Basic Maneuvering Tasks:Basic Maneuvering Tasks:
Low Risk EnvironmentLow Risk Environment
Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Basic Maneu...
1.1. Place Foot Firmly onPlace Foot Firmly on
Service BrakeService Brake
2.2. Select Proper GearSelect Proper Gear
- Overd...
5.5. Release Parking BrakeRelease Parking Brake
6.6. Select Gap in Traffic FlowSelect Gap in Traffic Flow
7.7. Move to Lan...
 Traffic ChecksTraffic Checks
Front/Front/Rear/Sides
 Proper SignalProper Signal
 Target AheadTarget Ahead
 Check Visu...
Moving to Curb/Side of RoadMoving to Curb/Side of Road
 Adjust Speed UsingAdjust Speed Using
Controlled BrakingControlled...
• Proper Seating and Hand PositionsProper Seating and Hand Positions
• Adjust Restraints if NecessaryAdjust Restraints if ...
• Signal if Backing Right or LeftSignal if Backing Right or Left
• Release Parking BrakeRelease Parking Brake
• Readjust S...
• Control Rear MovementControl Rear Movement
Gradually Release Brake PressureGradually Release Brake Pressure
• Move as Sl...
• Gaining Visual InformationGaining Visual Information
-- Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal)Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal)
-- Centra...
Vision and Perception RequirementsVision and Perception Requirements
• Targeting,Targeting, Line of Sight, Path of TravelL...
Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas
Gathering Useful VisualGathering Useful Visual
InformationInforma...
Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas
 Referencing Vehicle Position to
Roadway
 Viewing Path of Trave...
Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas
Gathering Useful Visual InformationGathering Useful Visual Inform...
Capacity of Visual FieldsCapacity of Visual Fields
Focus Vision
Central Vision
Peripheral Vision
Peripheral Vision
Motion ...
Visual Fields in OperationVisual Fields in Operation
Path of TravelPath of TravelTarget
Standard Visual Target andStandard...
Line of Sight/Path of Travel
Line of Sight Limitations orLine of Sight Limitations or
RestrictionsRestrictions
When line o...
Effect of Speed on Vision and SteeringEffect of Speed on Vision and Steering
As speed increases:As speed increases:
• cent...
Effect of Speed on VisionEffect of Speed on Vision
• allow more time to gather information;
• lengthen total visual field,...
Determining Following IntervalsDetermining Following Intervals
Fixed Object or ShadowFixed Object or Shadow
One Thousand O...
Time, Speed, and DistanceTime, Speed, and Distance
Topic 2 Lesson 4
T – 3.19
Vehicle Ft./Sec.
Speed Travel
Following Inter...
Following IntervalsFollowing Intervals
• 2 Seconds…2 Seconds… Allows driver time to steer out of problem areas at all
list...
Space Management System
• S earch
• E valuate
• E xecute
• i n
• T ime
Topic 2 Lesson 4
T-3.20a
Good Drivers Develop a Spa...
SearchingSearching
• Identifying high risk situationsIdentifying high risk situations
- Effective searching techniques
- H...
EvaluatingEvaluating
• Potential and Critical Hazards
• Collision Potential
• Intersections
• Curves
• Position Adjustment...
EvaluatingEvaluating
Decision-makingDecision-making
• Maintain an open line of sight (LOS)
and path of travel (POT)
Motion...
ExecutingExecuting
 Speed changesSpeed changes
 Lane position changesLane position changes
 Space controlSpace control
...
IndecisionIndecision
Correct DecisionCorrect Decision
Wrong DecisionWrong Decision
Evaluate/ExecuteEvaluate/Execute
4
Seco...
12' wide traffic lane.12' wide traffic lane.
• allows for 6 feet of
space to the right of
the vehicle to avoid a
potential...
T – 3.28
Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection
Topic 3 Lesson 2
Step 1 (Search)
• Identify Intersection
• Ident...
Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection
Topic 3 Lesson 2
T – 3.28a
Step 1 (Step 1 (SSearch)earch)
• Identify the ...
Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection
Topic 3 Lesson 2
T – 3.28b
Step 1 (Step 1 (SSearch)earch) continuedcontin...
Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection
Topic 3 Lesson 2
T – 3.28c
Step 2 (Evaluate)
• Scan open side areas first...
Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection
Topic 3 Lesson 2
T – 3.28 d
Step 3 (Execute)
• Adjust speed.Adjust speed....
