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SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005


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My prose was not treated gently by certain hands, but I love my many byline aliases throughout.

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SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005

  1. 1. SPRING 2005 ISSUE VOLUME 3S OESCHARLES V. SCHAEFER, JR. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERINGCHARLES V. SCHAEFER, JR. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING 2 Interdisciplinary Research in the Realm of the Very Small 10 Why Nano-Micro-Bio? 15 In the Shop: A Short History of Machining at Stevens 22 Olympic Sailing in 2012 IN THE REALM OF THE VERY SMALL
  2. 2. DEANGEORGE P.KORFIATIS MULTISCALE ENGINEERING This issue of InFocus is dedicated to the efforts of pioneering faculty and students at the Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. School of Engineering who are making enormous contributions and are creating new knowledge in the frontiers of multiscale engineering. Dear Friends and Colleagues, I have often wondered how our world of science for design, manufacturing and mass production of engi- and technology would have been shaped if the neered systems across multiple length-scales becomes early Egyptians and Greeks were able to make prevalent. The emergence of complex biological functions, direct observations at the atomic level. In reality, it from the cell level to macroscale physiological behavior, wasn’t until the late 15th century that the father-son has created another frontier of multiscale engineering. team of Hans and Zacharias Janssen constructed This issue of InFocus is dedicated to the efforts of pioneer- and put into production the first compound micro- ing faculty and students at the Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. scope. The magnification power of those micro- School of Engineering who are making enormous contribu- scopes ranged from 3x to 9x but that was enough to tions and are creating new knowledge in the frontiers of open our eyes into a new world. The first scientific multiscale engineering. Research in carbon nanotubes, treatise of the study of ‘minute bodies’ was written piezoelectric fibers, nanomaterials, enabled photonic by Robert Hook in 1665, in his book, Micrographia. sensors, nanopowders for environmental applications, An explosion in discoveries and scientific advances microchemical reactors and nanobiomedical applications has taken place since. Yet it was not until 1959 when are a sample of the exciting work carried out in our labora- the genius of Nobel Prize winner Richard P Feynman . tories. There is no doubt that engineering in the future will captured our imagination with the historic lecture be dominated by diminishing length and time-scales and “Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” Feynman opened that we will be increasingly challenged by systems integra- the door that takes us from observation to the realm tion and complexity. We will be there to provide the solu- of intervention, design and engineering at the tions and launch the technologies that meet and overcome atomic level. The term nanotechnology has been those challenges. coined to capture that leap. Still in its infancy, nan- As always please do not hesitate to contact me. otechnology provides an immensely fertile ground for engineering innovation. As a better under- My Best Regards, standing of properties, interactions and behavior of materials at the nanoscale emerges, the need
  3. 3. CONTENTS SPRING 2005 ISSUE VOLUME 3 FEATURES Interdisciplinary Research 2 in the Realm of the Very Small: Interdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors An Engineering Evolution: MEMS and Nanotechnology Revolutionizing Chemical Synthesis Microchemical Systems Enable Real-World Solutions Application of Nanomaterials to Water Treatment Next-Generation Composite Materials: Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymers “Hundreds of Tiny Hands:” The Making of Nano-Manipulation Tools Engineering the Nano-Bio-Interface Why Nano-Micro-Bio? 10 S OE S INFOCUS INFOCUS EXECUTIVE EDITOR Dean George P Korfiatis . SSoE Heritage CONSULTING Patrick A. Berzinski Dr. Cardinal Warde ‘69, Microsystems Entrepreneur 13 EDITORS Pamela KriegerStephen T. Boswell ‘89 and ‘91, An Entrepreneurial Civic Leader 14 MANAGING EDITOR Christine del Rosario CONTRIBUTORS Patrick A. Berzinski In the Shop: A Short History of Machining at Stevens 15 Dr. Ronald Besser Dr. Leslie Brunell Dr. Henry Du SSoE Students Dr. Frank Fisher Steven Hakusa Luce Scholars 16 Dr. Adeniyi Lawal Dr. Woo Lee Shotmeyer Scholar Dr. Matthew Libera Dr. Xiaoguang Meng InnertCHILL: Overclocking Made Easy 17 Roberta McAlmon The HeliOS Project Dr. Yong Shi Dr. Zhenqi Zhu Peter Krsko: Micro-Voyager 18 PHOTOGRAPHERS Meagen Henning Peter Krsko Christine del Rosario SSoE Faculty Special thanks to the Stevens Alumni Association Generating Intellectual Property 19 EXECUTIVE New Arrivals ADMINISTRATOR Marta Cimillo GRAPHIC DESIGN KMG Faculty News 20 Graphic Design Studio Olympic Sailing in 2012 22 © 2005 Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. School of Engineering C H A R L E S V. S C H A E F E R , J R . S C H O O L O F E N G I N E E R I N G
