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2019 11-06 globalization

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LocWorld 41: Seminar on Globalization

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2019 11-06 globalization

  1. 1. #LocWorld41 Globalization Paul Cerda
  2. 2. #LocWorld41 Who am I? © The Word in Bits, 2019 • A Globalization Consultant who helps companies assess their current infrastructure and processes and helps to create a strategy and implementation for globalization across their whole organization. • Former community college English teacher of research, and literature • Former Platform Localization Program Manager who helped design infrastructure for Amazon
  3. 3. #LocWorld41 Broad Generalizations • Most organizations have not been designed to be global • Most organizations launch internationally before planning globalization efforts • Most back-end developers have not learned about internationalization • Most front-end developers and UX designers have not designed for multiple languages • Most product managers have not launched international products • Most content people have not maintained multiple locales or written for translation • Most marketers have not used transcreation, or launched into non-English markets • Most SEO people have no experience with localized content © The Word in Bits, 2019
  4. 4. #LocWorld41 What is our goal? 1. Understand how the interaction between localization, internationalization, and product help to set your globalization strategy. 2. Understand how to assess your organization's current globalization infrastructure and processes. 3. Understand how to use the assessment to create a plan that will improve and streamline your globalization efforts. 4. Understand the types of data that you need to decide how you launch globally and the data that will garner support and investment. 5. Understand what your best options are for revenue growth internationally and have a good idea of what that growth will cost you. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  5. 5. #LocWorld41 Presentation highlights • Globalization: What is it and why is it more than the sum of its parts? • Discussions and strategies to design, deploy, scale, and adapt your product, service, and business for global markets • Help to create an action-plan for your company’s globalization efforts. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  6. 6. #LocWorld41 Why Globalization? • Support global expansion • Create a viable worldwide product • Delight customers • Address regional and international restrictions and requirements © The Word in Bits, 2019
  7. 7. #LocWorld41 How to globalize? Follow the money, and make the gatekeepers your friends. -Bill Sullivan Post LocWorld 2012 Keynote © The Word in Bits, 2019
  8. 8. Globalization: flywheel for Global Products Globalization is.. . product culturation supported and sustained by internationalized code and localized content. I18n L10n Product culturation © The Word in Bits, 2019
  9. 9. #LocWorld41 Code Culturation LanguageUX Regs What is globalization? • The process of cultivating a product and services in the cultural soil of the new market. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  10. 10. #LocWorld41 How is your org structured? • Most organizations are Product/ Design or Development focused • This will decide how the organization approaches globalization and help you identify issues you’ll face. o Are the higher levels of management development or product/ design people? oIs the vision of the company to create robust software or elegant experiences? o What are your products known for? o Where does your business most invest and what work is prioritized? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  11. 11. #LocWorld41 Perspective is: All a matter of where you are standing • C-Level : COO, CEO, CMO, CGO, CSO, etc. • Strategist: Marketing, dev architecture, product, support • Production: loc, tech writers, marketing, CS, UX design developers © The Word in Bits, 2019
  12. 12. #LocWorld41 ADGILE •Architectural •Design for • Globalization •Internationalization and •Localization in •Enterprises © The Word in Bits, 2019
  13. 13. #LocWorld41 Snapshot of Product culturation © The Word in Bits, 2019 Product Content/ Structure Functionality Geo, Locale specific adaptation
  14. 14. #LocWorld41 Snapshot of Product culturation • Adapt product to cultural sensibilities and expectations • Provide cultural and linguistic adaptations for core product features • Adhere to cultural norms and ensure the customer sees themselves as a consumer of the product. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  15. 15. #LocWorld41 Example of Product Culturation • Which image will sell more e-book readers in Africa or Latin America? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  16. 16. #LocWorld41 Snapshot of Product culturation © The Word in Bits, 2019
  17. 17. #LocWorld41 Ikea in Asia • Designed furniture with different materials for the heat • Created new products • Changed copy for new market even though it is still English. • Assembled furniture rather than shipping it flat • Changed showroom displays © The Word in Bits, 2019
