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Driver Responsibilities: Adverse ConditionsDriver Responsibilities: Adverse Conditions
Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Visibility in ...
Changing Visibility at NightChanging Visibility at Night
T – 8.1
Topic 1 Lesson 1
reduces the illumination of risks.
req...
Visibility Limitations at NightVisibility Limitations at Night
 The distance you can see ahead is inadequate at higher sp...
Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed
Properly alignedProperly aligned LOW BEAMLOW BEAM headlightshea...
Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed
Properly AlignedProperly Aligned High BeamHigh Beam HeadlightsH...
Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed
Topic 1 Lesson 2
T – 8.4a
OverdrivingOverdriving your headlight...
Nighttime Precautionary MeasuresNighttime Precautionary Measures
Clean windshield inside and out.
T – 8.5
Topic 1 Lesson 2...
Nighttime Precautionary MeasuresNighttime Precautionary Measures
T – 8.6
Topic 1 Lesson 2
Headlights —Headlights — passing...
Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog
Reduce speedReduce speed
Make sure your headlights are on low b...
Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog
 Reduce speed, but NEVER stop in aReduce speed, but NEVER stop...
 Reduce speed to accommodate shortened sight distance
 Do not stop in travel lane or on shoulder
 Turn headlights to lo...
Turn on windshield wipersTurn on windshield wipers
Be alert for vehicles stopped on the roadwayBe alert for vehicles stopp...
Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather
In severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn onIn s...
Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings
Flash Flooding ConditionsFlash Flooding Conditions
Not Specific to Time of YearNot ...
Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings
Nearly 50% of flash floodNearly 50% of flash flood
fatalities are vehicle relatedfa...
Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings
 Two feet of waterTwo feet of water “carries” most cars“carries” most cars
 Becau...
Hot and Cold Temperatures
Additional Demands on Vehicle SystemsAdditional Demands on Vehicle Systems
T – 8.15
Topic 2 Less...
• Tires should be balanced, aligned,Tires should be balanced, aligned,
the proper type, and have adequate treadthe proper ...
Cold Weather ChecksCold Weather Checks
 Check heater, defroster andCheck heater, defroster and
air conditioner systemair ...
Tire inflation needs special attentionTire inflation needs special attention
Underinflated tires are subject to heat and
p...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
T – 8.19
Topic 3 Lesson 1
Your number one defense to prevent seve...
• Keeping the seat back in anKeeping the seat back in an
upright position avoids theupright position avoids the
submarine ...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
 No passenger under 12 years ofNo passenger under 12 years of
ag...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
Air Bag in Steering WheelAir Bag in Steering Wheel
• Raise seat o...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
Air Bags for side impact protectionAir Bags for side impact prote...
Safety Restraints for YouthSafety Restraints for Youth
Belt and Seat Restraint UseBelt and Seat Restraint Use
T – 8.24
Top...
Adjustable
Shoulder-Belt Mount
Head Restraint
Air Bag
Crash
Sensors
Gases Vent
Opening
Occupant ProtectionOccupant Protect...
Restraints ProtectRestraints Protect
Never hold a child on your lap--alwaysNever hold a child on your lap--always
secure t...
Movement of Belted OccupantMovement of Belted Occupant
Head = 1.9 ft.Head = 1.9 ft.
Chest = 1.3 ft.Chest = 1.3 ft.
Pelvis ...
Types of Belt-Locking SystemsTypes of Belt-Locking Systems
Normal ConditionsNormal Conditions
Seat Belt Seat Belt
Ratchet ...
Wear Lap BeltWear Lap Belt
low and snug across hips (pelvis) tolow and snug across hips (pelvis) to
avoid unnecessary inte...
Highway Safety Design FeaturesHighway Safety Design Features
 Wide clear shoulders and wide lanes
 Rumble strips install...
 Breakaway sign support posts
Occupant Protection HighwayOccupant Protection Highway
Design Features IncludeDesign Featur...
 Protected left and right turn bays
 Collector/distributor lanes on high
speed, high density highways
- separates slower...
 Anti-Lock BrakesAnti-Lock Brakes
 Crush ZonesCrush Zones
 Traction Control DevicesTraction Control Devices
 Electroni...