Good Driving HabitsGood Driving Habits
Habit LevelHabit Level
T – 3.29
Topic 4 Lesson 1
(Empower Yourself (1999) F.R. Mott...
Levels of PerformanceLevels of Performance
T – 3.30
Topic 4 Lesson 1
Based on Mottola, F. R. (1999) Empower Yourself, p. 1...
The Top Ten ErrorsThe Top Ten Errors
Topic 4 Lesson 1
T – 3.31
Preliminary TRB Report 1999
1.1. 23.9%23.9% not attending t...
The Top Ten ErrorsThe Top Ten Errors
Topic 4 Lesson 1
T – 3.32
Preliminary TRB Report 1999
that resulted in crashes involv...
A+
C+
Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits
• Preparing Driver and VehiclePreparing Driver and Vehi...
A+
C+
Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits
Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Y...
A+
C+
Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits
Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Y...
A+
C+
Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits
Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Y...
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Module 03 2004

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Module 03 2004

  1. 1. Basic Maneuvering Tasks:Basic Maneuvering Tasks: Low Risk EnvironmentLow Risk Environment Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Basic ManeuversBasic Maneuvers Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Vision and PerceptionVision and Perception Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- Controlling Risk Using a Space ManagementControlling Risk Using a Space Management SystemSystem Topic 4 --Topic 4 -- Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits Module Three TransparenciesModule Three Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. 1.1. Place Foot Firmly onPlace Foot Firmly on Service BrakeService Brake 2.2. Select Proper GearSelect Proper Gear - Overdrive, Drive, or Reverse 3.3. Perform Traffic ChecksPerform Traffic Checks - Forward, Rear, and Sides 4.4. Apply Proper SignalApply Proper Signal - Communicate Intentions T – 3.1 Entering Roadway TasksEntering Roadway Tasks Topic 1 Lesson 1
  3. 3. 5.5. Release Parking BrakeRelease Parking Brake 6.6. Select Gap in Traffic FlowSelect Gap in Traffic Flow 7.7. Move to LaneMove to Lane - Target Lane Position #1 - Release Service Brake - Accelerate Gradually - Steer to Center of Lane Entering Roadway TasksEntering Roadway Tasks T – 3.2 Topic 1 Lesson 1 3 feet Lane Position #1Lane Position #1 CENTER OF LANE 3 feet
  4. 4.  Traffic ChecksTraffic Checks Front/Front/Rear/Sides  Proper SignalProper Signal  Target AheadTarget Ahead  Check Visual ReferenceCheck Visual Reference - for 6” from Curb  Side Mirror and/or BlindSide Mirror and/or Blind Area CheckArea Check T – 3.3 Moving to Curb/Side of RoadMoving to Curb/Side of Road Topic 1 Lesson 2
  5. 5. Moving to Curb/Side of RoadMoving to Curb/Side of Road  Adjust Speed UsingAdjust Speed Using Controlled BrakingControlled Braking  Use Gradual SteeringUse Gradual Steering - Make Adjustments to Align Visual Reference Points  Re-check TrafficRe-check Traffic  Cancel Signal IndicatorCancel Signal Indicator T – 3.4 Topic 1 Lesson 2
  6. 6. • Proper Seating and Hand PositionsProper Seating and Hand Positions • Adjust Restraints if NecessaryAdjust Restraints if Necessary • Check Traffic to Front, Sides and RearCheck Traffic to Front, Sides and Rear • Place Foot on the BrakePlace Foot on the Brake • Shift to ReverseShift to Reverse T – 3.5 Topic 1 Lesson 3 BackingBacking BackingBacking
  7. 7. • Signal if Backing Right or LeftSignal if Backing Right or Left • Release Parking BrakeRelease Parking Brake • Readjust Seat PositionReadjust Seat Position • Right Side/Left SideRight Side/Left Side • Straight (Right Side)Straight (Right Side) • Visually Target PositionVisually Target Position • Maintain Reference PointsMaintain Reference Points T – 3.6 BackingBacking Topic 1 Lesson 3 BackingBacking
  8. 8. • Control Rear MovementControl Rear Movement Gradually Release Brake PressureGradually Release Brake Pressure • Move as Slowly as PossibleMove as Slowly as Possible • Accelerate GraduallyAccelerate Gradually • Cover the Brake when NeededCover the Brake when Needed • Steer in the Direction You Want toSteer in the Direction You Want to Go Using Reference Points toGo Using Reference Points to Establish PositionEstablish Position BackingBacking T – 3.7 Topic 1 Lesson 3 BackingBacking
  9. 9. • Gaining Visual InformationGaining Visual Information -- Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal)Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal) -- Central Vision (Limited Fringe Area)Central Vision (Limited Fringe Area) -- Peripheral VisionPeripheral Vision • Maintaining an Open Line of SightMaintaining an Open Line of Sight • Developing Searching SkillsDeveloping Searching Skills Vision and Perception RequirementsVision and Perception Requirements T – 3.8 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Note: 90% of the driving task is visual!
