Mandated Reporter Training Supplementary Participant Materials


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Mandated Reporter Training Supplementary Participant Materials

  1. 1.     Supplementary Participant Materials                          1-866-4KIDSWV
  2. 2. Parental & Family Factors That May Lead to Maltreatment1 Parental / Caregiver Immaturity Very young and or inexperienced parents/caregivers may not understand a child's behaviors and needs and may not know what to expect at each stage of the child's development. Unrealistic Expectations Expectations of the child are beyond what he/she is developmentally capable of performing. Social Isolation A lack of friends or family to help with the demands of parenting or to provide adult companionship and support for the parent/caregiver. Unmet Emotional Needs Parents who are not relating well to other adults may turn to their child to satisfy their need for love, acceptance, and self-esteem. Frequent Crisis Financial, job, marital and, legal stresses/problems as well as major illness, etc., may contribute to abuse or neglect of children. Poor Childhood Experiences Many abusive adults were mistreated as children and may not have learned or developed the ability to relate to children in an appropriate, nonviolent manner. Drug or Alcohol Problems Such problems impair parental ability to care properly for children and may expose the children to danger. Mental Illness Untreated and/or chronic mental illness could lead to abuse and neglect. Poor Family Boundaries Failure to protect a child from harm can include: unlimited access to the home by many outsiders, access to medications, dangerous objects and animals, lack of adequate supervision, etc. Dangerous Home Environment Access to medications, the presence of dangerous objects and/or animals, lack of adequate supervision, etc.                                                                                                                           1  Adapted  from  Promises  to  Keep:  The  Mandate  to  Report,  The  Opportunity  to  Prevent,  Prevent  Child  Abuse   Georgia   Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.1
  3. 3. Indicators of Possible Child Maltreatment A combination or pattern of indicators should alert you to the possibility of child maltreatment. You may notice physical and behavioral indicators by observing the child, and you may become aware of indicators that relate to the parent or caregiver. Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics   Physical  Abuse   Questionable  bruises   • uncomfortable  with   • history  of  abuse     and  welts:   physical  contact.   as  a  child.   The  non-­‐accidental   • on  face,  lips,  mouth.   • wary  of  adult   • uses  harsh   physical  injury  of  a   • on  torso,  back,   contacts.   discipline   buttocks,  thighs,   • apprehensive  when   inappropriate  to   child.   arms.   other  children  cry.   child’s  age,     • in  various  stages  of   • behavioral  extremes   transgression,  and     healing.  (In  the  first   (aggressiveness  or   condition.     stage,  the  bruise  is   withdrawal).   • offers  illogical,     reddish-­‐blue.  In  the   • frightened  of   unconvincing,  or     second  stage,  the   parents.   contradictory     bruise  is  purplish   • afraid  to  go  home.   explanations  of     black.  In  the  third   • reports  injury  by   child’s  injury,  or     stage,  the  bruise   parent  or  caregiver.   offers  no     turns  yellowish-­‐ • complains  of   explanation.     green.)   soreness  or  moves   • significantly   • clustered,  forming   uncomfortably.   misperceives  child     regular  patterns.   • wears  clothing   (for  example,  sees     • reflecting  shape  of   inappropriate  to   child  as  “bad”,     article  used  to  inflict   weather  to  cover   “stupid”,     injury  (electric  cord,   body.   “different”,  etc.).     belt  buckle).   • reluctance  to  change   • psychotic  or     • on  several  different   or  take  off  clothes   psychopathic     surface  areas.   • (attempt  to  hide   personality.     • regularly  appearing   injuries,  bruises,   • misuses  alcohol  or     after  absence,   etc.).   other  drugs.     weekend,  or   • self  destructive.   • attempts  to     vacation.   conceal  child’s   • human  bite  mark.   injury  or  to     • bald  spots.   protect  identity  of       person     Questionable  burns:   responsible.     • cigar  or  cigarette   • unrealistic     burns,  especially  on   expectations  of     soles,  palms,  back   child,  beyond     or  buttocks.   child’s  age  or     • immersion  burns   ability.   (sock-­‐like  or  glove-­‐   like,  or  doughnut     shaped  on  buttocks     or  genitalia).   Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.2
  4. 4. Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics   Physical  Abuse  (con’t)   • patterned  like   electric  burner,  iron,   cigarette  lighter,   etc.   • rope  burns  on  arms,   legs,  neck,  or  torso.   • singed  hair.     Questionable  fractures:   • to  skull,  nose,  facial   structure.   • in  various  stages  of   healing.   • multiple  or  spiral   fractures.     Questionable   lacerations  or  abrasions:   • to  mouth,  lips,   gums,  eyes.   • to  external  genitalia.   Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.3
