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#LocWorld41#LocWorld41
Introduction to Localization
Paul Cerda
#LocWorld41
Presentation highlights
• Introduction
• Zooming out — Globalization The Macro view
• Jargonese
• Zooming in —...
#LocWorld41
Who am I?
© The Word in Bits, 2019
#LocWorld41
Terminology (Jargon)
Globalization (Product and business strategy decisions)
Adaptation of product for the sen...
#LocWorld41
Why Localize?
Which image will sell more e-book readers in Africa or Latin America?
© The Word in Bits, 2019
#LocWorld41
Localization: adapt product for new locales
It is a small part of a larger
whole.
Globalization is.. . product...
#LocWorld41
Localization 10,000 feet view
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Production
Content
and
Metadata
MetricsTools
Back Office
#LocWorld41
Production: Translation and localization ops.
The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform,...
#LocWorld41
Production: The Players
The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreat...
#LocWorld41
The handoffs and handbacks
• Multiple TMS and CMS systems
• APIs
• SDK integrations
• Spreadsheets
• Resource ...
#LocWorld41
Localization: flow of data and information
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Files sent
directly or added
to a TMS or C...
#LocWorld41
Localization Production: the Main Players
Localization PM: Vendor and Client
Localization Engineer: There will...
#LocWorld41
Localization Project Mgmt: Necessary Skills
The localization project manager manages all the details and troub...
#LocWorld41
Localization Engineer: Necessary Skills
Localization engineers are the scripting and coding counterparts of th...
#LocWorld41
Content Specific Issues
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Multimedia
• Video
• Subtitles
• Dubbing
• Voiceover
• Images...
#LocWorld41
Time-Specific Issues
Poor planning and design
I18n not planned, functionality not scoped for multiple locales,...
#LocWorld41
Scale Specific Issues
Volume
• Time
• Budget
• Quality
• Process
• Product
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Locales
• ...
#LocWorld41
How do you measure Loc Quality?
• Quality is what the customer says it is.
• SAEJ2450, LISA, MQM, DQF
Requires...
#LocWorld41
Linguistic Quality and how to scale it
• Automate objective quality
• Put vendors, tools, and metrics in
place...
#LocWorld41
Human Translation
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Human
Translation
Freelancer
In-house
Vendor
#LocWorld41
Machine Translation
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Machine
Translation
Rule-Based
Statistical
Neural
#LocWorld41
History of MT
• One of the earliest goals for computers in the 1950’s
• Rule-based ruled the 80’s and 90’s
• 2...
#LocWorld41
Rules-Based Machine Translation
• First- production-ready MT systems
• Semantic based. Designed for each indiv...
#LocWorld41
Statistical Machine Translation
• Brute-Force: Massive Bilingual corpora necessary
• Large Data companies bega...
#LocWorld41
Neural Machine Translation
• Sometimes called deep-learning. These engines depend on
recursive neural networks...
#LocWorld41
Post-edited machine translation
In-house
Vendor
Freelancer
SMT vs. NMT
© The Word in Bits, 2019
#LocWorld41
Where are you standing?
What matters to you will decide which of the areas in the next slide areas you own,
me...
#LocWorld41
Localization in the Enterprise
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Production
Content
and
Metadata
MetricsTools
Back Offi...
#LocWorld41
Localization’s Anatomy
WELD in Detail or what does your organization do?
© The Word in Bits, 2019
#LocWorld41
Production: Translation and localization ops.
The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform,...
#LocWorld41
Production: The Players
The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreat...
#LocWorld41
Back Office Concerns
Easing the pain of internal customers
Back office
Payment processes, fund reallocation, I...
#LocWorld41
Back Office: The Players
Easing the pain of internal customers
Back office
Payment processes, fund reallocatio...
#LocWorld41
Tools / Technologies Concerns
Scaling and systematizing localization
Tools
1. The tools used for loc
productio...
