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  1. 1. Applied Exercise Physiology Section 3: Nutrition Topic 1: Organic Compounds Prepared by Mr. Cerny Niagara Wheatfield Senior High School
  2. 2. If you want a cheap holiday in northern Germany, better go on a diet. A hotel in Eastern Friesland is charging guests not by the room, but by what the bathroom scale says. Need a little extra motivation to turn down that piece of chocolate cake? Well, slimming down could get you a cheaper room rate at a hotel in the northern German town of Norden.   At the three-star Ostfriesland hotel in the town, thin in definitely in. Owner Jürfen Heckroth is running a special campaign where guests are charged 50 euro cents a kilo, or about 30 cents a pound, for a one-night stay, breakfast included.   "Slim guests live longer and can therefore come more often," said Heckroth. "That is why we reward them.   So a thin man weighing in at 60 kilos (132 pounds) would pay just 30 euros ($36), but a heftier individual topping the scales at 100 kilos (220 pounds) would have to cough up 50 euros ($60) for the night.   Given all the fresh air and hearty food up in northern Germany, it might turn out that visitors put on a pound or two during their stay. Besides, who wants to diet on while on vacation?   No problem, says Heckroth, who pulls out the scales during check-in, not check-out.
  3. 3. Why care about Nutrition? <ul><li>Provides energy for daily living </li></ul><ul><li>Affects growth </li></ul><ul><li>Affects defense & recovery of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Influences exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consequences of poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better knowledge of energy production </li></ul>
  4. 4. Macronutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A) Carbohydrates <ul><li>1) Monosaccharides (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) / Simple: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stored as glycogen in muscle & liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converted to lipids for energy storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted into glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined to form lactose </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Glucose
  7. 7. <ul><li>2) Disaccharides: </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT superior energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maltose </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactase splits into glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerant = lacks lactase </li></ul></ul>Carbohydrates (con’t)
  8. 8. Disaccharide
  9. 11. <ul><li>3) Polysaccharides: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Plant polysacc. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage form of carb. In plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ complex carbohydrates” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% total carb. intake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber / cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose in plants (leaves, coverings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to human enzymes </li></ul></ul>Carbohydrates (con’t)
  10. 12. Carbohydrates (con’t) <ul><li>b) Animal polysacc. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary energy source in you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in muscles & liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research 5 physiological benefits to consuming fiber </li></ul>
  11. 13. Carb. Categories & Examples Glycogen Cellulose Starch Polysaccharide Maltose Lactose Sucrose Disaccharide Galactose Fructose Glucose Monosaccharide Food Sources Example Carb. Form
  12. 14. Carbohydrates (con’t) <ul><li>Functions in body: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>2) Protein sparing: </li></ul><ul><li>When glucose/glycogen low and no FFA available, proteins converted to glucose </li></ul><ul><li>BAD b/c: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue mass decreased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys over-worked </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>3) Lipid metabolic primer </li></ul><ul><li>Carbs initiate lipid metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Low carbs = more than necessary lipids in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid byproducts decrease pH in blood = ACIDOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>4) Central Nervous System fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Brain uses glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion = HYPOGLYCEMIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness, weakness/fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Carbohydrates (con’t)
  14. 16. Carbs & dietary consumption <ul><li>NOT all equal </li></ul><ul><li>Refined sugar / “empty calories” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few nutrients, only calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Carbs & Exercise <ul><li>Find out where your body utilizes glucose for the production of energy during exercise. Where does the glucose come from? When you first begin working out, where does the glucose come from? How about after 5 minutes? After 1 hour, how about after 10 hours? </li></ul><ul><li>Your “choices” as to where glucose comes from is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>During Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>High intensity, short duration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% muscle glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease w/ time until depleted = “bonking” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderate-Prolonged duration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle glycogen & lipid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood glucose & lipid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid & protein </li></ul></ul>Carbohydrates (con’t)
  17. 19. Glycemic Index <ul><li>When a carbohydrate food is eaten there is a corresponding rise and decrease in blood glucose level known as the glycemic response </li></ul><ul><li>Index is a ranking of the effects different carbs. have on body </li></ul><ul><li>Lower = (better) </li></ul>
  18. 22. Glycemic Index
  19. 25. B) Lipids/Fats <ul><li>Higher H:O ratio then carbs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explains why more energy/ATP comes from fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better storage then carbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water insoluable </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>3 groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Simple lipids (triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Compound lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HDL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LDL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Sterols </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul>Lipids/Fats