  5. 5.   Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics   Neglect  is  the  most   • consistent  hunger,   • begging,  stealing  food.   • misuses  alcohol   common  form  of  child   poor  hygiene,   • constant  fatigue,   or  other  drugs.   maltreatment.   inappropriate  dress.   listlessness,  or  falling   • maintains     • consistent  lack  of   asleep.   chaotic  home.   supervision,   • alcohol  or  drug  abuse.   • evidence  of   Neglect  is  failure  to   especially  in   • states  there  is  no   apathy  or   provide  for  a  child’s   dangerous  activities   caregiver.   hopelessness.   physical  survival   of  long  periods.   • frequently  absent.   • mentally  ill  or   needs  to  the  extent   • unattended  physical   • shunned  by  peers.   diminished   that  there  is  harm  or   problems  or  medical   • self  destructive.   intelligence.   risk  of  harm  to  the   needs,  including   • history  of   child’s  health  or   vision  and  hearing   neglect  as  a   safety.     difficulties.   child.     • continuous  lice  or   • consistent   Physical  neglect  may   scabies,  distended   failure  to  keep   include,  but  is  not   stomach,   appointments.   emaciated.   • leaving  child   limited  to:   • required   unattended  in   • abandonment.   immunizations   vehicle.   • lack  of   neglected.   supervision.   • abandonment.   • lack  of  adequate   bathing  and  good   hygiene.   • lack  of  adequate   nutrition.   • lack  of  adequate   shelter.   • lack  of  medical  or   dental  care.   • lack  of  required   school  enrollment   or  attendance.       NOTE: A child is neglected under West Virginia law [WV Code §49-1-3] when the failure, refusal, or inability to provide for the child is not due primarily to a lack of financial means on the part of the parent, guardian or custodian. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.4
  6. 6. Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics   Sexual  abuse  is   • difficulty  in  walking   • unwilling  to  change  or   • extremely   defined  as  acts  of   or  sitting.   take  off  clothes.   protective  or   sexual  assault,  sexual   • torn,  stained  or   • withdrawal,  chronic   jealous  of  child.   abuse,  and  sexual   bloody   depression  or  phobias.   • encourages  child   underclothing  or   • overly  compliant,   to  engage  in   exploitation  of   diaper.   passive,  undemanding   prostitution.   minors.     • pain,  discomfort,   behavior  aimed  at   • encourages  child     bleeding  or  itching   maintaining  a  low   to  engage  in   Sexual  abuse   in  genital  area.   profile.   sexual  acts  in   encompasses  a  broad   • bruises  or  bleeding   • hostility  or  aggression.   presence  of   range  of  behavior  and   in  external  genitalia,   • bizarre  or  unusual   caregiver.   may  consist  of  many   vaginal  or  anal   sexual  behavior  or   • sexually  abused   acts  over  a  long   areas.   knowledge.   as  a  child.   period  of  time  or  a   • venereal  disease.   • detailed  and  age-­‐ • misuses  alcohol   single  incident.     • frequent  urinary  or   inappropriate   or  other  drugs.     yeast  infections.   understanding  of   • non-­‐abusing   • encopresis  (fecal   sexual  behavior.   caregiver/spous Victims  are  both  boys   soiling).   • unusually  seductive   e  is  frequently   and  girls,  and  range  in   • massive  weight   behaviors  with  peers   absent   age  from  less  than   change.   and  adults.   • from  the  home,   one  year  through   • excessive   permitting   adolescence.   masturbation.   access  to  child   • poor  peer  relations.   by  abusing   • reports  sexual  abuse.   caregiver/   • threatened  by  physical   spouse.   contact.   • suicide  attempt.   • role  reversal,  overly   concerned  for  siblings.   • unexplained  money  or   “gifts”.   • poor  self  esteem,  self   devaluation,  lack  of   confidence.   • regression  in   developmental   milestones,  and  lags  in   development.   • sleep  disturbances,   including  severe   nightmares.   • excessive  bathing  or   poor  hygiene.   • drawings  with  strong,   bizarre  sexual  theme.   Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.5
  7. 7.   Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics   Emotional   • speech  disorders.   • conduct  disorders   • Not  meeting  a   maltreatment  can   • lags  in  physical   (antisocial,   child’s   include  patterns  of:   development.   destructive).   educational   • verbal  assaults,   • failure  to  thrive.   • neurotic  traits  (sleep   needs  such  as   disorders,  inhibition  of   failing  to  enroll  a   including   play).   child  in  school,   screaming,   • behavior  extremes:   refusing   intimidating,   compliant,  passive,   recommended   rejecting,   undemanding,   remedial   ridiculing,   aggressive,   services  without   threatening,   demanding,  rageful.   good  reason,  or   blaming,  sarcasm.   • overly  adaptive   repeatedly   • ignoring  and   behavior:  “Parents”   keeping  a  child   indifference.   other  children   out  of  school   • constant  family   inappropriately.   without  good   conflict.   • inappropriately   reason.   infantile  or   • blames  or     emotionally  needy.   belittles  child.   Cases  of  emotional   • self-­‐destructive,   • ignores  or   abuse  are  extremely   attempted  suicide.   rejects.   difficult  to  prove.  A   • withholds  love.   cause  and  effect   • treats  siblings   relationship  between   unequally.   the  parent  or   • seems   caregiver’s  acts  and   unconcerned   the  child’s  response   about  child’s   must  be  established.     problems.     • unreasonable   demands  or   impossible   expectations   without  regard   to  child’s   developmental   capacity.   Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.6