#LocWorld41
Tools / Technologies Players
Scaling and systematizing localization
Teams
1. Content Lifecycle
2. Multilingual...
#LocWorld41
Content and Metadata Concerns: Creation
Content and Metadata
What is done with it: Ingestion, security, deploy...
#LocWorld41
Content and Metadata Players: Creation
Data and Metadata
• What is done with gathered data: Analytics, Machine...
#LocWorld41
Content and Metadata Concerns: Capture
Content and Metadata
What is done with it: Ingestion, analysis, transfo...
#LocWorld41
Content and Metadata Players: Capture
Data and Metadata
• What is done with gathered data: Analytics, Machine ...
#LocWorld41
Metrics concerns
Proving your worth
Metrics
Each level of your business will measure something different it is...
#LocWorld41
Metrics Players
Proving your worth
Metrics
Each level of your business will measure something different so it ...
#LocWorld41
Globalization efforts broaden the scope
If your organization is making a concerted push globally they may orga...
#LocWorld41
Enterprise design for localization
What does your organization look like?
© The Word in Bits, 2019
#LocWorld41
The Enterprise parts: Client-Side
The Wall: Disconnect between localization and rest of company. Localization ...
#LocWorld41
The Wall
The wall is common in localization. Every division sends the content over the wall to
localization an...
#LocWorld41
The Silo
Many large enterprises silo their work and this creates many loc processes.
Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3
Loc
Prod...
#LocWorld41
The Silo and the Wall
Many large enterprises have silos and walls.Loc teams work separately in horizontal
orgs...
#LocWorld41
The Hub
Many large enterprises make loc a hub. And these loc teams are conversant in the
company products.
Biz...
#LocWorld41
The Hub and Wall
Many large enterprises make loc a hub. But they throw work over the wall to loc
teams not con...
#LocWorld41
The Hub and Silo
Some enterprises have central tools, but individual loc teams interact with an
enterprise loc...
#LocWorld41
The Hub and Silo and Wall
Some localization teams have content thrown over the wall and work with enterprise
l...
#LocWorld41
Supply Parts: Vendor-Side
MLV: Multi-language vendor. A Vendor of vendors
SLV: Single-language vendor. Provide...
#LocWorld41
MLV
• Multiple language vendor engages with large clients for millions of words and
multi-million dollar contr...
#LocWorld41
SLV
• Specialists in a single language or multiple languages and dialects in a given
region.
• Supply MLVs and...
#LocWorld41
The MLV in the Silo and the Wall
Many large enterprises have silos and walls. Loc teams work separately in hor...
#LocWorld41
Mojibake
Mojibake occurs when
character encoding is
incorrect.
Buttons have the correct text
because they are ...
#LocWorld41
Hard-Coded Strings
Hard-coded strings are
strings that have been
stored in the code rather
than abstracted int...
#LocWorld41
Pseudo-Localization: Example I18n prep
Start and end markers: All strings are
encapsulated in [ ]. If a develo...
#LocWorld41
What does a globalized product look like?