Controlling ConsequencesControlling Consequences
Drive off road rather than skid off the road
Hit something soft rather th...
Dangerous Road Surface ConditionDangerous Road Surface Condition
• Ice, snow, or frostIce, snow, or frost
• Wet--particula...
Dangerous Road Surface ConditionDangerous Road Surface Condition
• Wet leavesWet leaves
• Broken or uneven road surfaceBro...
Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss
Brakes unevenly adjusted
Brakes pulling in one direction or the other can ca...
Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss
 Sudden steering actions on a slippery surface, or
abrupt or sudden changes...
• Sudden shifts of vehicle weight causes traction loss
- Left, Right, Forward, or Backward
• Simultaneous steering, brakin...
Weight Moves to the Front of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Front of the Car Causing
– a noticeable drop of the hood
–...
Weight Moves to the Rear of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Rear of the Car Causing
– a noticeable rise of the hood
– a...
 Weight Moves to the Opposite Side of the CarWeight Moves to the Opposite Side of the Car
 Weight Movement Causes:Weight...
Traction Loss to Front TiresTraction Loss to Front Tires
If A Vehicle Keeps Moving Straight Ahead in Spite of Steering
Eff...
To Correct Front Traction LossTo Correct Front Traction Loss
Targeted Path of TravelTargeted Path of Travel
Lift Eyes toLi...
Traction Loss to Rear TiresTraction Loss to Rear Tires
• Identified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left orId...
• Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel
Rear Traction Loss CorrectionRear Tract...
Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery
• Do not panic and steer too abruptlyDo not panic and steer too abruptly
• Ease off acc...
T – 8.47a
Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery
Topic 5 Lesson 5
Did You Know?
In 2002, 53% of the motor
vehicle fatalities a...
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Module 08 2004

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Module 08 2004

  1. 1. Driver Responsibilities: Adverse ConditionsDriver Responsibilities: Adverse Conditions Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Visibility in Adverse ConditionsVisibility in Adverse Conditions Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Extreme Weather ConditionsExtreme Weather Conditions Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- Protecting OccupantsProtecting Occupants Topic 4 --Topic 4 -- Roadway and Vehicle TechnologyRoadway and Vehicle Technology Topic 5 --Topic 5 -- Traction Loss ConcernsTraction Loss Concerns Module Eight TransparenciesModule Eight Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. Changing Visibility at NightChanging Visibility at Night T – 8.1 Topic 1 Lesson 1 reduces the illumination of risks. requires the eyes to adjust quickly to glare. places limitations on gathering and processing information in time. The ability to identify risks depends on vision, and visual acuity is severely limited at night. Driving at night: When visibility is reduced at night a driverWhen visibility is reduced at night a driver needs more time to:needs more time to: identify hazards early and scan in and around the path of travel to the target area, and scan the road beyond the lighted zone. (If you only scan the lighted zone you may miss important clues that warn you of hazards ahead.)