  8. 8. What to do When a Child or Adult Discloses 1. Find a private place to talk with the person. 2. Reassure the person making the disclosure. a. "I believe you." b. "I am glad you told me." c. "It is not your fault this happened," (if talking to the child). d. Affirm that maltreatment is wrong. 3. Listen openly and calmly, with minimal interruptions. Try to keep your own emotions and nonverbal cues neutral. 4. Write down the facts and words as the person has stated them. Use the child’s own vocabulary. 5. Do not promise not to tell. Know your limits. This is not a situation you can handle by yourself. However, do not discuss what the child told you with anyone who is not directly involved in helping the child. 6. Tell the truth. Don’t make promises you can’t keep, particularly relating to secrecy, court involvement, placement and social worker decisions. 7. Be specific. Let the child know exactly what is going to happen. Tell the child that you must report the abuse or neglect to Child Protective Services. Tell the child that a social worker who helps families with these kinds of problems may be coming to talk with the child. 8. Assess the child’s immediate safety. Is the child in immediate physical danger? Is it a crisis? Are there others in the home who can protect the child? 9. Be supportive. Remember why the child came to you. The child needs your help, support and guidance. Reassure the child that telling about the abuse or neglect was the right thing to do. It is the only way to make it stop. 10. Report the disclosure within 48 Hours to Child Protective Services. Call the toll-free CPS Hotline at 1- 800-352-6513. For serious physical abuse and sexual abuse, also contact the state police and local law enforcement. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.7
  9. 9. What NOT to Say When Someone Discloses To You 1. Don't ask "why" questions such as • "Why didn't you stop him or her?" • "Why are you telling me this?" 2. Don't say "Are you sure this is happening?" 3. Don't ask "Are you telling the truth?" 4. Don't say "Let me know if it happens again." 5. Don't ask "What did you do to make this happen?" If someone does make a disclosure, don't try to get all the details. Listen attentively and ask him/her if he/she wants to say anything else. If she chooses to say nothing more, then proceed to notify the designated official as soon as possible and follow the steps outlined by your church/agency policy. Also, write down the actual words used in the disclosure and your interaction with the individual. This first statement made spontaneously has forensic significance to the investigators and the exact words can be important. Above all, MINIMIZE the number of questions you ask and avoid the use of leading questions (questions that suggest an answer) e.g., "Did your uncle touch you in the private area too? Was he wearing a blue jacket?" Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.8
  10. 10. Types of Disclosures 1. Indirect Hints Examples ♦ "My brother wouldn't let me sleep last night." ♦ "Mr. Jones wears funny underwear." ♦ "My babysitter keeps bothering me." ♦ "I don't like it when my mother leaves me alone with my uncle." Explanation A child may talk in these terms because he or she hasn't learned more specific vocabulary, feels ashamed or embarrassed, has promised not to tell, or for a combination of those reasons. 2. Disguised Disclosure Examples ♦ "I know someone who is being touched in a bad way." ♦ "What would happen if a girl told someone she was being molested, but the person did not believe her?" Explanation A person may be talking about someone she or he knows, but is just as likely to be talking about himself or herself. Encourage the individual to tell you what he or she knows about the "other person." Then ask whether something like what is being said has ever happened to him or her. 3. Disclosures with Strings Attached Examples ♦ "I have a problem, but if I tell you, you have to promise not to tell." Explanation Many people believe something very negative will happen if they break the secret of maltreatment. The child may have been threatened by the offender to ensure his or her silence. Let the person know that there are some secrets that you just can't keep. Assure the individual that your job is to protect the child and keep him/her safe. Let the person know you will keep it as confidential as possible, but that you are required by law to make a report. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.9
  11. 11. Reporting Suspected Abuse or Neglect in West Virginia Thorough Interview Report intake findings received by assessment conveyed to CPS DHHR occurs Supervisor Does information Assign to Case indicate abuse or Worker for Yes neglect or assessment likelihood of abuse or neglect? Refer family Is the child unsafe to Community or does child need Resources if No indicated and No protected? close the case for CPS Yes Implement an out of home safety plan by petitioning the courts to place the child in a Open Case for safe environment ongoing CPS No Conduct a Family Can the child be Assessment in order to Implement an determine what must safely kept in their in-home home with formal/ change for the child to safety plan be safe and not need informal supports? protected. Safety is continually Yes assessed to Ensure Develop and in-home safety plan implement controls the threat. treatment plan. If it doesn't, Then Ongoing Safety Out-of-Home Safety Management. Plan is requested. Case review to determine if parental conduct and behaviors Service provision have changed causing based upon the child to no longer treatment plan. need protection. Modify treatment Yes No plan if necessary. Transition the family to case Child Abuse & Neglect Hotline closure. 1-800-352-6513 Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.10