  4. 4. Interdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors Dr. Henry Du AN ENGINEERING EVOLUTION: MEMS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Dr. Yong Shi REVOLUTIONIZING CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS Dr. Adeniyi Lawal MICROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS ENABLE REAL-WORLD SOLUTIONS Dr. Ronald Besser INTERDISCIPLINARY APPLICA NANOMA A TION OF TERIALS TO W TER TREA TMENT RESEARCH In the of the Very Small Realm Dr. Xiaoguang Meng NEXT-GENERA TION "Nanotechnology stands out as a likely launch COMPOSITE MATERIALS: CARBON pad to a new technological era, because it focuses NANOTUBE-REIN- FORCED POL YMERs on perhaps the final engineering scales people Dr. Frank Fisher have yet to master." “HUNDREDS OF TINY Those words appeared in a 1999 report, Nanotechnology: Shaping the World Atom by HANDS” THE MAKING OF NANO-MANIPU- Atom, by the National Science and Technology Council. Indeed, technologies designed LATION TOOLS to build complex structures, molecule by molecule, have allowed scientists to create Dr. Zhenqi Zhu new structural materials 50 times stronger than steel of the same weight, making pos- sible the construction of a Cadillac weighing 100 pounds, according to Ralph Merkle of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. It could also, Merkle said in an article in MIT’s Technology Review, "give us surgical instruments of such precision and deftness that Engineering the they could operate on the cells and even molecules from which we are made." Nano-Bio-Interface Dr. Matthew R. Libera A bold new world of science and engineering has opened up, and it has only just begun to hint at the benefits it will yield to humankind. Well prior to the US Nanotechnology Initiative of 2001, engineers and scientists at WHY Stevens Institute of Technology were performing distinguished and highly recognized NANO-MICRO-BIO? funded research in the fields of nanotechnology and microtechnology; and since 2001, Dr. Woo Lee with growing federal support in funding and new faculty added to strengthen work in interdisciplinary focus areas, greater strides are being made each year. s2
  5. 5. I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L LInterdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors The Sensor GroupDr. Henry Du and his research team have PCFs are fabricated via a modified sol-gelpioneered work on the integration of pho- method for optical fibers with the aid of a a range of state-of-the-art laser techniquestonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with nanoscale simulation-based design for optimum used for taking measurements.technologies that will potentially lead to light-analyte interactions. Nanoscale Furthermore, experimental studiesrobust chemical and biological sensing surface functionalization is conducted augmented by computer simulation take following two strategies: into account the effects of surface function-devices. The National Science Foundation alization, analyte medium, and biospecificrecently granted Du’s team $1.3 million to 1. Surface attachment of Ag nanoparticles interactions on the optical characteristicspursue their multidisciplinary project. mediated by 3 mercaptopropy- of PCFs.Using molecular and nanoscale surface ltrimethoxysilane self-assembled monolay-modification, state-of-the-art laser tech- er (SAM) for chemical sensing of NOx, CO, In view of the challenges faced by theniques, and computer simulation, their and SO2, where surface-enhanced Raman nation, the interdisciplinary team ofresearch seeks to enhance the prospects of scattering (SERS) canPCF sensors, sensor arrays, and sensor be exploited for highnetworks for diverse applications such as sensitivity and molec-remote and dynamic environmental ular specificity; andmonitoring, manufacturing process safety, 2. Surface binding ofmedical diagnosis, early warning of biospecific recognitionbiological and chemical warfare, and entities for biologicalhomeland defense. sensing using the"Through basic and applied research," said following recognition Prof. Rainer Martini (Faculty Fellow), Prof. Du (PI), Prof.Svetlana SukhishviliDu, "the optically robust PCFs with surface- pairs: biotin/avidin, (Co-PI), Prof. Hong-Liang