  3. 3. Visibility Limitations at NightVisibility Limitations at Night  The distance you can see ahead is inadequate at higher speedsThe distance you can see ahead is inadequate at higher speeds  Your headlights provide limited illumination of off-road areasYour headlights provide limited illumination of off-road areas  A loss of contrast impairs your ability to judge distancesA loss of contrast impairs your ability to judge distances  Blinded by glare from lights of oncoming and following vehiclesBlinded by glare from lights of oncoming and following vehicles  Distance traveled during glare recovery timeDistance traveled during glare recovery time T – 8.2 Topic 1 Lesson 1
  4. 4. Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed Properly alignedProperly aligned LOW BEAMLOW BEAM headlightsheadlights T – 8.3 Topic 1 Lesson 2 lighted area above road 300 to 500 feet illuminated roadway 100 to 150 feet The Code of Virginia requiresThe Code of Virginia requires that you use your headlights from sunset to sunrise and during inclement weather, such as rain, fog, snow, or when you use your windshield wipers. At twilight, when the sun light begins to fade, turn your headlights ON. This will make your vehicle more visible to others. beam hits roadway 100 to 150 feet ahead illuminates area above road 300 to 500 feet ahead load, load distribution, and vehicle height affect light beam distance a maximum safe speed of 40 to 45 mph is based on your ability to stop within the lighted area
  5. 5. Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed Properly AlignedProperly Aligned High BeamHigh Beam HeadlightsHeadlights T – 8.4 Topic 1 Lesson 2 illuminated roadway 300 to 500 feet lighted area above road 500 to 1800 feet the beam hits the roadway 300 to 500 feet ahead illuminates the area above the road 500 to 1800 feet ahead load, load distribution, and vehicle height affect light beam distance maximum safe speed is 65 mph based on your ability to stop within the lighted area Lower (dim)Lower (dim) high-beams headlights when you are:high-beams headlights when you are: within 500 feet of an approaching vehicle following closely behind another vehicle (within 200 feet) driving on lighted roadways driving in fog, heavy rain, sleet, snow, or dust
  6. 6. Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed Topic 1 Lesson 2 T – 8.4a OverdrivingOverdriving your headlightsyour headlights Your vehicle’s stopping distance is greater than the distance lighted by your headlights.  To determine if you are overdriving your headlights, select an object the moment the headlights pick it up, and count off six seconds.  The posted speed limits are calculated for daylight driving and are often too fast for nighttime conditions.  Dirty headlights and improper headlight alignment will add to this traffic safety problem. Fixed Object1000 and 1 1 second 1000 and 6 6 second 1000 and 6 6 second Speed is Safe Speed is too FAST  If the object is still ahead of your vehicle, you are driving at a safe speed.  If you have passed it, you are driving too fast.
  7. 7. Nighttime Precautionary MeasuresNighttime Precautionary Measures Clean windshield inside and out. T – 8.5 Topic 1 Lesson 2 Windblown sand/dirt particles cause special problems. Diffused light gives the appearance of a halo around the headlights of the oncoming vehicle. Clean all lights. 50 to 90 percent loss of headlight efficiency is due to road grime. Reduce daytime speed. Increase following interval. Turn off interior lights. Look to the right of oncoming vehicles. Use high/low headlight beams properly. Use parking lights only when parked. If stopped beside road, take appropriate safety measures. Use day/night switch on rearview mirror.
  8. 8. Nighttime Precautionary MeasuresNighttime Precautionary Measures T – 8.6 Topic 1 Lesson 2 Headlights —Headlights — passing or being passedpassing or being passed Pedestrian safetyPedestrian safety Don’t Wear Dark Clothes Carry a Handkerchief  Be alert for pedestrians walking on unlighted roadways after dark.  If you must walk on a dark roadway due to vehicle breakdown or for any other reason, carry a white handkerchief or wear light-colored clothing. If possible, wear reflective vests or other reflective clothing if you must be on or near a road at night. Having reflective stripes increases your chances of being seen. In snow wear dark clothing to create a contrast. Try to avoid blinding other drivers with your lights  Before passing (approximately 600 feet), the driver passing can flash his/her headlights to warn the other driver.  When two vehicles are side by side, the passing driver may switch to high beams, and the driver being passed to low beams. Wear Stripes Retro- reflective Material
  9. 9. Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog Reduce speedReduce speed Make sure your headlights are on low beam (aimed atMake sure your headlights are on low beam (aimed at the road surface) to reduce the amount of light/glarethe road surface) to reduce the amount of light/glare reflected back at youreflected back at you Turn on your windshield wipersTurn on your windshield wipers If necessary, turn on the defroster or air conditionerIf necessary, turn on the defroster or air conditioner Driving inDriving in Drifting FogDrifting Fog T – 8.7 Topic 1 Lesson 3
  10. 10. Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog  Reduce speed, but NEVER stop in aReduce speed, but NEVER stop in a travel lanetravel lane  Turn on emergency flashersTurn on emergency flashers  Look for an exit from the highwayLook for an exit from the highway stop beyond end of guard rail back up to outboard of the guard rail turn off all lights wait for the fog to lift Driving inDriving in Heavy FogHeavy Fog T – 8.8 Topic 1 Lesson 3 If impossible to leave highway