  10. 10. Vision and Perception RequirementsVision and Perception Requirements • Targeting,Targeting, Line of Sight, Path of TravelLine of Sight, Path of Travel • Referencing Vehicle toReferencing Vehicle to Path of TravelPath of Travel • Using Visual ReferencesUsing Visual References • Using Turning Points to Start theUsing Turning Points to Start the Turning ProcessTurning Process -- Forward visual turning pointsForward visual turning points -- Rear visual turning pointsRear visual turning points T – 3.9 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  11. 11. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas Gathering Useful VisualGathering Useful Visual InformationInformation Focus Vision Area (Focal) Includes 3 to 5 degrees of usefulIncludes 3 to 5 degrees of useful information that is used when:information that is used when: TargetingTargeting Establishing a Visual LeadEstablishing a Visual Lead Reading Signs and Interpreting SignalsReading Signs and Interpreting Signals T – 3.10 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  12. 12. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas  Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway  Viewing Path of Travel  Viewing Line of Sight to Target Area T – 3.11 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Gathering Useful VisualGathering Useful Visual InformationInformation Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe) 30 to 36 degrees of useful information that includes:
  13. 13. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas Gathering Useful Visual InformationGathering Useful Visual Information T – 3.12 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Peripheral Vision Peripheral Vision Peripheral Vision (Outer Fringe Area) • 175-180 degrees of useful information that detects: •Motion Changes •Color Changes
  14. 14. Capacity of Visual FieldsCapacity of Visual Fields Focus Vision Central Vision Peripheral Vision Peripheral Vision Motion and Color Changes Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal) Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals Central Vision (Limited Fringe Area) Referencing, Path of Travel, Sightlines Visual Fields in OperationVisual Fields in Operation T – 3.13 Topic 2 Lesson 3
  15. 15. Visual Fields in OperationVisual Fields in Operation Path of TravelPath of TravelTarget Standard Visual Target andStandard Visual Target and Reference Fields for Lane Position 1Reference Fields for Lane Position 1 WhenWhen focus visionfocus vision is on the selected target in theis on the selected target in the center of the path of travel, thecenter of the path of travel, the central or innercentral or inner fringe visionfringe vision allows the driver to visually place theallows the driver to visually place the vehicle in a specific location within the lane.vehicle in a specific location within the lane. T – 3.14 Topic 2 Lesson 3
  16. 16. Line of Sight/Path of Travel Line of Sight Limitations orLine of Sight Limitations or RestrictionsRestrictions When line of sight isWhen line of sight is restricted or blocked,restricted or blocked, adjust speedadjust speed untiluntil visual lead, targetvisual lead, target area, and the line ofarea, and the line of sight are restored.sight are restored. T – 3.15 Topic 2 Lesson 3 Target
  17. 17. Effect of Speed on Vision and SteeringEffect of Speed on Vision and Steering As speed increases:As speed increases: • central vision narrows and blurs • peripheral vision decreases • changes in steering will cause exaggerated vehicle movements VISUAL FIELDS NARROWVISUAL FIELDS NARROW T – 3.16 Topic 2 Lesson 4
  18. 18. Effect of Speed on VisionEffect of Speed on Vision • allow more time to gather information; • lengthen total visual field, giving more time for adequate response; and • place more space between other users and your vehicle so sudden steering changes are held to a minimum. As speed increases, look farther aheadAs speed increases, look farther ahead ofof your vehicle to increase line of sight (LOS) and search your path of travel (POT) to: T – 3.17 Topic 2 Lesson 4
  19. 19. Determining Following IntervalsDetermining Following Intervals Fixed Object or ShadowFixed Object or Shadow One Thousand One One Thousand Two One Thousand Three One Thousand Four T – 3.18 Topic 2 Lesson 4
  20. 20. Time, Speed, and DistanceTime, Speed, and Distance Topic 2 Lesson 4 T – 3.19 Vehicle Ft./Sec. Speed Travel Following Interval 2 Sec. 3 Sec. 4 Sec. 1/2 sec 3/4 sec Total Steer Brake Brake Dist. Dist. Dist. 30 mph 44 f/s 88 ft. 132 ft. 176 ft. 22 ft. 33 ft. 80 ft. 40 mph 58 f/s 116 ft. 174 ft. 232 ft. 29 ft. 44 ft. 125 ft. 50 mph 74 f/s 148 ft. 222 ft. 296 ft. 37 ft. 56 ft. 190 ft. 60 mph 88 f/s 176 ft. 264 ft. 352 ft. 44 ft. 66 ft. 275 ft. 70 mph 104 f/s 208 ft. 312 ft. 416 ft. 52 ft. 78 ft. 385 ft. Time, Speed and Distance on Dry Pavement Formula for approximate feet per second traveled: Speed + ½ speed = FPS traveled