Cui (Co-PI), Prof. Kurt Becker (Faculty Fellow), Prof.functionalized, axially-aligned air holes are cholera toxin/anti- Christos Christodoulatos (Co-PI), and Prof. Xiaoguang Meng. The project isexpected to achieve a quantum leap in cholera toxin and conducted in collaboration with OFS Laboratories, a world leader in fiberchemical and biological detection capabili- optic research. organophosphorousty over conventional fiber-optic sensor hydrolase (OPH)/paraoxon, where SERS academic and industrial researchers alsotechnology." may also be exploited. involves postdoctoral fellows, graduatePCF sensors enabled by nanotechnology Then, the surface-functionalized air holes students, and several undergraduate/high-also have the potential to be a powerful are filled with analytes in order to evaluate school summer research scholars, thusresearch platform for in-situ fundamental the sensing capabilities of PCFs. Surface affording them training in chemical andstudies of surface chemistry and chemi- functionalization studies employ various biological sensing and monitoring - acal/biological interactions in microchemical surface-sensitive analytical techniques with priority area of federal R&D. sand microbiological systems. Specifically,An Engineering Evolution: MEMS and Nanotechnology Dr. Yong Shi ‘s Research GroupIn the evolution of micro-electro-mechani- evolved since the first one was developed goal is to increase the life cycle (to overcal systems (MEMS) design and modeling by Petersen in 1979. The contact configu- 100 billion cycles) and power capacity (toand the fabrication of nanomaterials, Dr. ration can be either vertical or lateral; more than 100mW)Yong Shi develops radio frequency (RF) direct metal-metal contact or of a capaci- of an RF switchMEMS switches and nanopiezoelectric tive type. The actuators used for these used for radar andfibers for nanoscale sensors, actuators, switches are typically electrostatic, ther- other instrumenta-and devices. mal-electric, electro-magnetic and piezo- tion systems. HeBreakthrough Technology: electric. However, they will not be viable developed a novelRF MEMS Switches MEMS switch shown in Figure 1RF switches are devices that provide a and has alreadyshort circuit or open circuit in the RF Figure 2. Microfabricated demonstrated thattransmission line. RF switches (millimeter MEMS switch by using the modu-wave frequencies 0.1 to 100 GHz) are lated contact sur-used in satellites, radar and wireless com- faces shown in Figure 2, the life cycle ofmunications. While MEMS technology has the MEMS switch can be significantlybeen extremely successful in developing increased while maintaining low contactacceleration sensors for automobile resistance. RF MEMS switches provideairbags, inkjet printers, blood pressure extreme performance advantages such asmonitors, and digital video projection Figure 1. MEMS switch concept lower insertion loss and higher isolationsystems, the incorporation of MEMS into over solid-state switches like p-i-n diodes.the micro/millimeter RF wave system has in the market unless their life cycle and Further investigations are being conduct-started a new technological revolution. power handing capacity are dramatically ed in system design and optimization;Different types of MEMS switches have increased and costs are reduced. Dr. Shi’s modeling of the friction and wear of the continued on next page 3
  6. 6. An Engineering Evolution...continued from page 3 undulated contact surface; macroscale. PZT nanofibers provide the thin film piezoelectric actuator capability to make active fiber compos- optimization; device integra- ites (AFC) and nanoscale devices. tion; and packaging. Dr. Shi’s research develops nanofibers with diameters from 6 micrometers to 50 Figure 3. Arbitrarily Figure 4. Aligned The Building Blocks: nanometers using electrospinning. Fibers distributed nano-piezo- nano-piezoelectric Nano-Piezoelectric Fibers with a diameter of about 200 nm have electric fibers fibers One-dimensional nanostructures already been developed as shown in technologies to assist the development of such as nanotubes, nanowires and Figure 3, where the nanofibers are dis- the nanofibers in designing the test nanofibers have great potential as tributed arbitrarily. SEM, TEM and X-ray samples, depositing and patterning the either building blocks for micro/nano diffraction are used to characterize the electrodes, and also releasing the devices or as functional materials for nanofibers and their crystal structures. nanofibers from the substrate. microscale electronics, photonics, and Different approaches are being explored to fabricate well-aligned or uniformly dis- Ultimately, Dr. Shi’s nanofiber and MEMS sensing and actuation applications. tributed PZT nanofibers. Some aligned research