  11. 11.  Reduce speed to accommodate shortened sight distance  Do not stop in travel lane or on shoulder  Turn headlights to low beams  Turn on emergency flashers when traveling below speed limit  Maintain appropriate lane position  If your stopping distance is longer than your sight distance, you have created a high risk situation – slow down Visibility Limitations in Bad WeatherVisibility Limitations in Bad Weather T – 8.9 Topic 1 Lesson 3 StoppingDistanceStoppingDistance VisibilityVisibility RangeRange Braking distances at 20 mph with conventional tires on different pavement conditionsBraking distances at 20 mph with conventional tires on different pavement conditions Ice - 150 feet Packed Snow - 60 feet Wet - 25 feet Dry - 20 feet
  12. 12. Turn on windshield wipersTurn on windshield wipers Be alert for vehicles stopped on the roadwayBe alert for vehicles stopped on the roadway Be prepared for effects of gusting or strong steady crosswindsBe prepared for effects of gusting or strong steady crosswinds Make all steering, accelerating, and braking actions gently andMake all steering, accelerating, and braking actions gently and smoothlysmoothly Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather T – 8.10 Topic 1 Lesson 3
  13. 13. Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather In severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn onIn severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn on the radio for a weather reportthe radio for a weather report If impossible to leave highway, stop beyond the outboard end ofIf impossible to leave highway, stop beyond the outboard end of guard railguard rail T – 8.11 Topic 1 Lesson 3 Use cell phone to check conditionsUse cell phone to check conditions Smoke, ice, fog, and snow oftenSmoke, ice, fog, and snow often require use of windshield washerrequire use of windshield washer
  14. 14. Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings Flash Flooding ConditionsFlash Flooding Conditions Not Specific to Time of YearNot Specific to Time of Year Affects braking, steering andAffects braking, steering and engine systemsengine systems T – 8.12 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  15. 15. Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings Nearly 50% of flash floodNearly 50% of flash flood fatalities are vehicle relatedfatalities are vehicle related Search for flood proneSearch for flood prone areas:areas: - highway dips- highway dips - bridges- bridges - low areas- low areas Most vehicles will floatMost vehicles will float Very little water on theVery little water on the road surface can cause lossroad surface can cause loss of controlof control T – 8.13 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  16. 16. Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings  Two feet of waterTwo feet of water “carries” most cars“carries” most cars  Because visibilityBecause visibility is limited at night, drivingis limited at night, driving during flooding condition is very dangerousduring flooding condition is very dangerous  Heed allHeed all flash flood watches and warningsflash flood watches and warnings  MonitorMonitor road conditions through the news mediaroad conditions through the news media T – 8.14 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  17. 17. Hot and Cold Temperatures Additional Demands on Vehicle SystemsAdditional Demands on Vehicle Systems T – 8.15 Topic 2 Lesson 2 In Extreme Weather…In Extreme Weather… Check tiresCheck tires CheckCheck fluidsfluids Check beltsCheck belts Vehicles are designed to operate in a wide range of temperatures, fromVehicles are designed to operate in a wide range of temperatures, from very hot to extremely cold. However, these extreme conditions canvery hot to extremely cold. However, these extreme conditions can cause stress to any vehicle part that is temperature sensitive.cause stress to any vehicle part that is temperature sensitive.
  18. 18. • Tires should be balanced, aligned,Tires should be balanced, aligned, the proper type, and have adequate treadthe proper type, and have adequate tread - The legal minimum, 2/32 of an inch tread depth, is inadequate on wet surfaces • Check tire inflationCheck tire inflation - Check cold tire pressure regularly (noted inside driver’s door or in manual) - The maximum tire pressure listed on the tire sidewalls is NOT the recommended tire pressure • Check radiator coolant, hoses, and connectionsCheck radiator coolant, hoses, and connections Cold Weather PrecautionsCold Weather Precautions T – 8.16 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  19. 19. Cold Weather ChecksCold Weather Checks  Check heater, defroster andCheck heater, defroster and air conditioner systemair conditioner system  Winterized windshield wiper fluidWinterized windshield wiper fluid  Check drive belts for tension and wearCheck drive belts for tension and wear  Keep lights and glass areas clear and cleanKeep lights and glass areas clear and clean  Check windshield wiper bladesCheck windshield wiper blades T – 8.17 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  20. 20. Tire inflation needs special attentionTire inflation needs special attention Underinflated tires are subject to heat and pressure buildup due to excessive flexion, especially when driving for extended distances at higher speeds. Hot Weather ChecksHot Weather Checks T – 8.18 Topic 2 Lesson 2 The air conditioner, radiator coolant hoses, connections,The air conditioner, radiator coolant hoses, connections, and drive belts need special attention.and drive belts need special attention. due to the extra load placed on these cooling systems.