  18. 18. #LocWorld41 Ikea in UK: Risks of getting it wrong • Jerk chicken ingredients were incorrect in their UK stores. This caused a bit of an uproar and created bad publicity for Ikea. • They will recover, but they had to act quickly to address the issue and apologize for their mistake. © The Word in Bits, 2019 IKEA Jamaica
  19. 19. #LocWorld41 Internationalization tasks (I18n) Prepare code to support locales: Make it localizable. • Separation of content from code • Transformations • Data Storage • Character encoding on all services, databases • Integrate packages and libraries to do the heavy lifting © The Word in Bits, 2019
  20. 20. #LocWorld41 Snapshot of I18n © The Word in Bits, 2019 I18n Data Function Code
  21. 21. #LocWorld41 Mojibake • Mojibake occurs when character encoding is incorrect. • Buttons have the correct text because they are images, but rendered text is scrambled because the character encoding does not match the page settings. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  22. 22. #LocWorld41 Hard-Coded Strings • Hard-coded strings are strings that have been stored in the code rather than abstracted into a separate file that gets pulled in at runtime. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  23. 23. #LocWorld41 Pseudo-Localization: Example I18n prep• Start and end markers: All strings are encapsulated in [ ]. If a developer doesn’t see these characters they know the string has been clipped by an inflexible UI element. • Transformation of ASCII characters to extended character equivalents: Stresses the UI from a vertical line height perspective, tests font and encoding support, and weeds out strings that haven’t been externalized correctly (they will not have the Pseudo Localization applied to them). • Padding text: Simulates translation induced expansion. In our case we add “one two three four”…etc after each string, simulating 40% expansion. Note that we don’t apply expansion to areas of the UI where text length has already been limited by other systems prior to display on the UI, doing so would cause false positives ( e.g. synopsis text, titles, etc. ). © The Word in Bits, 2019
  24. 24. #LocWorld41 ICU/ CLDR Benefits: Manage the most difficult parts of I18n work Date, time, currency, ordering, etc. Detriments: Message formatting creates issues for localization. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  25. 25. #LocWorld41 Fluent (Mozilla) • Asymmetric localization • Asynchronous localization delivery • Customizable fallback chain © The Word in Bits, 2019
  26. 26. #LocWorld41 Localization (L10n) • Translate • Adapt colors, icons, buttons, images, maps, etc. • Make a locale-specific product © The Word in Bits, 2019
  27. 27. #LocWorld41 Production Content and Metadata MetricsTools Back Office WELD: Whole Enterprise Loc Design © The Word in Bits, 2019
  28. 28. #LocWorld41 Snapshot of Production Localization © The Word in Bits, 2019 L10n Cost Time Quality
  29. 29. #LocWorld41 Production: Translation and localization © The Word in Bits, 2019 The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Continuous improvement calls for tweaking cost time and quality. Decisions about levels of localization, human or machines, tools, and processes fall to those tasked with localization. Ops Cost Time Quality
  30. 30. #LocWorld41 Production: The Players © The Word in Bits, 2019 The PM, engineering, and translation work to extract, transform, translate, transcreate, and ingest localized content, and images used for globalized products and services. Ops Loc PM Engineer Translators MLV/SLV
  31. 31. #LocWorld41 Back Office Concerns © The Word in Bits, 2019 Easing the pain of internal customers Payment processes, fund reallocation, IP holdings, worker classification, tax, legal, finance, and other elements. Back Office Finance Legal Tax
  32. 32. #LocWorld41 Back Office: The Players © The Word in Bits, 2019 Back Office Finance teams Lawyers Tax Lawyers
  33. 33. #LocWorld41 Tools / Technologies Concerns • Scaling and systematizing localization © The Word in Bits, 2019 Tools 1. The tools used for loc production. 2. 2. The tools that disseminate, transform and ingest the source and localized content. Tools Loc Content Lifecycle Technologies Tech: API MTs AI VUI
  34. 34. #LocWorld41 Tools / Technologies Players • Scaling and systematizing localization © The Word in Bits, 2019 Players Loc Team Content Team Dev teams
  35. 35. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Concerns: Creation © The Word in Bits, 2019 Content and Metadata What is done with it: Ingestion, security, deployment, and transformation Description: Metadata helps to identify content and usage so that the tools know how to use or process it. Data Content, Data types Data management Data use
  36. 36. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Players: Creation • Who owns and parses the data? © The Word in Bits, 2019 Data and Metadata • What is done with gathered data: Analytics, Machine Learning, Predictive analysis, AI, Product design • What is done with created data: Lifecycle manager Data KM teams Support teams Product, Marketing, Sales teams
  37. 37. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Concerns: Capture © The Word in Bits, 2019 Content and Metadata What is done with it: Ingestion, analysis, transformation, product features, Machine learning, AI Description: Captured data is stored, mined, leveraged, and re-deployed Data Capture Data management Data use