seeks to evolve and expand the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), an impor- nanofibers are shown in Figure 4. Dr. Shi capabilities of current technologies into tant piezoelectric material, is used for uses MEMS-based microfabrication increasingly smaller nanodevices. s both actuators and sensors at the Revolutionizing Chemical Synthesis by Dr. Adeniyi Lawal At the New Jersey Center for Micro- project) and without acid (~1500ppm) at high yield and a reduced need for energy Chemical Systems (NJCMCS), we are cur- moderate pressure and temperature condi- intensive separation/purification steps. rently demonstrating two novel microreac- tions using our in-house formulated cata- The microreactor-based production tor-based process intensification concepts lyst. The 1.5 wt% concentration finds direct approach, if successfully demonstrated, for on-demand, on-site, energy-efficient, commercial application in environmental will replace the existing energy inefficient, and cost-effective chemical production. remediation, while the 1500ppm concen- Both projects are funded by the DOE-OIT tration can be used as a biocide. to develop and deliver advanced technolo- Catalytic Hydrogenation gies that increase energy efficiency, of Nitroanisole to Anisidine improve environmental performance, and In September 2003, we partnered with boost productivity. Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), one of the Microchannel Reactors Revolutionize the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies Production of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) to design and evaluate a microchannel In September 2002, we partnered with FMC reactor system for the multiphase catalytic (one of the largest producers of H2O2 with hydrogenation of a model pharmaceutical (From left to right) Ms. Sunitha Tadepalli (Ph.D. more than 12% of the world market) to compound, nitroanisole to anisidine. student), Prof. Adeniyi Lawal, Dr. Raghu Halder develop a microchannel reactor system for Hydrogenation reactions are ubiquitous, (Research Associate), and Yury Voloshin (Ph.D. on-site production of hydrogen peroxide. accounting for 10-20% of all reactions in student). Today, we have successfully designed and the pharmaceutical industry. cost ineffective, environmentally detrimen- evaluated a laboratory microreactor sys- We have screened over eight different cat- tal, and inherently dangerous slurry semi- tem for the controlled, direct combination alysts and have identified the right cata- batch reactor-based catalytic hydrogena- of H2 and O2 in various compositions - lyst/support for the model hydrogenation tion manufacturing practice. The primary including explosive regimes. The reaction reaction. Also, an extensive investigation challenge is the development of paradigm- is extremely fast with a residence time that of the effects of various processing condi- changing design and hardware integration is almost two orders of magnitude less tions on the activity of the selected methodologies for auxiliary equipment than that of macroreactors. The direct catalyst in terms of conversion, yield, and and plant infrastructure that will enable combination concept is possible with selectivity has been carried out in the many aspects of the microchannel reactor microchannel reactors because they pos- microreactor system. Similar experiments technology. The next phase of the project sess extremely high surface to volume are currently being undertaken in a semi- will involve a real-world pharmaceutical ratios by virtue of their small transverse batch reactor system at the New molecule patented by BMS. dimensions, and consequently exhibit Brunswick facility of BMS. Preliminary Articles were written about the two projects in enhanced heat and mass transfer rates. results indicate that the mass transfer Chemical Engineering Progress, EurekAlert, The enhanced heat transfer enables rapid efficiency of the microreactor system is Jersey Journal, Small Times News, and the wall quenching of free radicals which in two orders of magnitude higher than that Chemical and Engineering News. Stevens fac- conventional-size reactors lead to runaway of the semi-batch reactor system. ulty team members are the PI, Dr. Adeniyi thermal conditions and explosion. The significant reduction of heat and mass Lawal, assisted by two Co-PIs, Drs. Woo Lee Another achievement is the production of transfer resistances in microchannel reac- and Ronald Besser, and Dr. Suphan Koven. H2O2 in concentrations of significant tor systems enables the realization of fast Drs. Emmanuel Dada and Dalbir Sethi of FMC, and Don Kientzler and Dr. San Kiang of BMS commercial interest with acid (~1.5 wt%, intrinsic kinetics (millisecond reactions) provide technical guidance from industrial exceeding the 1 wt% requirement of the which suppresses side reactions, leading to perspectives. s4