  21. 21. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults T – 8.19 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Your number one defense to prevent severeYour number one defense to prevent severe injuries is to wear your safety belt.injuries is to wear your safety belt. • Adjust the seat, place your lower back firmly against theAdjust the seat, place your lower back firmly against the seat and sit up straight.seat and sit up straight. • If your vehicle is equipped with an adjustable center postIf your vehicle is equipped with an adjustable center post mounting for shoulder belt height, adjust it to the propermounting for shoulder belt height, adjust it to the proper height setting so the belt does not rub against your neck.height setting so the belt does not rub against your neck. • The shoulder belt should go over the shoulder and acrossThe shoulder belt should go over the shoulder and across the chest and rest against the bodythe chest and rest against the body. If a crash occurs and a person has not taken the slack out of the shoulder belt, the extra forward movement of the body will increase the chance of injury. • The lap part of the belt should be worn low and snug on theThe lap part of the belt should be worn low and snug on the hips, barely touching the thighs.hips, barely touching the thighs. If a crash were to occur, the force would then be applied to the strong pelvic bones and not the abdomen, reducing the chance of serious internal injuries. • Check frequently for snug fit.
  22. 22. • Keeping the seat back in anKeeping the seat back in an upright position avoids theupright position avoids the submarine effect of the lowersubmarine effect of the lower body in a frontal crashbody in a frontal crash • Properly worn seat belts minimizeProperly worn seat belts minimize movement of the upper and lowermovement of the upper and lower body in a crashbody in a crash • Belts dramatically reduce theBelts dramatically reduce the severity of injuriesseverity of injuries Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults T – 8.20 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  23. 23. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults  No passenger under 12 years ofNo passenger under 12 years of age should sit in the front seatage should sit in the front seat  Protect driver or passengers fromProtect driver or passengers from sustaining severe head and chest injuriessustaining severe head and chest injuries  The speed of bag inflation is critical toThe speed of bag inflation is critical to prevent body contact with the steeringprevent body contact with the steering wheelwheel Air Bags in Dash or Steering WheelAir Bags in Dash or Steering Wheel T – 8.21 Topic 3 Lesson 1 The air bag inflates in the blink of an eye, at speeds as high as 200 miles per hour.
  24. 24. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults Air Bag in Steering WheelAir Bag in Steering Wheel • Raise seat or adjust steering wheel toRaise seat or adjust steering wheel to direct air bag toward chest and not atdirect air bag toward chest and not at the facial areathe facial area • Adjust seat for a minimum 10-inchAdjust seat for a minimum 10-inch clearance between chest and steeringclearance between chest and steering wheelwheel • Hand position should be at 8 and 4Hand position should be at 8 and 4 • Avoid 10 and 2 hand position to preventAvoid 10 and 2 hand position to prevent blow hole burns to hands and armsblow hole burns to hands and arms T – 8.22 Topic 3 Lesson 1 10 inches
  25. 25. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults Air Bags for side impact protectionAir Bags for side impact protection  Located in the upper door frame, side of the seat, or door panel  Protect head from hitting the window T – 8.23 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Head RestraintsHead Restraints Side air bag deploys in crash test.Side air bag deploys in crash test. Red area shows where theRed area shows where the dummy’s head impacted the airbag.dummy’s head impacted the airbag. Proper adjustmentProper adjustment minimizes whiplash.minimizes whiplash. Improper adjustment mayImproper adjustment may result in severe neck injury.result in severe neck injury.