  21. 21. Following IntervalsFollowing Intervals • 2 Seconds…2 Seconds… Allows driver time to steer out of problem areas at all listed speeds on a dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds under 35 mph. • 3 Seconds…3 Seconds… Allows driver time to steer out of problem areas at all listed speeds on dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds to 45 mph. • 4 Seconds…4 Seconds… Allows driver to steer out of problem areas at speeds up to 65 mph on dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds to the legal limit of 65 mph. T – 3.20 Topic 2 Lesson 4  Most factory equipped passenger car tires are not designed to steer out of problem areas at speeds beyond 75 mph. At such speeds, speed rated tires are required due to increased tire heat and reduced traction caused by excessive sidewall flexion--especially on curves or when turning.
  22. 22. Space Management System • S earch • E valuate • E xecute • i n • T ime Topic 2 Lesson 4 T-3.20a Good Drivers Develop a Space Management System
  23. 23. SearchingSearching • Identifying high risk situationsIdentifying high risk situations - Effective searching techniques - Having time to identify hazards - Keeping stable scanning eye movements - Getting a large view of the roadway - Establishing a line of sight and path of travel position • Gaining informationGaining information - Effectively managing space - Looking for changing areas - Looking for open areas - Looking for closed areas T – 3.21 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  24. 24. EvaluatingEvaluating • Potential and Critical Hazards • Collision Potential • Intersections • Curves • Position Adjustments • Speed Adjustments • Reduced Line of Sight T – 3.22 Topic 3 Lesson 1 RECOGNIZINGRECOGNIZING high risk situationshigh risk situations
  25. 25. EvaluatingEvaluating Decision-makingDecision-making • Maintain an open line of sight (LOS) and path of travel (POT) Motion control  Controlled/threshold braking  Progressive acceleration Steering control  Hand-to-hand  Evasive action Preventing high risk situationsPreventing high risk situations • Maintain open LOS and POT & proper lane position • Manage time and space T – 3.23 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Controlling high risk situationsControlling high risk situations
  26. 26. ExecutingExecuting  Speed changesSpeed changes  Lane position changesLane position changes  Space controlSpace control in response toin response to  risk or dangerrisk or danger  traffic conditionstraffic conditions  roadway conditionsroadway conditions  vehicle balancevehicle balance T – 3.24 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  27. 27. IndecisionIndecision Correct DecisionCorrect Decision Wrong DecisionWrong Decision Evaluate/ExecuteEvaluate/Execute 4 Second Space Provides More Options T – 3.25 Topic 3 Lesson 1 LP 4 Steer left to open space Steer Right
  28. 28. 12' wide traffic lane.12' wide traffic lane. • allows for 6 feet of space to the right of the vehicle to avoid a potential problem in the area to the right or to prepare for a left turn. Basic Lane Positions toBasic Lane Positions to CenterCenter,, LeftLeft && RightRight Lane Position OneLane Position One T – 3.26 Topic 3 Lesson 2 Lane Position TwoLane Position Two • allows for 3 feet on each side when vehicle is centered in the lane. Lane Position ThreeLane Position Three • allows for 6 feet of space to the left of the vehicle for the avoidance of a potential problem to the left or to prepare for right turn. 6 feet 6 feet 3 feet 3 feet
  29. 29. T – 3.28 Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection Topic 3 Lesson 2 Step 1 (Search) • Identify Intersection • Identify Controls • Check Rear Areas • Search for Intersection Risks Step 2 (Evaluate) • Scan Open Side Areas First • Scan Closed Side Areas • Look for Closed or Changing Frontal Areas Step 3 (Execute) • Adjust Speed • Maintain Lane Position or Stop Behind Crosswalk • Proceed Through Open Space Area or Stop Behind the Crosswalk
  30. 30. Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection Topic 3 Lesson 2 T – 3.28a Step 1 (Step 1 (SSearch)earch) • Identify the intersection.Identify the intersection. - Determine the type of intersection and number of intersecting roadways. - Determine your lane position (right turn/left turn/straight) prior to the intersection. • Identify any controls--Identify any controls--signal lights, stop or yield signs and information signs. This will provide you with the information you need to adjust speed or position. • Check rear areas.Check rear areas. Check if rear zones are open or closed. If the rear zone is closed, tap your brakes a few times before stopping— the brake lights will flash and communicate to the driver to the rear that you are slowing or stopping.
