Module 04 2004

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Module 04 2004

  1. 1. Basic Maneuvering Tasks:Basic Maneuvering Tasks: Moderate Risk Driving EnvironmentModerate Risk Driving Environment Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- RiskRisk Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Space Management SystemSpace Management System Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- Lane ChangesLane Changes Topic 4 --Topic 4 -- TurnaboutsTurnabouts Topic 5 --Topic 5 -- ParkingParking Module Four TransparenciesModule Four Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. RiskRisk • RiskRisk is theis the Chance ofChance of Injury, Damage, or LossInjury, Damage, or Loss • Injury, Damage, or LossInjury, Damage, or Loss Usually Are theUsually Are the Consequences of a CrashConsequences of a Crash T – 4.1 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Every driver accepts aEvery driver accepts a certain level of riskcertain level of risk when driving a vehicle.when driving a vehicle. A driver must manage riskA driver must manage risk in order to avoid conflict.in order to avoid conflict.
  3. 3. Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment • Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment • Risk AcceptanceRisk Acceptance • Risk CompensationRisk Compensation T – 4.2 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Elements of RiskElements of Risk are:are: Unfortunately, drivers oftenUnfortunately, drivers often create high risk situations.create high risk situations.
  4. 4. RiskRisk Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment Involves:Involves: T – 4.3 Topic 1 Lesson 1 • Recognizing increased risk situationsRecognizing increased risk situations -Speeding -Following Too Closely-Speeding -Following Too Closely -Failure to Yield -Improper Turns-Failure to Yield -Improper Turns -DUI -Lack of Safety belt use-DUI -Lack of Safety belt use • Understanding the consequences ofUnderstanding the consequences of increased risk situationsincreased risk situations • Considering your options and theConsidering your options and the consequences of your choicesconsequences of your choices
  5. 5. RiskRisk Risk AcceptanceRisk Acceptance:: • There is always a certain amount of riskThere is always a certain amount of risk involved in the driving task.involved in the driving task. • How much risk is acceptable?How much risk is acceptable? – Evaluate Consequences of TakingEvaluate Consequences of Taking Risks (Risks (Penalty, Damage, Injury or Death)Penalty, Damage, Injury or Death) T – 4.4 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Knowledge can help you reduce risk!Knowledge can help you reduce risk! Having good seeing habits and your ability to manage space on the roadway are essential ingredients for low-risk driving. To minimize risk, drivers need time, space & visibility to execute a maneuver.
  6. 6. Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment T – 4.5 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Example taken from Module 3 Topic 3 Lesson 1 --- RECOGNIZING high risk situations. Risk CompensationRisk Compensation -- Recognizing potential risk or-- Recognizing potential risk or limitations and making appropriate adjustmentslimitations and making appropriate adjustments • Adjust Speed to Reduce Risk • Adjust Lane Position to Reduce Risk • Use Appropriate Communication to Reduce Risk
  7. 7. Reduced Risk DrivingReduced Risk Driving • Three principles for reducing risks –Never risk more than you can afford to lose –Do not risk large consequences for a small reward –Consider the odds and your situation Topic 1 Lesson 1 T – 4.5a
  8. 8. Reducing Driving RiskReducing Driving Risk • Good decision-making is essential to reducing driving risks. • A driver in city traffic makes 50-60 decisions per mile. • Your hands and feet can only do what your brain tells them to do. • Developing good procedures for decision making: • Observation skills • Experiences • Developing good habits T – 4.6 Topic 1 Lesson 2
  9. 9. Reducing Driving RiskReducing Driving Risk • Work towards developing the best risk- reducing procedures and safe-driving habits. • Habits are difficult to change. • A space management system helps you to develop good driving habits. T – 4.7 Topic 1 Lesson 2
  10. 10. Reducing Driving RiskReducing Driving Risk • Guided practice is key to developing sound habits and judgments • Get extensive practice on all basic driving procedures • Use a space management and targeting system • Good habits and judgment often deteriorate over time • Complacency • Most novice drivers rate themselves as “good” drivers • There may be no negative results from negative behavior T – 4.8 Topic 1 Lesson 2