  26. 26. Safety Restraints for YouthSafety Restraints for Youth Belt and Seat Restraint UseBelt and Seat Restraint Use T – 8.24 Topic 3 Lesson 1  Safest if seated in back center seat  Infant seats/rear facing/birth to 20 lbs.  Use child seats up to 40 lbs.  Use booster seats up to 60 lbs. Infant Car Bed Rear Facing Infant Seat Forward Facing Child Restraints Booster Seats
  27. 27. Adjustable Shoulder-Belt Mount Head Restraint Air Bag Crash Sensors Gases Vent Opening Occupant ProtectionOccupant Protection T – 8.25 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  28. 28. Restraints ProtectRestraints Protect Never hold a child on your lap--alwaysNever hold a child on your lap--always secure the child in an approved childsecure the child in an approved child safety seatsafety seat T – 8.26 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Buckle up to guard against additionalBuckle up to guard against additional injury from a secondary collision orinjury from a secondary collision or ejection from the vehicleejection from the vehicle
  29. 29. Movement of Belted OccupantMovement of Belted Occupant Head = 1.9 ft.Head = 1.9 ft. Chest = 1.3 ft.Chest = 1.3 ft. Pelvis = 1.2 ft.Pelvis = 1.2 ft. 31 MPH Crash31 MPH Crash T – 8.27 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  30. 30. Types of Belt-Locking SystemsTypes of Belt-Locking Systems Normal ConditionsNormal Conditions Seat Belt Seat Belt Ratchet Mechanism Ratchet Mechanism Pendulum Pendulum Bar Bar Sudden Car MovementSudden Car Movement T – 8.28 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Emergency ConditionsEmergency Conditions
  31. 31. Wear Lap BeltWear Lap Belt low and snug across hips (pelvis) tolow and snug across hips (pelvis) to avoid unnecessary internal injuriesavoid unnecessary internal injuries Adjusting Belts for Proper FitAdjusting Belts for Proper Fit T – 8.29 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Wear Shoulder BeltWear Shoulder Belt over collar bone and chestover collar bone and chest (sternum) to avoid(sternum) to avoid shouldershoulder dislocation and ribdislocation and rib cagecage damagedamage Seat belts should be worn over the strongest skeletal bones
  32. 32. Highway Safety Design FeaturesHighway Safety Design Features  Wide clear shoulders and wide lanes  Rumble strips installed at the road edge  Redesign of median barriers  Traffic calming devices T – 8.30 Topic 4 Lesson 1 Occupant ProtectionOccupant Protection Highway DesignHighway Design Features IncludeFeatures Include
  33. 33.  Breakaway sign support posts Occupant Protection HighwayOccupant Protection Highway Design Features IncludeDesign Features Include Highway Safety Design FeaturesHighway Safety Design Features T – 8.31 Topic 4 Lesson 1  Crash attenuators such as vinyl liquid or sand filled drums  New design guard rails with ends angled away from roadway and buried
  34. 34.  Protected left and right turn bays  Collector/distributor lanes on high speed, high density highways - separates slower moving entering/exiting traffic from the higher speed through traffic  Variable message signs alert drivers to weather conditions, construction, and traffic problems Occupant ProtectionOccupant Protection Highway DesignHighway Design Features Include:Features Include: Highway Safety Design FeaturesHighway Safety Design Features T – 8.32 Topic 4 Lesson 1
  35. 35.  Anti-Lock BrakesAnti-Lock Brakes  Crush ZonesCrush Zones  Traction Control DevicesTraction Control Devices  Electronic Stability Program (ESP)Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Suspension Control DevicesSuspension Control Devices  Door LatchesDoor Latches  GlassGlass  HeadlightsHeadlights Automotive TechnologyAutomotive Technology T – 8.33 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  36. 36. Controlling ConsequencesControlling Consequences Drive off road rather than skid off the road Hit something soft rather than something hard Hit something going your way rather than something stationary Hit stationary objects with a glancing blow Hit a stationary object rather than an approaching object Steer to avoid oncoming traffic and head on collision T – 8.34 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  37. 37. Dangerous Road Surface ConditionDangerous Road Surface Condition • Ice, snow, or frostIce, snow, or frost • Wet--particularly the first 15 minutes of rain after aWet--particularly the first 15 minutes of rain after a long dry period when oil and rubber particles havelong dry period when oil and rubber particles have collected on the road surface and mix with watercollected on the road surface and mix with water • Heavy rain or standing waterHeavy rain or standing water • Mud near farm entrances, construction sites, andMud near farm entrances, construction sites, and truck crossingstruck crossings T – 8.35 Topic 5 Lesson 1 IceIce RainRain SnowSnow MudMud