  31. 31. Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection Topic 3 Lesson 2 T – 3.28b Step 1 (Step 1 (SSearch)earch) continuedcontinued • Search for possible intersection problems.Search for possible intersection problems. Look for problem areas, such as construction or road maintenance, pedestrians on or near the intersection, or obstructions to your line of sight that may include buildings, parked vehicles, trees, fences, etc. • Adjust speed.Adjust speed. Intersections are unpredictable and you may have to stop. Be prepared. The closer you get to an intersection, the more important it is to adjust vehicle speed. • Adjust lane position.Adjust lane position. Choosing the proper position (LP 1, 2, or 3) will lower the risk of possible conflicts by providing you the maximum amount of space between your vehicle and other vehicles.
  32. 32. Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection Topic 3 Lesson 2 T – 3.28c Step 2 (Evaluate) • Scan open side areas firstScan open side areas first.. Try to position your vehicle in an open zone with a clear line-of-sight to your path-of-travel. Be prepared to stop for a closed zone or line-of- sight restriction in your path-of-travel. • Scan closed or changing areasScan closed or changing areas.. Identifying closed zones early will allow you to prepare. The greatest chance for conflict is in areas where vehicles may cross directly into your intended path-of-travel. • Look for closed or changing frontalLook for closed or changing frontal areas.areas. A closed front zone occurs when there is a yellow or red traffic light, yield or stop sign, or anything moving into your intended path of travel.
  33. 33. Approach to IntersectionApproach to Intersection Topic 3 Lesson 2 T – 3.28 d Step 3 (Execute) • Adjust speed.Adjust speed. If you have identified a closed zone, prepare to reduce speed or stop. • Maintain lane position.Maintain lane position. Your lane position (LP 1, 2, or 3) will indicate your intentions to other drivers and provide you with the greatest distance between opposing vehicles and/or other objects. • Stop behind stop line, crosswalk, orStop behind stop line, crosswalk, or before entry to intersections, whenbefore entry to intersections, when needed —needed — proceed through open space area when traffic controls permit and your path-of travel is clear. Note: Most crashes occur in intersections!