© The Word in Bits, 2019
Code
Culturation
LanguageUX
UI
#LocWorld41#LocWorld41
Q/A
#LocWorld41#LocWorld41
FIN
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2019 11-06 introduction to localization silicon valley-pc_ final_20191106

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2019 11-06 introduction to localization silicon valley-pc_ final_20191106

  1. 1. #LocWorld41#LocWorld41 Introduction to Localization Paul Cerda
  2. 2. #LocWorld41 Presentation highlights • Introduction • Zooming out — Globalization The Macro view • Jargonese • Zooming in — WELD: Whole enterprise Localization Design • Where are you standing? • Localization’s Anatomy — WELD • Localization types and mediums: Continuous, Agile, voice, device, longevity, priority • Localization Tools — CAT, TMS, Terminology © The Word in Bits, 2019
  3. 3. #LocWorld41 Who am I? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  4. 4. #LocWorld41 Terminology (Jargon) Globalization (Product and business strategy decisions) Adaptation of product for the sensibilities and needs of a new market. This includes localization and internationalization Internationalization (Code and development decisions) Engineering of a product to enable efficient adaptation of that product to local requirements. This includes separation of code from content and revision of code to integrate programmatic solutions for internationalization. Localization (Language/Culture/market decisions) Localization is the process of adapting a (software) product and accompanying materials to suit a target-market locale. This includes translation. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  5. 5. #LocWorld41 Why Localize? Which image will sell more e-book readers in Africa or Latin America? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  6. 6. #LocWorld41 Localization: adapt product for new locales It is a small part of a larger whole. Globalization is.. . product culturation supported and sustained by internationalized code and localized content. I18n L10n Product culturation What you need to be aware of in localization © The Word in Bits, 2019
  7. 7. #LocWorld41 Localization 10,000 feet view © The Word in Bits, 2019 Production Content and Metadata MetricsTools Back Office
  8. 8. #LocWorld41 Production: Translation and localization ops. The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Continuous improvement calls for tweaking cost time and quality. Decisions about levels of localization, human or machines, tools, and processes fall to those tasked with localization. Ops Cost Time Scope Production Concerns © The Word in Bits, 2019
  9. 9. #LocWorld41 Production: The Players The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Ops Loc PM Engineer Linguists MLV/SLV Roles and responsibilities © The Word in Bits, 2019
  10. 10. #LocWorld41 The handoffs and handbacks • Multiple TMS and CMS systems • APIs • SDK integrations • Spreadsheets • Resource Files © The Word in Bits, 2019
  11. 11. #LocWorld41 Localization: flow of data and information © The Word in Bits, 2019 Files sent directly or added to a TMS or CATCMS source DB Code App TMS/ CAT TMS/ CAT Loc. Eng. creates files Loc. Eng. preps files or helps with MT. Loc PMs manage work across teams to manage work Client-Side Vendor-side Linguists translate or Post-Edit Linguists translate or Post-Edit
  12. 12. #LocWorld41 Localization Production: the Main Players Localization PM: Vendor and Client Localization Engineer: There will be client and vendor loc engineers. Linguist: Vendor and possibly client Linguists may translate, review, edit, or post-edit translations. MLV: Multi-language vendor. Think of this as your main contact for all the individuals and smaller firms that do your linguistic work. SLV: Single language vendors work specifically from and to a single language. MT Provider: If you have an MT provider they will customize NMT or SMT for you. QA Team: QA team will test for linguistic/functional issues in your localized software. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  13. 13. #LocWorld41 Localization Project Mgmt: Necessary Skills The localization project manager manages all the details and troubleshoots project and sometimes program level work. They work closely with the localization engineer to make sure the content is localized for the appropriate markets. • Project management skills • Linguistic skills • Negotiation skills • Financial management skills © The Word in Bits, 2019
  14. 14. #LocWorld41 Localization Engineer: Necessary Skills Localization engineers are the scripting and coding counterparts of the localization project managers. They are responsible for reducing manual effort and ensuring that programmatic means are incorporated to reduce cost, time, and errors. • Data Munging • API integrations • Automating processes • Python Skills, Java or Javascript © The Word in Bits, 2019
  15. 15. #LocWorld41 Content Specific Issues © The Word in Bits, 2019 Multimedia • Video • Subtitles • Dubbing • Voiceover • Images/ Embedded text • Animations Data Intensive • Machine translation • Aritificial Intelligence • Voice UI Special Regulations or Requirements • Privacy • Transcreation • Games • Medical • Legal Content issues are characterized by the unique content requirements and the volume of content needed to produce viable systemic solutions.
