Understanding Our Past


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Understanding Our Past

  1. 1. Understanding Our Past Prehistory – Before Written RecordsThe First Humans<br />
  2. 2. Objective:<br />Learn how scholars<br />study the historical past<br />
  3. 3. I) Studying our historical Past<br />A)Historian-person who studies how people lived in the past primarily using written sources.<br />
  4. 4. Studying our historical Past – Two types of Sources<br />1) Primary source -- First hand account<br />(1) Journal, diary, letter, interview, some blogs (Team Washington blog)<br />2) Secondary source -- Account from someone who did not witness event<br />Textbook, encyclopedia, documentary, some blogs – (ancient Egypt blog)<br />
  5. 5. Objective:<br />Find out how<br />anthropologists investigate<br />the period of prehistory<br />Anthropology is a science of humankind or the study of people.<br />
  6. 6. Traditions<br />food<br />Clothing/dance<br />African griot<br />B) Anthropology -- study of the origins and development of people and their societies (called anthropologists) <br /> 1) Culture – way of life of a society that is handed down from one generation to the next by learning and experience <br />12<br />
  7. 7. Anthropologists<br />An anthropologist can specialize in one of four areas.<br />1. Cultural anthropology is the study of cultures, both past and present. <br />2. Physical anthropology deals with biological aspects of humans. This is everything from variation in human traits (what we call &quot;races&quot;) to the whole theory of evolution and how we became the human beings we are now.<br />3. Linguistic anthropology focuses on language.<br />4. Archaeology is the study of human remains (bones, skeletons, etc. and things they&apos;ve created like tools, pottery, etc.)<br />
  8. 8. Anthropologists<br />Anthropologists work in every environment and setting imaginable. <br />Anthropologists can be found working in large corporations like Intel and GM or studying primates in Africa. <br />Anthropologists work in deserts, cities, schools, underwater, in laboratories, in libraries and in the field.<br />Working in the field means that an anthropologist might be sifting through a garbage dump, digging up a pyramid or studying a city.<br />
  9. 9. Anthropologists study<br />A. animals<br />B. the stars<br />C. people<br />D. the earth<br />Let’s see how well you were reading.<br />
  10. 10. An anthropologist can specialize in one of ____ areas?<br />Cultural Anthropology<br />Archaeology<br />Linguistics<br />Physical Anthropology<br />Let’s see how well you were reading.<br />4<br />
  11. 11. Anthropologists study in the<br />lab<br />field<br />library<br />all of the above<br />Let’s see how well you were reading.<br />
  12. 12. What do you think field work means?<br />Studying anyplace people or their artifacts are found… in the Amazon, in a garbage dump, in a city<br />Let’s see how well you were reading.<br />
  13. 13. Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull<br />C) Archaeology- the study of the ways of life of early people through the examination of their physical remains (People who study archaeology are called archaeologists)<br />
  14. 14. fossil <br />Archaeologists study physical remains, both fossils and artifacts. <br />These scientists use many clues to help them put pieces of the past together. <br />One thing they must know is the difference between an artifact and a fossil. <br />artifact<br />
  15. 15. 1) Artifact- an object made by people – tools, jewelry, clothing, weapons, buildings<br />
  16. 16. Fossils<br />Fossils are remains of living things (plants, animals, people), not things that were made.<br />
  17. 17. Fossils<br />Gorilla Skull<br />
  18. 18. Objective:<br />Understand how discoveries<br />in Africa and beyond<br />have influenced anthropologists&apos; <br />views about early humans<br />and their ancestors<br />
  19. 19. 65 Million Years Ago<br />Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The first human like hominids did not appear until around 4 million years ago. <br />So, early man (hominids) did not live during the same period in history as dinosaurs.<br />
  20. 20. The First Humans<br />Hominids are the family of mankind and his or her relatives. <br />A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the &quot;great apes&quot;), including humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. <br />
  21. 21. The Paleolithic Age or the Old Stone Age<br /><ul><li>2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE</li></ul>This period in history is called the Stone Age because the ancient people made tools from stone or bone.<br />