  38. 38. #LocWorld41 Content and Metadata Players: Capture • Who does things with the data? © The Word in Bits, 2019 Analytics, Machine Learning, Predictive analysis, AI, Product design Data Data Analysts ML teams SEO/ Product teams
  39. 39. #LocWorld41 Metrics concerns: Proving your worth © The Word in Bits, 2019 Metrics Each level of your business will measure something different. It is important to know what they are measuring as the data will be useful for you to contextualize and create valuations for your work. Metrics Operational Divisional C-Level
  40. 40. #LocWorld41 Metrics Players © The Word in Bits, 2019 Each group will want different facets of your metrics for their operational and strategic planning, reporting, and design. Providing the correct data will build trust and win support. Metrics Development team Data Analytics SEO
  41. 41. #LocWorld41 Assessment: Customer Journey Each step in the customer journey corresponds to an area your company has to globalize © The Word in Bits, 2019 Awareness How do your customers discover you? Interest What is your value for customers in different locales and regions? Consideration How does your offering compare to regional competition? Purchase Purchase experience? Product and return life-cycle? Retention How do you retain customers in different regions? Advocacy How do customers advocate for your brand regionally?
  42. 42. #LocWorld41 Assessment: Walk the site The first thing to do is walk the site with an eye for customer-facing globalization issues. • Once your site is discovered what is the copy they get? • If they want to know more is the copy appropriate not only to their region and locale, but is it accurate? • If they want to sign up can they enter their name, address, and phone number without issues in their locale? • If you send follow up materials or marketing materials are they relevant targeted and in the correct locales? • If they want to pay you can you take their currency, quote your price in their currency, and support the product in their language? • If they want to share on social media is it easy, relevant, and specific to their locale and regionally used social media platforms? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  43. 43. #LocWorld41 Walkthrough: What are you looking for? • Copy that won’t make sense when translated • Issues with buttons and menus that won’t be able to expand or contract by 30% • Anywhere you solicit information from users • Any flattened images • Any cultural assumptions (e.g. debit cards, colors, right-to-left language spacing) © The Word in Bits, 2019
  44. 44. #LocWorld41 Assessment: Data Journey A data journey is a way to track your systems and tools used to modify text you capture from customers. This can be done as part of the walk the site by tracking the data you capture on the front end and identifying any backend metadata or usage you make of the data. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Data Capturing Transit Security Usage Transforming Storing
  45. 45. #LocWorld41 Data Journey: What are you looking for? • Development issues (hard-coding, sort, order) • Security issues (GDPR, Encryption, API calls, plain-text passwords) • Input issues (date, time, currency) • Unnecessary data that is captured • Financial data and formats © The Word in Bits, 2019
  46. 46. #LocWorld41 Creating a Strategy • Development: I18n, programming languages, backend data stores, security • Content: Marketing, sales, SEO, Support • Training for all teams and in which languages • Evangelization across locales • Metrics: Operational and financial (ROI, DAU, abandonment, etc.) © The Word in Bits, 2019
  47. 47. #LocWorld41 Creating a Plan of Action • Initial plan is the best attempt to capture work and priorities for launch, company infrastructure, and revenue growth • Prioritize essential items. • Bring the initial plan to stakeholders as a doc for discussion to solicit feedback. Encourage changes and solicit help from experts. • Take the feedback and seek co-writers from the stakeholders © The Word in Bits, 2019
  48. 48. #LocWorld41 External data for a new country The business case will need to use mostly external data but you should be aware and be able to speak to the work necessary to launch into a new country. Nataly Kelly has a great post on where you can find your external international expansion data. Use it. expansion-data-sources-for-digital-companies/ © The Word in Bits, 2019 IX Data Language Proficiency GDP IPR Credit Cards? Ease of Biz Internal data last