  12. 12. Circles of Caring: Protective Factors that Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect !" About Protective Factors... The Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) has completed a comprehensive research analysis, which identified the following five Protective Factors that are linked to the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These Protective Factors or “Circles of Caring” are conditions in families and communities that, when present, increase the health and well-being of children and families. These attributes also serve as buffers against risk factors for child maltreatment. Research confirms that children are shaped by the people, experiences and environment in which they live. By implementing strategies that build these Protective Factors, we can create communities that care for children, which will enhance the lives of children and their families and greatly improve our common future. Knowledge of Parenting & Child Development. Crying babies, challenging children, and children with special needs are at the highest risk of abuse and neglect. Parents need: • information to help them understand the reasons behind their child’s behavior, • techniques to manage those behaviors and guide development, and • perspective, to put their child’s behavior in the context of overall development (for example: intense infant crying is a phase that will pass; stubborn and independent behavior in toddlers is normal) Parents have teachable moments just like children do – usually when their child has presented them with a new challenge or they are trying to tackle a new task like toilet training. Finally, parents need alternative ways of responding to their children than simply the ones they learned from how they were parented (especially parents who were abused or neglected as children – but also for people who grew up in families that over-relied on physical punishment and spanking). Parental Resilience. Resilience is the ability to “bounce back” when life becomes stressful. Problems at work or challenges at home can make parenting even more difficult and ensure that children get the love and attention they need. We can build resilience by reaching out to one another and helping parents during the inevitable challenges of life. When parents feel stressed or frustrated, you have the opportunity to offer support and encouragement. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.11
  13. 13. Social Connections. Having trusting relationships and being part of a social network goes a long way to decrease isolation – a major factor in child abuse and neglect. When parents have friends they can trust and confide in, they feel supported and are less likely to feel lonely. For preventing child abuse and neglect, it’s not just having social connections, but the quality of the connections: • Having someone to talk to and vent frustration, especially about parenting challenges. • Connections that help families to access resources – (e.g. a friend that will provide babysitting) • Opportunities to see other parents parenting – this allows parents to pick up some good techniques and perhaps also recognize some strategies that don’t work. • Social networks that include positive norms about parenting – conversations with other parents about the joys of raising children and sharing tips for positive things to do with children. Social and Emotional Development of Children. Supporting children’s social and emotional skills helps the communication between parents and their children and can reduce tensions within the family. When parents, caregivers and others help children express their feelings and needs effectively, children are less likely to resort to tantrums, biting or fighting. Over time, better communication about feelings helps cement the important bonds that children have with their parents and other adults. In addition, being able to talk about how they feel helps children be more likely to confide in a trusted adult about situations that make them feel uncomfortable or unsafe. . Concrete Support in Times of Need. Providing concrete supports is an important way of intervening before a crisis happens. Parents that are struggling to meet basic needs for their families will not be able to focus on less-immediate concerns like positive discipline and enhancing their child’s development. Concrete Support may include: • Response to a crisis such as food, shelter, and clothing, • Assistance with daily needs such as health care, education, or job opportunities, • Services for parents dealing with depression and other mental health issues, domestic violence, or substance abuse, • Specialized services for children. “Times of need” is not limited to families in poverty. All families have times of need, whether it’s at the birth of a new child, health problems, etc. Mental illness, substance abuse and domestic violence can happen in any family. For more information visit: TM Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.12