  22. 22. The Paleolithic Age or the Old Stone Age<br /><ul><li>Hominids spent their time hunting (men) & gathering (women)  lived in small bands of 20-30 humans
  23. 23. NOMADIC - they moved from place to place</li></li></ul><li>Primate Family Tree<br />HUMANS<br />A primate is a member of an order of mammals with a large brain and complex hands and feet, including humans, apes, and monkeys. <br />
  24. 24. Ardipithecus ramidus <br />The First Humans<br />A<br />Timeline<br />
  26. 26. Ardipithecus ramidus <br />The most primitive hominid yet found. This species has more chimpanzee-like features than any other human ancestor. <br />The remains were found in Ethiopia.<br />
  27. 27. Ardipithecus ramidus <br />Ardipithecus ramidus may have walked upright. Other fossils discovered with Ardipithecus ramidus suggest that the species lived in the forest about 4.4 million years ago.The first fossils were found 1992.<br />
  28. 28. AUSTRALOPITHECUS<br />
  29. 29. Anthropologists believe different groups of hominidslived in Africa<br />(1) 4 million years ago –human like creatures called Australopithecus lived in Africa <br />
  30. 30. Australopithecus means &quot;Southern Ape&quot;.<br /> According to differences in the shape of the creatures&apos; jaws, teeth and the size of their brains, scientists divided them into four different species:<br /> Australopithecus afarensis<br /> Australopithecus africanus<br /> Australopithecus robustus<br /> Australopithecus boisei<br />
  31. 31. Lucy - Australopithecus afarensis<br />In 1974, a skeleton was found in Ethiopia. The bones were female, about 20 years old or so when she died. Scientists named her Lucy. About 3 million years ago, when Lucy was alive, she was about 4 feet tall and weighed about 50 pounds. Lucy was thought to be the oldest link between man and ape until ArdipithecusRamidus was discovered.<br />
  32. 32. Australopithecines<br />Gracile Australopithecines<br />Robust Australopithecines<br />32<br />
  33. 33. HOMO HABILIS<br />Handy man<br />
  34. 34. Homo habiliswas discovered about2.6 million years ago –called “handy man” – <br />He is believed to be the first hominid to make tools  cutting, scraping, sawing of plants, animals, wood.<br />
  35. 35. Homo habilis -Handy Man– first discovered in 1959 by anthropologist Mary Leakey. His fossils were found with stone tools and evidence of “butchered” animals.<br />Homo habilis was very similar to the australopithecines in terms of body size and shape.<br />
  36. 36. <ul><li>HOMO HABILISwas found in East Africa.
  37. 37. HOMO HABILIScreated stone tools.</li></li></ul><li>Making Stone tools - Flint Knapping<br />Early Homo Habilis toolmakers chose a durable stone to break or chip into a core and several flakes. <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyuzh1uaSf4&feature=related<br />
  38. 38. HOMO ERECTUS<br />Upright man<br />
  39. 39. 2 million years ago –Homo erectus – upright man<br />They were fully upright walkers.<br />They had larger brains and bones, smaller teeth<br /> They are believed to be the first to use fire.<br />
  40. 40. They invented a new stone tool- the hand ax.<br />Their remains have been found in Asiaand Europe- They migrated from Africa.<br />
  41. 41. HOMO SAPIENS<br />Wise man<br />
  42. 42. 250,000 – 100,000 years ago<br />Homo erectusdisappeared.<br />A new group called<br />Homo sapiens appeared<br />
  43. 43. Anthropologists are not sure where Homo sapiens originated.<br />
  44. 44. Differing Human Migration Theories<br />Some say evolution occurred at the same time in different areas.<br />
  45. 45. Others say evolution occurred in Africa and the people migrated to different areas in the world.<br />
  46. 46. There were twogroups of Homo sapiens.<br />1. Neanderthalswho lived mostly in Europe and western Asia.<br />Neanderthal youtube.com video clip(3:01)<br />
  47. 47. Homo neanderthalensis<br />Neanderthal man was discovered in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany in 1856.<br />He had a massive brain, large torso, short limbs, and broad nasal passages.<br />
  48. 48. 2. The other group of people were the earliest modern humans<br /> who eventually spread over world.<br />modern Homo sapiens Neanderthal  <br />http://prehistoria.info/wp-content/uploads/2009/ 06/homo-neanderthalensis-2.jpg<br />
  49. 49. 50,000 to 30,000 years ago -<br />(a) Neanderthals disappeared<br />(b) Early modern humans were the only hominids left. <br />
  50. 50. Ardipithecus ramidus <br />The First Humans<br />A<br />Timeline<br />