  49. 49. #LocWorld41 ROI analysis • Creating the ROI analysis can take many forms but it boils down to three questions. 1. What will it cost? 2. What will I get out of it? 3. What are my chances of success/ failure? • It can take the form a 2x2 grid as both Nataly Kelly in her Born to be Global blog and Pedro Gomez from Microsoft suggests in his LinkedIn article. Pedro focuses on Impact and Effort while Nataly focuses on Market size and Market complexity. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  50. 50. #LocWorld41 Getting Buy in • Co-authors and other allies help to sell the plan up their chain and garner resources and commitments for the plan • Make clear the plan is cross-functional and make compromises to ensure consensus • Once you have consensus amongst stakeholders build out metrics that will matter to the c-level and begin collecting them. • Use the metrics and the story to sell up to the X-level. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  51. 51. #LocWorld41 Metrics • Start with what matters to your company and organization. • How does what you are doing align with the cross-company initiatives? • What will the initiatives costs and how long before we see results? • What metrics will you use to measure success? How do they relate to the company initiatives. • What are the most important KPIs or OKRs of your company and how does launching in new countries or locales support them? • Set realistic expectations by showing the potential and then explain the ramp up and costs of the initiatives. • Run small experiments and tests to gather insight and bolster your case. The less expensive the better. • If you’ve launched previous products or services in the region gather the data and use it. • If there are similar countries in size or demographics use the data as support. But be sure to explain there will be differences. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  52. 52. #LocWorld41 Executing • Though you don’t want to do something that is half-baked, it is a good idea to move fast. • It is best to have data and examples quickly rather than waiting to have a full solution • Action on at least one or two “low-hanging” projects while mapping out bigger plans. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  53. 53. #LocWorld41 Iterating • You won’t get it right the first time. You should make that clear to stakeholders and set short-term, medium-term and stretch goals. • Iterating often will help show progress and perseverance. • Iterations should be short in duration, inexpensive, and impactful © The Word in Bits, 2019
  54. 54. #LocWorld41 Measuring and evangelizing success With these three levels of data you have enough information for evangelization. • Why launch a new country? • How have you improved launch times and customer satisfaction? • How have your new countries performed? • What have you accomplished? • What could you do with further investment? © The Word in Bits, 2019 C-Level •Used to justify expansion, support ROI, and identify how globalization supports to enterprise vision. Production •This is “trains on time data”. To be used to improve quality and processes and reduce costs/ cycle times Strategic •These help you answer where and why questions. •Where should we launch? Why?
  55. 55. #LocWorld41 Training • If you expect this to be a lasting organizational change you must infuse this into the learning of all current and future employees. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Product culturation Working with G11n I18n testing Playbook per locale Redesign for new markets UX design for international markets Writing for L10n Structured authoring Integrating L10n into content dev Multilingual glossary and style guides Tracking and correcting source errors found in Loc Pseudo-loc I18n development I18n and L10n testing Pseudo-loc Database configuration UI design Product Manager Content Writer Developers
  56. 56. #LocWorld41 Training Developers The trick is to balance ease of use and enforcement. If the tools slow down development but prevent rework you’ll need to assess the importance of each. • Developer bootcamp • Code check • Continuous deployment integration © The Word in Bits, 2019
  57. 57. #LocWorld41 Training Product People • Product people need to understand that the product will change and as it does they will soon be managing a portfolio rather than a single product. • Netflix offerings differ by region. Licensing, legal and business considerations affect the offerings in each region. • A single product may have different features by locale. • A Wishlist in Asia might be considered crass so the feature may need to be changed or removed. • Training them to address this will help them understand the requirement differences by region and help them understand how to optimize for different locales. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  58. 58. #LocWorld41 Training Content Creators • Writing for translation is tricky • Authors need to depend less on colloquialisms • Screenshots should use transparencies so there is no text in flattened images. • There should be work done on terminology prior to international launchers • Integration between CMS, TMS, and authoring systems need to be understood. • What is the authoritative source? • How does data move between them? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  59. 59. #LocWorld41 Scaling • Translation: How do you translate when you need 40x or 400x the content? • Quality: How do you measure quality of the product, translation, or build? • Production: How do you manufacture more? Manage more translation? • Support: Answer the phones? • Lifecycle: Create, update, and deprecate content. What is your authoritative source? © The Word in Bits, 2019
  60. 60. #LocWorld41 Linguistic Quality and how to scale it • Automated objective quality • Put vendors, tools, and metrics in place for subjective quality • Scaled subjective reviews • Designed machine translation post- editing (MTPE) efforts for vendor and tools • Automated MT quality reviews Quality Objective Subjective Human quality at scale MTPE MT and MTPE Quality at scale © The Word in Bits, 2019