  38. 38. Dangerous Road Surface ConditionDangerous Road Surface Condition • Wet leavesWet leaves • Broken or uneven road surfaceBroken or uneven road surface • Sand or gravel frequently found on curves in rural areasSand or gravel frequently found on curves in rural areas On improperly banked or flatOn improperly banked or flat curves, traction is more likelycurves, traction is more likely to be lost when roads are wetto be lost when roads are wet or slippery at slow speeds, oror slippery at slow speeds, or when dry at higher speedswhen dry at higher speeds T – 8.36 Topic 5 Lesson 1 NEGATIVE BANKNEGATIVE BANK
  39. 39. Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss Brakes unevenly adjusted Brakes pulling in one direction or the other can cause a skid--as can wheels out of alignment when brakes are applied Tires with unevenly worn tread - The size of the front and rear tires do not matched - The tread depth or tire type of the front and rear tires are different Condition of the VehicleCondition of the Vehicle T – 8.37 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Different tire pressure on opposite sides of the vehicle has a similar effect to uneven brake adjustment since one tire will drag more than others
  40. 40. Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss  Sudden steering actions on a slippery surface, or abrupt or sudden changes in vehicle speed  Panic stop or applying the brakes too hard on a hill, curve or slippery surface  Suddenly engaging the clutch on a slippery surface Most driver-induced skids are caused by:  excessive speed  coupled with excessive steering input  or improper braking when turning Loss of traction also occurs with these driver’s actions at normal speeds on ice/snow or on roadways covered by sand, gravel, or water Driver Actions that may cause loss of tractionDriver Actions that may cause loss of traction T – 8.38 Topic 5 Lesson 2
  41. 41. • Sudden shifts of vehicle weight causes traction loss - Left, Right, Forward, or Backward • Simultaneous steering, braking and/or acceleration creates sudden shifts in vehicle balance • Traction loss compounds crash consequences Traction Loss ConsiderationsTraction Loss Considerations T – 8.39 Topic 5 Lesson 2 LIFTSLIFTS DROPSDROPS
  42. 42. Weight Moves to the Front of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Front of the Car Causing – a noticeable drop of the hood – a noticeable rise of the rear deck – forward movement of driver and passengers Traction Loss ConsiderationsTraction Loss Considerations WhenWhen BrakesBrakes are Applied Too Hard or Quicklyare Applied Too Hard or Quickly T – 8.40 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Direction of Travel Force or Weight Movement RearRear LIFTSLIFTS Front DROPSFront DROPS
  43. 43. Weight Moves to the Rear of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Rear of the Car Causing – a noticeable rise of the hood – a noticeable drop of the rear deck – rearward movement of driver and passengers Traction Loss ConsiderationTraction Loss Consideration WhenWhen AccelerationAcceleration is Applied Too Hard or Quicklyis Applied Too Hard or Quickly T – 8.41 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Direction of Travel Front LIFTSFront LIFTS Force or Weight Movement RearRear DROPSDROPS
  44. 44.  Weight Moves to the Opposite Side of the CarWeight Moves to the Opposite Side of the Car  Weight Movement Causes:Weight Movement Causes: – a noticeable drop and tilt of the hood – a noticeable rise and tilt of the rear deck – driver and passenger movement towards the car’s corner Traction Loss ConsiderationTraction Loss Consideration WhenWhen SteeringSteering is Applied Too Hard or Quicklyis Applied Too Hard or Quickly T – 8.42 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Force or Weight MovementFront DROPSFront DROPS RearRear LIFTSLIFTS Direction of TravelDirection of Travel