  16. 16. #LocWorld41 Time-Specific Issues Poor planning and design I18n not planned, functionality not scoped for multiple locales, assumption that translation is the only localization activity. Linguistic Development Process Translation time, File Prep time, development dependencies, product Artificial launch timelines Reduction in scope, abandoning localization altogether or sending out half-localized products © The Word in Bits, 2019
  17. 17. #LocWorld41 Scale Specific Issues Volume • Time • Budget • Quality • Process • Product © The Word in Bits, 2019 Locales • Budget • Timeline • Resources • Maintenance • Data stores Content Lifecycle • Tool Integration • Team interactions • Authoritative source • Source/Target issues • Creation Approval Deprecation
  18. 18. #LocWorld41 How do you measure Loc Quality? • Quality is what the customer says it is. • SAEJ2450, LISA, MQM, DQF Requires Human Review • MT: Proximity to human equivalent (Levenshtein, Bleu, Meteor,etc) © The Word in Bits, 2019
  19. 19. #LocWorld41 Linguistic Quality and how to scale it • Automate objective quality • Put vendors, tools, and metrics in place for subjective quality • Scale subjective reviews • Design machine translation post- editing (MTPE) efforts for vendor and tools • Automated MT quality reviews Quality Objective Subjective Human quality at scale MTPE MT and MTPE Quality at scale
  20. 20. #LocWorld41 Human Translation © The Word in Bits, 2019 Human Translation Freelancer In-house Vendor
  21. 21. #LocWorld41 Machine Translation © The Word in Bits, 2019 Machine Translation Rule-Based Statistical Neural
  22. 22. #LocWorld41 History of MT • One of the earliest goals for computers in the 1950’s • Rule-based ruled the 80’s and 90’s • 2000-2015 SMT reined, with a variety of strategies • 2015-Present: Neural Machine Translation (NMT) • 2018-Present: Unsupervised m © The Word in Bits, 2019
  23. 23. #LocWorld41 Rules-Based Machine Translation • First- production-ready MT systems • Semantic based. Designed for each individual locale • Highly complex and labor-intensive to create but results were great. • Required Linguists, CS teams, a lot of effort © The Word in Bits, 2019
  24. 24. #LocWorld41 Statistical Machine Translation • Brute-Force: Massive Bilingual corpora necessary • Large Data companies began scraping the web for bilingual data to create corpora. • Google, MS, others created translation tooling to capture data from translators • SMT was notoriously inaccurate at first, but with time and discipline specific training it became essential to the Localization industry. • SMT engines were trained with a source and target in mind. Language arcs were not designed to be bilingual © The Word in Bits, 2019
  25. 25. #LocWorld41 Neural Machine Translation • Sometimes called deep-learning. These engines depend on recursive neural networks. • NMT requires less sentences, but it still requires a bilingual corpora. This is problematic for long-tail languages that lack the corpora. • Latest unsupervised engines can use monolingual data and show promise, but it is still early. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  26. 26. #LocWorld41 Post-edited machine translation In-house Vendor Freelancer SMT vs. NMT © The Word in Bits, 2019
  27. 27. #LocWorld41 Where are you standing? What matters to you will decide which of the areas in the next slide areas you own, measure, depend on or ignore. LPMs: Micro-level: production, operations, testing, regression, project costs Globalization/Localization leads Macro level: Everything but data unless there is a fire C-Level: Metrics for growth, sales, conversion, MAU etc., ROI in relation to international growth. Localization is a part of this, but not the whole. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  28. 28. #LocWorld41 Localization in the Enterprise © The Word in Bits, 2019 Production Content and Metadata MetricsTools Back Office
  29. 29. #LocWorld41 Localization’s Anatomy WELD in Detail or what does your organization do? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  30. 30. #LocWorld41 Production: Translation and localization ops. The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Continuous improvement calls for tweaking cost time and quality. Decisions about levels of localization, human or machines, tools, and processes fall to those tasked with localization. Ops Cost Time Scope Production Concerns © The Word in Bits, 2019
  31. 31. #LocWorld41 Production: The Players The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Ops Loc PM Engineer Translators MLV/SLV Roles and responsibilities © The Word in Bits, 2019