  14. 14. Links to Additional Information Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES) More information about the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACES) is available online at Child Maltreatment Statistics Data cited in this training is from 2008 Child Maltreatment Annual Report published by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, April 2010, Community Based Child Abuse Awareness and Prevention in WV The WV Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Children and Families, oversees West Virginia's community based child abuse awareness and prevention grants, which are administered according to the guidelines of the Federal CBCAP Program Instructions. West Virginia funds four program areas: Family Leadership First, In-Home Family Education, Partners in Prevention, and Starting Points Centers. Information about these and other child abuse prevention efforts in WV is available online at Emerging Practices in the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Published 2003: Office of Child Abuse and Neglect, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Published as a component of the Child Abuse Prevention Initiative administered by the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, this study identifies best practices in the field of child abuse prevention. The report provides an overview of child abuse prevention and describes each of the selected programs. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Within Youth-Serving Organizations The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offers a comprehensive website which contains a variety of educational information about child maltreatment and its prevention, Protective Factors The protective factors were identified by The Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP), after a comprehensive analysis of child abuse prevention research in conjunction with a consortium of leading child abuse prevention experts and researchers, Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.13
  15. 15. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect in West Virginia The following booklets are available via the publications section of the Prevent Child Abuse WV website, In a Child’s Best Interest: A Guide for West Virginia School Personnel in Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect. Revised 2007. It Shouldn’t Hurt to Be a Child: A Guide for Early Childhood Providers in Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect. Revised 2007. One Child at a Time: A Guide for Professionals in Recognizing and Reporting the Abuse and Neglect of Children with Disabilities. Revised 2007. Child Abuse & Neglect: A Reporting Guide for Health Professionals, Oct. 2010. West Virginia Children’s Trust Fund The West Virginia Children’s Trust Fund funds community-based programs that help children grow up free from abuse and neglect. Examples include programs for new parents, school-based programs, public awareness activities and other evidence-based prevention efforts. Funds are received by individual donations including the WVCTF voluntary check off on the WV State Income Tax Form. Additional information is available online at Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.14
  16. 16. ABOUT THE TEAM FOR WEST VIRGINIA CHILDREN TEAM stands for “Together Eliminating Abuse and Maltreatment.” The TEAM for West Virginia Children, a Huntington-based non-profit agency, formed in 1986, dedicated to the prevention of child abuse and neglect. A small paid staff is helped by many volunteers to conduct programs including: • The Child Assault Prevention (CAP) project is presented in area elementary schools to help children learn to identify and deal with potentially dangerous situations. The CAP Project offers a workshop for school personnel and parents prior to the program with the children. All seek to empower children by providing information, teaching assertiveness, reducing isolation and encouraging children to seek help. • The Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) project provides trained community volunteers (CASA), appointed by a Circuit Court judge, to advocate for the best interests of an abused or neglected child who has been placed in state custody. The CASA fully researches the situation and makes recommendations to the judge on services needed and permanent placement for the child. The goal is a safe, permanent home for the child. • Public awareness campaigns: The TEAM provides both speakers and materials to promote child abuse prevention. Specific materials are available to help prevent Shaken Baby Syndrome and promoting safe infant sleep through the Our Babies: Safe & Sound Campaign. The TEAM has developed a series of booklets on identifying and reporting child abuse for mandated reports. • The Healthy Families America project: This project provides voluntary intensive home visitor services for first-time parents who face many challenges. The goal is to help the family get off to a good start by promoting parent-child bonds, providing child development information, and serving as a link to needed community resources. • Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia (PCA-WV): This project is working to support safe and strong families through education, effective programs, and sound public policy. PCA-WV is a state chapter of Prevent Child Abuse America. Partners in Prevention is a statewide initiative of PCA-WV involving community teams around the state who are working to promote the well-being of children on a community level. To contact the TEAM for West Virginia Children: WEBSITES: PHONE: (304) 523-9587 FAX: (304) 523-9595 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1653, Huntington, W.Va., 25717-1653 E=MAIL: Twitter: Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect A.15