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Introduction research methodology


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Introduction research methodology

  1. 1. Research Methodology BY Dr. J K SACHDEVA
  2. 2. BY Dr. J. K. SACHDEVA <ul><li>M.B.A. (FINANCE), PGDMM, PH. D (DEVELOPMENT STUDIES) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-SUPERINTENDENT OF CUSTOMS (P), Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>FACULTY, GNIMS, Matunga, Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>Hon Editor – Journal of Global Economy </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDIAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VISITING FACULTY/COUNSELOR </li></ul><ul><li>ITM, KHARGHAR </li></ul><ul><li>IGNOU, STUDY CENTRE, </li></ul><ul><li>SATHEYE COLLEGE, VILLE PARLE </li></ul><ul><li>JDC-BYTCO, NASIK </li></ul><ul><li>Chetana Institute of Management and Research, Bandra (E) </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL SPEAKER ON MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS ALL INDIA RADIO FM , IGNOU-GYAN VANI PROGRAMMES </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contact me <ul><li>9892728281 </li></ul><ul><li>26670461 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits of research to whom <ul><li>As a graduate student... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to read and understand the empirical literature in your field; to become a critical consumer of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a graduate student preparing for a thesis or dissertation… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to both design and implement your thesis or dissertation as well as future studies that interest you. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits to whom <ul><li>As a future practitioner… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to intelligently participate in research projects, evaluations, and studies undertaken by your institution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an educated citizen ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand the difference between scientifically acquired knowledge and other kinds of information. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What Research Is Not <ul><li>Research isn’t information gathering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering information from resources such books or magazines isn’t research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No contribution to new knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research isn’t the transportation of facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesn’t constitute research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Research Is <ul><li>Research is: </li></ul>“… the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.” 1
  8. 8. What’s the Difference Between “Method” and “Methodology”? <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for gathering evidence </li></ul><ul><li>The various ways of proceeding in gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed, often influenced by discipline </li></ul>
  9. 9. Epistemology, Methodology, and Method <ul><li>“ a research method is a technique for (or way of proceeding in) gathering evidence&quot; while </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; methodology is a theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed&quot; and </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;an epistemology is a theory of knowledge&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>&quot;It is the theory that decides what can be observed.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Research Characteristics <ul><li>Originates with a question or problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires clear articulation of a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a specific plan or procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Often divides main problem into subproblems. </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts certain critical assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires collection and interpretation of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical (helical) in nature. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Projects <ul><li>Research begins with a problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This problem need not be Earth-shaking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying this problem can actually be the hardest part of research. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, good research projects should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address an important question. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research Project Pitfalls <ul><li>The following kinds of projects usually don’t make for good research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-enlightenment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing data sets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlating data sets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with yes / no answers. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. High-Quality Research (1 of 2) <ul><li>Good research requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A thoroughly planned design that is as objective as possible. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. High-Quality Research (2 of 2) <ul><li>Good research requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly ethical standards be applied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All limitations be documented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data be adequately analyzed and explained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All findings be presented unambiguously and all conclusions be justified by sufficient evidence. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sources of Research Problems <ul><li>Observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature reviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional conferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stating the Research Problem <ul><li>Once you’ve identified a research problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State that problem clearly and completely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the feasibility of the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify subproblems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely researchable units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small in number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add up to the total problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be clearly tied to the interpretation of the data. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Research <ul><li>Acquisition of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>v/s </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>(Theoretically, concerned with developing, exploring, or testing theories) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theory <ul><li>What exists? </li></ul><ul><li>Why exists? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen in future? </li></ul>
  20. 20. How to acquire Knowledge? <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( works moving from specific observation to broader generalisation, bottom approach) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( more general to more specific or top down approach) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Deductive Reasoning Theory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation
  22. 22. Inductive Reasoning <ul><li>Observation </li></ul>Pattern Hypothesis Theory
  23. 23. Positivism <ul><li>Goal of Knowledge is to describe the phenomena that are experienced, </li></ul><ul><li>There is interdependence of observation and theory, our observations are theory laden </li></ul>