  32. 32. #LocWorld41 Back Office Concerns Easing the pain of internal customers Back office Payment processes, fund reallocation, IP holdings, worker classification, tax, legal, finance, and other elements. Back Office Finance Legal Tax © The Word in Bits, 2019
  33. 33. #LocWorld41 Back Office: The Players Easing the pain of internal customers Back office Payment processes, fund reallocation, IP holdings, worker classification, tax, legal, finance, and other elements. Back Office Finance teams Lawyers Tax Lawyers © The Word in Bits, 2019
  34. 34. #LocWorld41 Tools / Technologies Concerns Scaling and systematizing localization Tools 1. The tools used for loc production. 2. 2. The tools that disseminate, transform and ingest the source and localized content. Tools Loc Content Lifecycle Development Tech: API MTs AI TMS CAT © The Word in Bits, 2019
  35. 35. #LocWorld41 Tools / Technologies Players Scaling and systematizing localization Teams 1. Content Lifecycle 2. Multilingual 3. Content dependent Tools Loc Teams Content Teams Dev Teams © The Word in Bits, 2019
  36. 36. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Concerns: Creation Content and Metadata What is done with it: Ingestion, security, deployment, and transformation Description: Metadata helps to identify content and usage so that the tools know how to use or process it. Data Content, Data types Data management Data use Communication and format © The Word in Bits, 2019
  37. 37. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Players: Creation Data and Metadata • What is done with gathered data: Analytics, Machine Learning, Predictive analysis, AI, Product design • What is done with created data: Lifecycle manager Data KM teams Support teams Product, Marketing, Sales teams Who own and parse the data? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  38. 38. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Concerns: Capture Content and Metadata What is done with it: Ingestion, analysis, transformation,product features, Machine learning, AI Description: Captured data is stored, mined, leveraged, and re-deployed Data Capture Data management Data use Communication and format © The Word in Bits, 2019
  39. 39. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Players: Capture Data and Metadata • What is done with gathered data: Analytics, Machine Learning, Predictive analysis, AI, Product design • What is done with created data: Lifecycle manager Data Data Analysts ML teams SEO/ Product teams What is done with the data? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  40. 40. #LocWorld41 Metrics concerns Proving your worth Metrics Each level of your business will measure something different it is important to know what they are measuring as the data will be useful for you to contextualize and create valuations for your work. Metrics Operational Divisional C-Level © The Word in Bits, 2019
  41. 41. #LocWorld41 Metrics Players Proving your worth Metrics Each level of your business will measure something different so it is important to know what they are measuring. The data will be useful for you to contextualize and create value for your work. Metrics Development Data Analytics SEO © The Word in Bits, 2019
  42. 42. #LocWorld41 Globalization efforts broaden the scope If your organization is making a concerted push globally they may organize many other teams to work on components that interact with localization. Product: What does the product look like in each locale? I18n: Can the code handle localized content and regional needs? UX: Is the user experience transferable to other locales? CX: Is the customer experience adapted to locale-specific expectations? International Analytics: Are there analytics by country or region to glean insights? ROI: Is there a clear return on investment case for localization or specific locales? Corporate structure: Does the corporate structure delineate ownership of localized features? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  43. 43. #LocWorld41 Enterprise design for localization What does your organization look like? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  44. 44. #LocWorld41 The Enterprise parts: Client-Side The Wall: Disconnect between localization and rest of company. Localization often seen as the last step and long-pole in international product development. The Silo: Business units build their own infrastructures for localization and rarely leverage a centralized set of tools, vendors or processes The Hub: Localization is a centralized or platform function shared across the company. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  45. 45. #LocWorld41 The Wall The wall is common in localization. Every division sends the content over the wall to localization and wait for the finished content to return. Product Dev Content Loc © The Word in Bits, 2019