  11. 11. Risk Reduction GoalsRisk Reduction Goals • Make every driving sequenceMake every driving sequence an efficient driving sequence.an efficient driving sequence. • Use processing skills to makeUse processing skills to make accurate judgments.accurate judgments. • Develop sound procedures forDevelop sound procedures for all maneuvers.all maneuvers. T – 4.10 Topic 1 Lesson 2 PREVENTIO N PREVENTIO N
  12. 12. Space Management SystemSpace Management System  Space Management Steps:Space Management Steps: • Search –Search – Search the entire scene for anything that might cross your path of travel. • Evaluate --Evaluate -- Give meaning to what you have observed. • Determine an alternate path of travel or change in vehicle position. • Determine proper speed. • Execute --Execute -- Carry out any alternative action needed to minimize risk. • In Time...In Time... T – 4.11 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  13. 13. System ComponentsSystem Components • Recognize ChangesRecognize Changes in the Line of Sightin the Line of Sight or Path of Travelor Path of Travel • To Reduce RiskTo Reduce Risk • Adjust SpeedAdjust Speed • Adjust Lane PositionAdjust Lane Position T – 4.12 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  14. 14. Vehicle Operating Space There are seven basic areas of operating space for a vehicle. Six of the space areas (zones) are around your vehicle, and the seventh, or central space, is the space your vehicle occupies. T – 4.12 a Topic 2 Lesson 1
  15. 15. Vehicle Operating ZonesVehicle Operating Zones Vehicle Operating SpaceVehicle Operating Space Central Space Area Direction of TravelDirection of Travel T – 4.13 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Right-Front Zone (Maroon) Right-Rear Zone (White) Front Zone (Yellow) Rear Zone (Blue) Left-Front Zone (Green) Left-Rear Zone (Red) 1 2 3 4 5 6 A zone refers to one of the six spaces around your vehicle. It is the width of a traffic lane and extends as far as you can see. A zone has three characteristics, it can be OPENOPEN,, CLOSEDCLOSED or CHANGINGCHANGING. To assist you in learning zones and their purposes we have colored and numbered each for easy identification.
  16. 16. Managing ZonesManaging Zones Direction of TravelDirection of Travel T – 4.14 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Evaluating Your AlternativesEvaluating Your Alternatives Move HereMove Here Changing ZONEChanging ZONE Closed ZONE Check RearCheck Rear Check SideCheck Side Central Space Area Open ZONE OPEN —OPEN — a zone that has no restrictions to the line of sight or path of travel. CLOSED —CLOSED — a zone not available for the vehicle’s path of travel or an area that has a restriction to the driver's line of sight. CHANGING —CHANGING — an open zone that may change to a closed zone.
  17. 17. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics Searching :Searching : • WhereWhere to Lookto Look • WhatWhat to Look forto Look for • HowHow to Evaluateto Evaluate Evaluating Conditions:Evaluating Conditions: • Risk PotentialRisk Potential of a Closed or Changing Areasof a Closed or Changing Areas VersusVersus • Risk PotentialRisk Potential of Alternative Areasof Alternative Areas T – 4.15 Topic 2 Lesson 3
  18. 18. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics T – 4.15a Topic 2 Lesson 3 WhereWhere to lookto look The area outlined in blue represents your field of vision extendingThe area outlined in blue represents your field of vision extending fromfrom THE DRIVERTHE DRIVER to the intended target area.to the intended target area. Proper search and actions consists of the:Proper search and actions consists of the: • 4 to 8-second range — Immediate Action Required • 12 to 15-second range —Allows for Escape Routes • 20 to 30 second range to the target area — Safe and open path of travel Path of Travel
  19. 19. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics T – 4.15b Topic 2 Lesson 3 WhatWhat to Look forto Look for A driver must constantly search for potential risks andA driver must constantly search for potential risks and determine consequencesdetermine consequences.. Path of Travel
  20. 20. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics T – 4.15c Topic 2 Lesson 3 HowHow toto EvaluateEvaluate Path of Travel Will the motorcyclist enter your path of travel? How can the driver of the red vehicle reduce risks?
  21. 21. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics T – 4.16 Topic 2 Lesson 3 What is the best decision and action for the driver of the RED car? Executing DecisionsExecuting Decisions:: • Change speed while maintaining vehicle balance • Change position while maintaining vehicle balance Risk Reduction:Risk Reduction: • Control the Target Area, Line of Sight and Path of Travel by: •speed changes; •position changes; and •effective communication.