  24. 24. Scientific thought <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>John Stuart </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Popper </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>Feyer bend </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Hagen </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hypotheses <ul><li>Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is often a 1-1 correspondence between a subproblem and a hypothesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses can direct later research activities since they can help determine the nature of the research and methods applied. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Delimitations <ul><li>All research has limitations and thus certain work that will not be performed. </li></ul><ul><li>The work that will not be undertaken is described as the delimitations of the research. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Definitions <ul><li>Define each technical term as it is used in relation to your research project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This helps remove significant ambiguity from the research itself by ensuring that reviewers, while they may not agree with your definitions, at least know what you’re talking about. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Assumptions <ul><li>Assumptions are those things that the researcher is taking for granted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: a given test instrument accurately and consistently measures the phenomenon in question. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a general rule you’re better off documenting an assumption than ignoring it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlooked assumptions provide a prime source of debate about a research project’s results. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Importance of the Study <ul><li>Many research problems have a kind of theoretical feel about them. Such projects often need to be justified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the research project’s practical value? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without this justification, it will prove difficult to convince others that the problem in question is worth study. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Research Proposals <ul><li>Research proposals are documents that describe the intended research including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem and subproblems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delimitations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Literature Review <ul><li>A literature review is a necessity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without this step, you won’t know if your problem has been solved or what related research is already underway. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When performing the review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start searching professional journals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the most recent articles you can find. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of relevant articles in a bibliography. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be discouraged if work on the topic is already underway. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Literature Review Pitfalls (1 of 2) <ul><li>Be very careful to check your sources when doing your literature review. </li></ul><ul><li>Many trade magazines are not peer reviewed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional conferences and journals often have each article reviewed by multiple people before it is even recommended for publication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The IEEE and ACM digital libraries are good places to start looking for legitimate research. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Literature Review Pitfalls (2 of 2) <ul><li>The Internet can be a good source of information. It is also full of pseudo-science and poor research. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you verify the claims of any documentation that has not been peer reviewed by other professionals in the computing industry. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Processes & Methodologies <ul><li>Research Process. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Methodologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology Comparison. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Research Process <ul><li>Research is an extremely cyclic process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later stages might necessitate a review of earlier work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This isn’t a weakness of the process but is part of the built-in error correction machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the cyclic nature of research, it can be difficult to determine where to start and when to stop. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Step 1: A Question Is Raised <ul><li>A question occurs to or is posed to the researcher for which that researcher has no answer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This doesn’t mean that someone else doesn’t already have an answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The question needs to be converted to an appropriate problem statement like that documented in a research proposal. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Step 2: Suggest Hypotheses <ul><li>The researcher generates intermediate hypotheses to describe a solution to the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is at best a temporary solution since there is as yet no evidence to support either the acceptance or rejection of these hypotheses. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Step 3: Literature Review <ul><li>The available literature is reviewed to determine if there is already a solution to the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing solutions do not always explain new observations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The existing solution might require some revision or even be discarded. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Step 4: Literature Evaluation <ul><li>It’s possible that the literature review has yielded a solution to the proposed problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that you haven’t really done research. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, if the literature review turns up nothing, then additional research activities are justified. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Step 5: Acquire Data <ul><li>The researcher now begins to gather data relating to the research problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The means of data acquisition will often change based on the type of the research problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This might entail only data gathering, but it could also require the creation of new measurement instruments. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Step 6: Data Analysis <ul><li>The data that were gathered in the previous step are analyzed as a first step in ascertaining their meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>As before, the analysis of the data does not constitute research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is basic number crunching. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Step 7: Data Interpretation <ul><li>The researcher interprets the newly analyzed data and suggests a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be difficult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that data analysis that suggests a correlation between two variables can’t automatically be interpreted as suggesting causality between those variables. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Step 8: Hypothesis Support <ul><li>The data will either support the hypotheses or they won’t. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This may lead the researcher to cycle back to an earlier step in the process and begin again with a new hypothesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is one of the self-correcting mechanisms associated with the scientific method. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Common Methodologies <ul><li>Methodologies are high-level approaches to conducting research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual steps within the methodology might vary based on the research being performed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two commonly used research methodologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Methodology Comparison <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation, prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Test theories </li></ul><ul><li>Known variables </li></ul><ul><li>Large sample </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation, description </li></ul><ul><li>Build theories </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown variables </li></ul><ul><li>Small sample </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul>