  61. 61. #LocWorld41 History of MT • One of the earliest goals for computers in the 1950’s • Rule-based ruled the 80’s and 90’s • 2000-2015 SMT reined, with a variety of strategies • 2015-Present: Neural Machine Translation (NMT) • 2018-Present: Unsupervised MT training © The Word in Bits, 2019
  62. 62. Machine Translation © The Word in Bits, 2019 Machine Translation Rule-Based Statistical Neural
  63. 63. #LocWorld41 Post-edited machine translation In-house Vendor Freelancer © The Word in Bits, 2019
  64. 64. #LocWorld41 Enterprise design for localization What does your organization look like? Write it down before you review the rest of these slides. It will help you to design a strategy to influence your overall organization. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  65. 65. #LocWorld41 The Enterprise parts: Client-Side • The Wall: Disconnect between localization and rest of company. Localization often seen as the last step and long-pole in international product. • The Silo: Business units build their own infrastructures for localization and rarely leverage a centralized set of tools, vendors or processes • The Hub: Localization is a centralized or platform function shared across the company. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  66. 66. #LocWorld41 The handoffs and handbacks Regardless of your tooling the enterprise infrastructure will affect your overall work. • Multiple TMS and CMS systems • APIs • SDK integrations • Spreadsheets • Resource Files © The Word in Bits, 2019
  67. 67. #LocWorld41 The Wall • The wall is common in localization. Every division sends the content over the wall to localization and wait for the finished content to return. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Product Dev Content Loc
  68. 68. #LocWorld41 The Silo • Many large enterprises silo their work and this creates many loc processes. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod Dev Content Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Loc Loc
  69. 69. #LocWorld41 The Silo and the Wall • Many large enterprises have silos and walls. Loc teams work separately in horizontal orgs. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Prod Dev Content Loc Loc
  70. 70. #LocWorld41 The Hub • Many large enterprises make loc a hub. And these loc teams are conversant in the product © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 3 Biz 5 Biz 2 Loc Biz 1 Biz 4
  71. 71. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Wall • Many large enterprises make loc a hub. But they throw work over the wall to loc teams. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 3 Biz 5 Biz 2 Loc Biz 1 Biz 4
  72. 72. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Silo • Some enterprises have central tools, but individual loc teams interact with an enterprise localization team. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Product Dev Content Product Dev Content Product Dev Content Enterprise localization Tools
  73. 73. #LocWorld41 The Hub and Silo and Wall • Some localization teams have content thrown over the wall and work with enterprise loc teams to manage the content with little to no context. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Product Dev Content Loc Enterprise localization Tools Product Dev ContentProduct Dev Content
  74. 74. #LocWorld41 The MLV in the Silo and the Wall• Many large enterprises have silos and walls. Loc teams work separately in horizontal orgs and they pass to MLVs who pass to SLVs who pass to linguists. © The Word in Bits, 2019 Biz 2Biz 1 Biz 3 Loc Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Prod DevContent Loc Loc
  75. 75. #LocWorld41 MLV • Multiple language vendor engages with large clients for millions of words and multi-million dollar contracts. • Amalgamators of capacity and large-scale problem solvers. • Can staff and bring team in-house for short term spikes and long-term needs. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  76. 76. #LocWorld41 SLV • Specialists in a single language or multiple languages and dialects in a given region. • Supply MLVs and occasionally enterprise clients for specific languages or regions • Smaller volumes but they are closer to the linguists © The Word in Bits, 2019
  77. 77. #LocWorld41 Translators/Linguists • Terminology • Tooling • Style guides • Content Preparation • Tasks besides translation: MTPE, Engine Training, In-product linguistic testing © The Word in Bits, 2019
  78. 78. #LocWorld41 Globalization: The whole enterprise A whole enterprise approach helps you: • Recognize the inter-dependence of content and tooling of your organization • Articulate a story that links revenue, growth, and international customer satisfaction. • Target investment and show returns on international strategies • Link localization, internationalization, and globalization with the core functions of your enterprise. • Gives you a seat at the table and may help you drive the agenda. © The Word in Bits, 2019
  79. 79. #LocWorld41 Q/A
  80. 80. #LocWorld41 FIN

LocWorld 41: Seminar on Globalization


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