  22. 22. Space Management BasicsSpace Management Basics Open, Closed, or Changing ZonesOpen, Closed, or Changing Zones • AA redred traffic signal is …traffic signal is … • A parked car to your right is …A parked car to your right is … • A bicyclist to your right is …A bicyclist to your right is … • A vehicle in your left mirror blind area is …A vehicle in your left mirror blind area is … • A motorcycle in your right mirror blind area is …A motorcycle in your right mirror blind area is … • A large truck following closely behind is …A large truck following closely behind is … T – 4.17 Topic 2 Lesson 3
  23. 23. Turning at IntersectionsTurning at Intersections • Right TurnRight Turn • Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection • CommunicationCommunication • Target AreasTarget Areas • Path of TravelPath of Travel • Line of SightLine of Sight • Speed AdjustmentSpeed Adjustment • Lane PositionLane Position • Turning Reference PointTurning Reference Point • Courtesy ConsiderationsCourtesy Considerations T – 4.18 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Target
  24. 24. Turning at IntersectionsTurning at Intersections • Left TurnLeft Turn • Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection • CommunicationCommunication • Target AreasTarget Areas • Path of TravelPath of Travel • Line of SightLine of Sight • Speed AdjustmentSpeed Adjustment • Lane PositionLane Position • Turning Reference PointTurning Reference Point • Courtesy ConsiderationsCourtesy Considerations Topic 3 Lesson 1 T – 4.19
  25. 25. Lane ChangesLane Changes Topic 3 Lesson 2 Visual checks for lane change to theVisual checks for lane change to the RIGHT.RIGHT. Visual checks for lane change to theVisual checks for lane change to the LEFT.LEFT.• Traffic CheckTraffic Check • EffectiveEffective CommunicationCommunication • Appropriate GapAppropriate Gap • Reduced-RiskReduced-Risk DecisionDecision • CourtesyCourtesy ConsiderationsConsiderations • Steering InputSteering Input • Lane PositionLane Position • Recheck TrafficRecheck Traffic • Establish SpaceEstablish Space • check zones ahead (zones 1 and 2) • check zones to the rear (zones 4 and 6) • check zones ahead (zones 1 and 3) • check zones to the rear (zones 5 and 6) BLIND SPOT BLIND SPOT T – 4.20
  26. 26. Rear-View Mirror SettingRear-View Mirror Setting Rear-View Mirror T – 4.21 Topic 3 Lesson 2 Traditional and Contemporary (BGE) Mirror Setting
  27. 27. Rear Mirror View Right Side Mirror View Left Side Mirror View Traditional Mirror SettingsTraditional Mirror Settings T – 4.22 Topic 3 Lesson 3
  28. 28. Contemporary (BGE) Mirror SettingsContemporary (BGE) Mirror Settings Rear Mirror View Right Side Mirror View Left Side Mirror View 15º 15º T – 4.23 Topic 3 Lesson 3
  29. 29. Turning AroundTurning Around Topic 4 Lesson 1 T – 4.24 • Check traffic flow. • Signal and position the vehicle 2-3 feet from curb. • Drive beyond the driveway and stop. • Shift to Reverse, monitor intended path of travel. • Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you enter driveway. • Straighten wheels, centering car in driveway and stop with the wheels straight. • Signal left and exit driveway when the way is clear. Back into driveway on rightBack into driveway on right sideside Two-Point TurnsTwo-Point Turns • ApproachApproach • CommunicationCommunication • Target AreasTarget Areas • Path of TravelPath of Travel • Line of SightLine of Sight • Reference PointsReference Points • Speed ControlSpeed Control • Lane PositionLane Position • Courtesy ConsiderationsCourtesy Considerations 1 2 3
  30. 30. Turning AroundTurning Around Topic 4 Lesson 1 T – 4.25 • Check traffic flow. • Signal and position your vehicle 3-6 inches from center yellow line. • When traffic is clear, pull into the driveway and stop. • Shift to Reverse, monitor intended path. • Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you exit driveway. • Straighten wheels, centering car in proper lane. • Shift into Drive. Check traffic and accelerate to normal speed. • Reference PointsReference Points • Speed ControlSpeed Control • Lane PositionLane Position • Courtesy ConsiderationsCourtesy Considerations • ApproachApproach • CommunicationCommunication • Target AreasTarget Areas • Path of TravelPath of Travel • Line of SightLine of Sight Two-Point TurnsTwo-Point Turns Pull into driveway on leftPull into driveway on left sideside 1 2 3
