processes in ethnically diverse families in poverty. Journal of Family Psychology, 22 (3), 399-410. </li></ul><ul><li>Yeh, C. J. & Huang, M. Y. (2000). Interdependence in ethnic identity and self: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78 , 420-429. </li></ul>

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