  34. 34. Good Driving HabitsGood Driving Habits Habit LevelHabit Level T – 3.29 Topic 4 Lesson 1 (Empower Yourself (1999) F.R. Mottola) Judgment LevelJudgment Level • Practice safe driving procedures that require little thought • Have a well thought out strategy for managing time and space • Become efficient and precise • Respond correctly with the least amount of time Process LevelProcess Level • Search for problems • Evaluate options • Execute decisions • Modify speed and/or position • Communicate to reduce the risk of collision
  35. 35. Levels of PerformanceLevels of Performance T – 3.30 Topic 4 Lesson 1 Based on Mottola, F. R. (1999) Empower Yourself, p. 1 Awareness LevelAwareness Level Performance LevelPerformance Level HabitHabit JudgmentJudgment AcceptableAcceptable AcceptableAcceptable HabitHabit JudgmentJudgment UnacceptableUnacceptable UnacceptableUnacceptable DriverDriver DriverDriver
  36. 36. The Top Ten ErrorsThe Top Ten Errors Topic 4 Lesson 1 T – 3.31 Preliminary TRB Report 1999 1.1. 23.9%23.9% not attending to the path of travelnot attending to the path of travel (distractions – cell phone, sound system,(distractions – cell phone, sound system, passengers, etc.)passengers, etc.) 2.2. 13.7%13.7% driving five or more mph too fast fordriving five or more mph too fast for conditionsconditions 3.3. 6.6%6.6% driving too fast through a curvedriving too fast through a curve 4.4. 6.3%6.3% inadequate search at an intersection andinadequate search at an intersection and moving in front of cross trafficmoving in front of cross traffic 5.5. 6.1%6.1% lack of attention at an intersection andlack of attention at an intersection and being struck by another driverbeing struck by another driver that resulted in crashes involvingthat resulted in crashes involving teen drivers are:teen drivers are:
  37. 37. The Top Ten ErrorsThe Top Ten Errors Topic 4 Lesson 1 T – 3.32 Preliminary TRB Report 1999 that resulted in crashes involvingthat resulted in crashes involving teen drivers are:teen drivers are: 6. 6.5% improper evasive action—quick turn not executed properly or braking instead of steering 7. 3.9% failed to maintain visual lead 8. 3.9% failed to see action developing at side of the roadway 9. 3.9% following too closely 10. 3.3% willfully taking right-of-way
  38. 38. A+ C+ Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits • Preparing Driver and VehiclePreparing Driver and Vehicle • Smooth, Gradual Starts and StopsSmooth, Gradual Starts and Stops • Using Reference Points for Vehicle PlacementUsing Reference Points for Vehicle Placement • Getting Visual Targets before MovementGetting Visual Targets before Movement - Using a Vision Control, Motion Control,- Using a Vision Control, Motion Control, Targeting, and Steering Control SequenceTargeting, and Steering Control Sequence • Visually Targeting the End of the Path of TravelVisually Targeting the End of the Path of Travel asas farfar as 15, 20, or 30 secondsas 15, 20, or 30 seconds from the Vehiclefrom the Vehicle Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Yourself. p. 5 T – 3.33 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  39. 39. A+ C+ Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Yourself. p. 5 • Be AlertBe Alert to Changes to the Line of Sight (LOS)to Changes to the Line of Sight (LOS) or the Path of Travel (POT)or the Path of Travel (POT) • Adjust Speed and Lane Position to IncreaseAdjust Speed and Lane Position to Increase Space to Front, Side, or Rear for RestrictedSpace to Front, Side, or Rear for Restricted LOS-POTLOS-POT • When Approaching a Red Light, Adjust SpeedWhen Approaching a Red Light, Adjust Speed to Time Your Arrival for a Green Lightto Time Your Arrival for a Green Light T – 3.34 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  40. 40. A+ C+ Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Yourself. p. 5 • Prior to Intersection Entry, Check the Left,Prior to Intersection Entry, Check the Left, Front, and Right Zones or AreasFront, and Right Zones or Areas -- Check the area that can be viewed best first so thatCheck the area that can be viewed best first so that more time can be focused on the obstructed areamore time can be focused on the obstructed area • Whenever Your Foot Goes to Brake orWhenever Your Foot Goes to Brake or Accelerator, Check the Rear View MirrorAccelerator, Check the Rear View Mirror • Prior to Moving to the Left or Right, Check SidePrior to Moving to the Left or Right, Check Side View Mirror and Mirror Blind ZoneView Mirror and Mirror Blind Zone T – 3.35 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  41. 41. A+ C+ Developing Good Driving HabitsDeveloping Good Driving Habits Based on concepts from Mottola, F. R. (1999). Empower Yourself. p. 5 • Make it a goal to maintain a four-second followingMake it a goal to maintain a four-second following interval from the vehicle in front and to the rear.interval from the vehicle in front and to the rear. - This protects you from the unexpected actions- This protects you from the unexpected actions of other drivers to the front and rear.of other drivers to the front and rear. • When stopped behind vehicle, leave space to moveWhen stopped behind vehicle, leave space to move around the vehicle in case of an emergency.around the vehicle in case of an emergency. • Reduce stress by being courteous rather thanReduce stress by being courteous rather than competitive while driving. Competitive drivers arecompetitive while driving. Competitive drivers are not winners.not winners. T – 3.36 Topic 4 Lesson 2

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