  46. 46. An Overview of Empirical Research Methods <ul><li>Descriptive (Qualitative) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Suvey/Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse/Text Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Description </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction/Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental (Quantitative) </li></ul><ul><li>True Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi-Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Analysis </li></ul>
  47. 47. Assessing Methods <ul><li>Research Question(s) is/are key </li></ul><ul><li>Methods must answer the research question(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology guides application </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology guides analysis </li></ul>
  48. 48. Ethnographies <ul><li>Observational field work done in the actual context being studied </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how individuals interrelate in their own environment (and the influence of this environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to interpret/analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming/expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Can influence subject behavior </li></ul>
  49. 49. Case Studies <ul><li>Focus is on individual or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Able to conduct a comprehensive analysis from a comparison of cases </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for identification of variables or phenomenon to be studied </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Depth rather than breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily representative </li></ul>
  50. 50. Survey Research <ul><li>An efficient means of gathering large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Can be anonymous and inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback often incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>Wording of instrument can bias feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Details often left out </li></ul>
  51. 51. Focus Groups <ul><li>Aid in understanding audience, group, users </li></ul><ul><li>Small group interaction more than individual response </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify and fill gaps in current knowledge re: perceptions, attitudes, feelings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not give statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing tools seen as “suspect” </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis subjective </li></ul>
  52. 52. Discourse/Text Analysis <ul><li>Examines actual discourse produced for a particular purpose (job, school) </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding of context, production, audience, and text </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule for analysis not demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Categories often fluid, making analysis difficult </li></ul>
  53. 53. Quantitative Descriptive Studies <ul><li>Isolates systematically the most important variables (often from case studies) and to quantify and interrelate them (often via survey or questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to collect large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Not as disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Biases not as likely </li></ul><ul><li>Data restricted to information available </li></ul>
  54. 54. Discourse/Text Analysis <ul><li>Examines actual discourse produced for a particular purpose (job, school) </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding of context, production, audience, and text </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule for analysis not demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Categories often fluid, making analysis difficult </li></ul>
  55. 55. Quantitative Descriptive Studies <ul><li>Isolates systematically the most important variables (often from case studies) and to quantify and interrelate them (often via survey or questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to collect large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Not as disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Biases not as likely </li></ul><ul><li>Data restricted to information available </li></ul>
  56. 56. Prediction and Classification Studies <ul><li>Goal is to predict behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction forecasts and interval variable (Diagnostic/TAAS scores) </li></ul><ul><li>Classification forecasts a nominal variable (Major selection after taking 2311) </li></ul><ul><li>Important in industry, education to predict behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Need substantial population </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted range of variables can cause misinterpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Variables cannot be added together; must be weighted and looked at in context of other variables </li></ul>
  57. 57. Positive Aspects of Descriptive/Qualitative Research <ul><li>Naturalistic; allows for subjects to interact with environment </li></ul><ul><li>Can use statistical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to further develop theory (not to influence action); Prescientific </li></ul><ul><li>Coding schemes often arise from interplay between data and researcher’s knowledge of theory </li></ul>
  58. 58. Problems with Descriptive/Qualitative Research <ul><li>Impossible to overlay structure </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to impose control </li></ul><ul><li>Subject pool often limited, not representative </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as more “subjective,” less rigorous </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial only in terms of initial investigation to form hypothesis </li></ul>
  59. 59. Experimental Research: True Experiment <ul><li>Random sampling, or selection, of subjects (which are also stratified) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of a treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of a control group for comparing subjects who don’t receive treatment with those who do </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to scientific method (seen as positive, too) </li></ul><ul><li>Must have both internal and external validity </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and control might seem artificial </li></ul>
  60. 60. Experimental Research: Quasi-Experiment <ul><li>Similar to Experiment, except that the subjects are not randomized. Intact groups are often used (for example, students in a classroom). </li></ul><ul><li>To draw more fully on the power of the experimental method, a pretest may be employed. </li></ul><ul><li>Employ treatment, control, and scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Act of control and treatment makes situation artificial </li></ul><ul><li>Small subject pools </li></ul>
  61. 61. Meta-Analysis <ul><li>Takes the results of true and quasi-experiments and identifies interrelationships of conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Replicable </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizes overall results </li></ul><ul><li>C/C apples and oranges? </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of studies used? </li></ul>
  62. 62. Positive Aspects of Experimental Research <ul><li>Tests the validity of generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as rigorous </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies a cause-and-effect relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as more objective, less subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Can be predictive </li></ul>
  63. 63. Problems with Experimental Research <ul><li>Generalizations need to be qualified according to limitation of research methods employed </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled settings don’t mirror actual conditions; unnatural </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to isolate a single variable </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t allow for self-reflection (built-in) </li></ul>
  64. 64. Testing the Waters <ul><li>How do you come up with a good research question? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you determine if the method you plan to use will answer your question? </li></ul><ul><li>What epistemology should you use to analyze data? </li></ul>
  65. 65. Quantitative Methods <ul><li>Samplingst </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Chi Square Test </li></ul><ul><li>ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>Multivariate Analysis </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>