  21. 27. 1) Simple Lipids: triglycerides <ul><li>Most plentiful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most valuable for energy metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycerol + 3 fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>2 subgroups based on # double bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) Saturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) Unsaturated fats </li></ul></ul>
  22. 28. Triglyceride
  23. 29. Triglyceride
  24. 30. Triglyceride
  25. 31. Triglyceride
  26. 32. A) Saturated Fat <ul><li>No double bonds in fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>“ saturated” b/c it is holding as many H as possible </li></ul><ul><li>High saturated fat diet = high cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oils </li></ul></ul>
  27. 33. B) Unsaturated Fat <ul><li>Contains 1 or more double bond </li></ul><ul><li>2 subgroups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 double bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: nuts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1 double bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: vegetable oils </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 34. Unsaturated fat (con’t) <ul><li>Hydrogenation (“hydrogenated” or “trans fat”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they, what are the long-term effects, why are they being “banned”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially reconstructed “firmer fat:” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes unsaturated oils and turns them into saturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows fat to remain a solid in room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health effects are ??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acid = our body cannot make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents blood clots from forming on arterial walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Fish oils & leafy vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. 2) Compound Lipids <ul><li>4 groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chylomicrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transports lipids throughout body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 36. Lipoproteins <ul><li>High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~20% fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes cholesterol from arterial walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases with exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~60% fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers cholesterol to arterial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~80% fat </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. 3) Sterols/Steroids <ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Forms other steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Builds plasma membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Builds bile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down lipids </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. Cholesterol (con’t) <ul><li>Produced in liver (& in other body cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1000mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures amt. In blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>85% is endogenous (produced in body) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% comes from diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol level NOT as important as HDL/LDL levels </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. C) Proteins antibodies Blood (heme) Cell structure hormones enzymes proteins
  34. 40. Building blocks <ul><li>Amino Acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Nonessential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body able to synthesize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body must ingest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: animal protein </li></ul></ul>
  35. 41. Protein & Exercise <ul><li>Increase in protein NOT necessary in building muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in calories (morning) more important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in protein more important in post-exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle re-building </li></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Section 2: Nutrition Topic 2: Vitamins & Minerals
  37. 43. Vitamins <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in digestion & metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>In foods </li></ul><ul><li>Body cannot synthesize </li></ul>
  38. 44. Vitamins (con’t) <ul><li>2 categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: fats & oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to be stored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function primarily as coenzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulates around body </li></ul></ul>
  39. 45. Vitamins (con’t) <ul><li>Supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessary unless: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not eating proper diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dieting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known deficiencies </li></ul></ul>
  40. 46. Vitamins (con’t) <ul><li>Fat soluble: </li></ul><ul><li>A: vision,skin, bone, hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>D: bone growth </li></ul><ul><li>E: antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>K: blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble: </li></ul><ul><li>B’s: metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>C: antioxidant, metabolism, inc. immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Folate: synthesis of cells </li></ul>
  41. 47. Minerals <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Cell components </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid balance </li></ul>
  42. 48. Minerals <ul><li>Calcium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bone structure, muscle contraction, secretion of neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potassium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid & electrolyte balance, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnesium: muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: oxygen transport / energy </li></ul>
  43. 49. Section 2: Nutrition Topic 3: Nutritional-related malfunctions