Aristotle generalized the common
sense notion that an object cannot
undergo motion without something
that causes it to move as it does.
Galileo reasoned that an object
will continue to move with constant
velocity if no external force acts to
affect this motion.
*Their works were focused on the description of motion, while
Newton’s study of motion was centered on the force that causes the
different states of motion of an object.
Scalar quantity – has magnitude (a number and a unit of measure) only
Vector quantity – has magnitude and direction
*The resultant vector represents the sum of two or more vectors.
MEASUREMENTS and Vectors
Measurement is the process of comparing a quantity
with a chosen standard.
Accuracy is the closeness of the value to the exact value.
Precision is the closeness of two measurements to each other.
- also known as
- obtained from
QUANTITATIVELY HOW A
BODY MOVES THROUGH
FOR THE OBSERVED
MOTION IN TERMS OF
CONTINUOUS CHANGE OF POSITION WITH RESPECT TO A REFERENCE
Distance – total length covered
Displacement – length from starting to final point
Speed – distance traveled by an object in a given time
Velocity – rate of change of displacement
Acceleration – rate of change in velocity
-is a combination of vertical
and horizontal motions that are
completely independent of each
-is the motion of a body with a
GIF Source: Physics Classroom
Air is a source of friction (air
resistance). Too much air resistance is a
hindrance to moving fast. The amount of
air resistance depends on the size and
shape of the object and on its velocity.
Balanced Forces – equal forces that act on an object in
opposite directions, no acceleration, 0 net force; constant
velocity or at rest
Unbalanced Forces – if one of the forces is greater that the
other, may cause an object to start moving, change speed,
stop moving, or change direction.
Example Images from Physics Classroom
4 Fundamental Forces
3.Strong Nuclear Force
4.Weak Nuclear Force
Torque = F x d┴
Newton’s Laws of Motion
First Law: Law of Inertia
Inertia – tendency of an object to persist in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line
* An object in motion continues to be in motion while an
object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an
external force. *
GIF Source: Physics Classroom GIF Source: www.bergentechstudents.org
Second Law: Law of Acceleration
∝ Net Force
* A net force acting on a body produces an acceleration which
is in the direction of the force. This acceleration is
directly proportional to the force, and inversely
proportional to the mass of the body. *
Image Source: dcpspublic.oncoursesystems.com
Third Law: Law of Interaction
* For every force applied to a body, there is an equal and
opposite force given back to the body. These two forces do
not balance each other because these are not exerted on the
same body. *
Image Source: Physics Classroom
Image Source: physics.tutorvista.com