  45. 45. Traction Loss to Front TiresTraction Loss to Front Tires If A Vehicle Keeps Moving Straight Ahead in Spite of Steering Efforts To the Contrary, It Means Front Traction Has Been Lost The Technical Term is Called “Understeer” Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel Intended PathIntended Path of Travelof Travel T – 8.43 Topic 5 Lesson 3 front tiresfront tires SLIDESLIDE rear tiresrear tires PUSHPUSH The Driver Will First Visually Identify Unusual Forward Sliding Movement Caused by the Vehicle’s Weight Pushing the Front Wheels Straight Ahead Regardless of Any Steering Input
  46. 46. To Correct Front Traction LossTo Correct Front Traction Loss Targeted Path of TravelTargeted Path of Travel Lift Eyes toLift Eyes to TargetedTargeted Path of TravelPath of Travel T – 8.44 Topic 5 Lesson 3 Intended Path of TravelIntended Path of Travel Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel • Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel • Activate ABS, if Vehicle is EquippedActivate ABS, if Vehicle is Equipped – Ease off Conventional Brake System – Reestablish Rolling Traction • Ease off Steering InputsEase off Steering Inputs – Abrupt Steering Can Create Traction Loss – Allows Tire Tread to Point Toward Path of Travel • Jab/Stab Brake to Move Weight Forward if ABS is not AvailableJab/Stab Brake to Move Weight Forward if ABS is not Available (ABS performs this function automatically)(ABS performs this function automatically)
  47. 47. Traction Loss to Rear TiresTraction Loss to Rear Tires • Identified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left orIdentified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left or right of travel path without steering input in that directionright of travel path without steering input in that direction • Technical term is “Technical term is “Oversteer”Oversteer” Intended Path of TravelIntended Path of Travel Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel T – 8.45 Topic 5 Lesson 4 • Vehicle’s Weight Tends to Push RearVehicle’s Weight Tends to Push Rear Wheels Left or Right Without Steering InputWheels Left or Right Without Steering Input • Vehicle Begins To YawVehicle Begins To Yaw front tiresfront tires ROLLROLL rear tiresrear tires SLIDESLIDE
  48. 48. • Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel Rear Traction Loss CorrectionRear Traction Loss Correction On Targeted Path On Targeted Path Off TargetedOff Targeted PathPath T – 8.46 Topic 5 Lesson 4 • Steer Toward Targeted Path of TravelSteer Toward Targeted Path of Travel • Adjust Steering Input as Needed to Maintain Targeted Path ofAdjust Steering Input as Needed to Maintain Targeted Path of TravelTravel • Apply Light Progressive Acceleration (2 mph is goal) to Move theApply Light Progressive Acceleration (2 mph is goal) to Move the Weight to the Rear. (The Traction Control System will adjust theWeight to the Rear. (The Traction Control System will adjust the speed and brakes automatically when activated)speed and brakes automatically when activated) • Activate Traction ControlActivate Traction Control System, if Equipped:System, if Equipped: – Ease off brake or accelerator – Reestablish rolling traction IntendedIntended Path ofPath of TravelTravel Rear Tire Movement Rear Tire Movement
  49. 49. Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery • Do not panic and steer too abruptlyDo not panic and steer too abruptly • Ease off acceleratorEase off accelerator • DO NOT BRAKEDO NOT BRAKE • Get both wheels off the pavementGet both wheels off the pavement • Steer the vehicle parallel to the roadwaySteer the vehicle parallel to the roadway • If clear, ease back on to the roadway one wheel atIf clear, ease back on to the roadway one wheel at a timea time • Limit steering inputs to less than 1/8 of a turn ofLimit steering inputs to less than 1/8 of a turn of the wheelthe wheel • Use even less input when the edge of road is highUse even less input when the edge of road is high • Target the center of the adjacent lane to avoid aTarget the center of the adjacent lane to avoid a “Slingshot” maneuver into oncoming traffic“Slingshot” maneuver into oncoming traffic T – 8.47 Topic 5 Lesson 5
  50. 50. T – 8.47a Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery Topic 5 Lesson 5 Did You Know? In 2002, 53% of the motor vehicle fatalities among 16-20 year olds were caused by run-off-the-road crashes! Source: DMV Traffic Crash Facts

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