  46. 46. #LocWorld41 The Silo Many large enterprises silo their work and this creates many loc processes. Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod Dev Content Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Loc Loc © The Word in Bits, 2019
  47. 47. #LocWorld41 The Silo and the Wall Many large enterprises have silos and walls.Loc teams work separately in horizontal orgs. Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Prod Dev Content Loc Loc © The Word in Bits, 2019
  48. 48. #LocWorld41 The Hub Many large enterprises make loc a hub. And these loc teams are conversant in the company products. Biz 3 Biz 5 Biz 2 Loc Biz 1 Biz 4 © The Word in Bits, 2019
  49. 49. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Wall Many large enterprises make loc a hub. But they throw work over the wall to loc teams not conversant in products. Biz 3 Biz 5 Biz 2 Loc Biz 1 Biz 4 © The Word in Bits, 2019
  50. 50. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Silo Some enterprises have central tools, but individual loc teams interact with an enterprise localization team. Product Dev Content Product Dev Content Product Dev Content Enterprise localization Tools © The Word in Bits, 2019
  51. 51. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Silo and Wall Some localization teams have content thrown over the wall and work with enterprise loc teams to manage the content with little to no context. Product Dev Content Loc Enterprise localization Tools Product Dev ContentProduct Dev Content © The Word in Bits, 2019
  52. 52. #LocWorld41 Supply Parts: Vendor-Side MLV: Multi-language vendor. A Vendor of vendors SLV: Single-language vendor. Provides a single language to several MLVs. Translators: In-House or Freelance • In-house translators usually know the product and services better. And there are less issues with access to systems. • Freelancers may be cheaper, but they are not usually dedicated solely to a single company so they need more context. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  53. 53. #LocWorld41 MLV • Multiple language vendor engages with large clients for millions of words and multi-million dollar contracts. • Amalgamators of capacity and large-scale problem solvers. • Can staff and bring team in-house for short term spikes and long-term needs. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  54. 54. #LocWorld41 SLV • Specialists in a single language or multiple languages and dialects in a given region. • Supply MLVs and occasionally enterprise clients for specific languages or regions • Smaller volumes but they are closer to the linguists © The Word in Bits, 2019
  55. 55. #LocWorld41 The MLV in the Silo and the Wall Many large enterprises have silos and walls. Loc teams work separately in horizontal orgs and they pass to MLVs who pass to SLVs who pass to linguists. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Loc Loc
  56. 56. #LocWorld41 Mojibake Mojibake occurs when character encoding is incorrect. Buttons have the correct text because they are images, but rendered text is scrambled because the character encoding does not match the page settings. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  57. 57. #LocWorld41 Hard-Coded Strings Hard-coded strings are strings that have been stored in the code rather than abstracted into a separate file that gets pulled in at runtime. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  58. 58. #LocWorld41 Pseudo-Localization: Example I18n prep Start and end markers: All strings are encapsulated in [ ]. If a developer doesn’t see these characters they know the string has been clipped by an inflexible UI element. Transformation of ASCII characters to extended character equivalents: Stresses the UI from a vertical line height perspective, tests font and encoding support, and weeds out strings that haven’t been externalized correctly (they will not have the Pseudo Localization applied to them). Padding text: Simulates translation induced expansion. In our case we add “one two three four”…etc after each string, simulating 40% expansion. Note that we don’t apply expansion to areas of the UI where text length has already been limited by other systems prior to display on the UI, doing so would cause false positives ( e.g. synopsis text, titles, etc ). © The Word in Bits, 2019 https://medium.com/netflix-techblog/pseudo-localization-netflix-12fff76fbcbe
  59. 59. #LocWorld41 What does a globalized product look like? © The Word in Bits, 2019 Code Culturation LanguageUX UI
  60. 60. #LocWorld41#LocWorld41 Q/A
  61. 61. #LocWorld41#LocWorld41 FIN

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