  31. 31. Turning AroundTurning Around Topic 4 Lesson 1 T – 4.26 • ApproachApproach • CommunicationCommunication • Target AreasTarget Areas • Path of TravelPath of Travel • Line of SightLine of Sight 1 2 4 3 5 Three-point TurnThree-point Turn NOTE: The safest way to change direction is to driveNOTE: The safest way to change direction is to drive around the block!around the block! •ReferencesReferences •Speed ControlSpeed Control •Lane PositionLane Position •Courtesy ConsiderationsCourtesy Considerations
  32. 32. T – 4.27 Angle ParkingAngle Parking Topic 5 Lesson 1 Parking at a 30 Degree Angle to the CurbParking at a 30 Degree Angle to the Curb  Signal intention and positionSignal intention and position vehicle 3-5 feet from the space invehicle 3-5 feet from the space in which the vehicle is to be parked.which the vehicle is to be parked.  Move forward until the steeringMove forward until the steering wheel is aligned with the firstwheel is aligned with the first pavement line.pavement line.  Visually target the middle of theVisually target the middle of the parking space and turn the wheelparking space and turn the wheel sharply at a slow, controlled speed.sharply at a slow, controlled speed.  Steer toward the target in theSteer toward the target in the center of the space to straighten thecenter of the space to straighten the wheels and stop when the frontwheels and stop when the front bumper is 3-6 inches from the curb.bumper is 3-6 inches from the curb.
  33. 33. Perpendicular ParkingPerpendicular Parking Topic 5 Lesson 1 Parking at a 90 Degree Angle to the CurbParking at a 90 Degree Angle to the Curb T – 4.28  Signal intention and position theSignal intention and position the vehicle 5 – 6 feet away from thevehicle 5 – 6 feet away from the space.space.  Move forward until the driver’sMove forward until the driver’s body is aligned with the firstbody is aligned with the first pavement line.pavement line.  Visually target the center of theVisually target the center of the parking space and turn the wheelparking space and turn the wheel rapidly while controlling speed.rapidly while controlling speed.  Steer towards the target andSteer towards the target and straighten the wheels.straighten the wheels.  Position the front bumper 3 – 6Position the front bumper 3 – 6 inches from the curb.inches from the curb.
  34. 34. Parallel ParkingParallel Parking Topic 5 Lesson 1 T – 4.29 Parking Parallel to the CurbParking Parallel to the Curb  Select a space that is at least five feet longerSelect a space that is at least five feet longer than your vehicle. Flash your brake lights and putthan your vehicle. Flash your brake lights and put on your turn signal as you approach the space.on your turn signal as you approach the space.  Monitor the traffic to the rear.Monitor the traffic to the rear.  Place your vehicle 2 – 3 feet from the vehiclePlace your vehicle 2 – 3 feet from the vehicle you want to park behind with back bumpers even.you want to park behind with back bumpers even.  Put your vehicle in Reverse. Back slowly andPut your vehicle in Reverse. Back slowly and turn the steering wheel sharply.turn the steering wheel sharply.  Stop when your steering wheel is aligned withStop when your steering wheel is aligned with the back bumper of the front vehicle.the back bumper of the front vehicle.  Continue backing slowly while steering sharplyContinue backing slowly while steering sharply in the opposite direction. Use quick glances to thein the opposite direction. Use quick glances to the front and rear.front and rear.  Center the vehicle in the space. Wheels shouldCenter the vehicle in the space. Wheels should be 6 – 12 inches from the curb.be 6 – 12 inches from the curb.
  35. 35. Hill ParkingHill Parking DownDown HillHill T – 4.30 Topic 5 Lesson 1 When parking on a hill, you need to take special precautions to ensureWhen parking on a hill, you need to take special precautions to ensure your vehicle will not roll into the street and into traffic.your vehicle will not roll into the street and into traffic. UpUp Hill +Hill + CurbCurb UpUp Hill -Hill - CurbCurb •Approach •Communication •Target Areas •Path of Travel •Line of Sight •Speed Adjustment •Lane Position •Reference Points •Courtesy Considerations

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