  7. 7. I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L LMicrochemical Systems Enable Real-World Solutions Dr. Ronald Besser’s Research Team Prof. Besser’s hydrogen is harvested from hydrocarbons nies can use to screen catalysts from vari- research team like methanol or diesel fuel, carbon ous vendors for a particular synthesis focuses on monoxide, a poison to both humans and step being developed for manufacturing. the funda- fuel cells, is produced. Besser’s group Prof. Besser’s background is in the devel- mentals of investigated a novel microchemical opment of materials, processes and chemical reac- approach to removing this poison. This devices. His expertise has been leveraged tion within step is especially important for proton- in developing microchemical systems the confined exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells using many of the same techniquesgeometries of microchemical systems. which are the front runners for broad exploited in MEMS technology. He andTheir work is approached holistically by commercialization of the technology. his students collaborate heavily withbringing together tools from different They are also exploring other new initia- microsystems experts at Lucent Bell Labs,disciplines that can be applied in various tives for fuel cell energy, for example, thefields including energy, pharmaceuticals, processing of military diesel fuels thatand chemicals. Microfabrication is used to will significantly lighten the load ofcreate precisely defined structures in tomorrow’s foot soldiers as well as bringwhich chemicals and reactions can be distributed electrical power to largestudied. Testing methods involve coupling Navy vessels.these small reactors to the external world The team’s work in processing pharma-to control and sample their output with ceutical chemicals involves the develop-chromatographs and mass spectrometers. ment of a new reactor microchip conceptThe data gathered is mathematically which can circumvent problems existingmodeled to both understand the observa- in current industry-wide reactor technolo-tions and to predict behavior. The results gy. In this new approach, miniaturizationcontribute to the growing knowledge base affords the possibility of creating an inti-needed to evolve microchemical systems mate mixture of liquid and gaseous react- Prof. Besser (center) with students Shauninto devices that can ultimately benefit ing chemicals, while at the same time effi- McGovern (left) and Woo Cheol Shinn (right).society. ciently extracting the heat generated byRecently completed work focused on a the process. The chip can be used with NJIT, and the Cornell Nanofabricationreaction that eliminates a poison from the commercial catalysts already available, Facility (CNF), where Dr. Besser serves ashydrogen gas used for fuel cells. When and is a tool that pharmaceutical compa- a member of the CNF User Committee. sApplication of NanomAtErials to W ter Trea a tment by Dr. Xiaoguang MengNanotechnology offers great potential in enormous adsorption capacity for chemi-advancing scientific discovery and tech- cals and pollutants. metals. The material is also an active pho-nological development. The federal gov- In 2002, researchers at the Center for tocatalyst. In the presence of dissolvedernment is spending more than $1 billion Environmental Systems developed a oxygen and with UV-light irradiation, theon nanotechnology, making it the largest nanocrystalline titanium dioxide with a following are generated at the titaniumpublic-funded science initiative since the high adsorption capacity for arsenic, lead, dioxide surface: hydroxyl radicals, super-space race. Various nanomaterials such as and other heavy metals (Figure 1). oxide ions, and hydrogen peroxide. Thesenanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires Titanium dioxides are widely used as pig- highly reactive chemical species destroyhave been developed to create sensitive ment in paints, paper, organic pollutants and kill bacteria.analytical sensors, miniature medical plastics, sun block Currently, a patent pending nanocrys-devices, electrical components, and lotion, and tooth talline titanium dioxide is marketed bymachinery. In addition, nanomaterials paste. However, the Hydroglobe, Inc., a company founded bywith at least one dimension in the commercial pigment Stevens in 2000 and acquired by Gravernanometer range (10-9m) may possess is not effective for the Technologies in 2004. Because nanocrys-superior physicochemical properties such removal of heavy talline titanium dioxide enables theas high conductivity and hardness; fasci- metals. effective removal of lead and other heavynating optical phenomena; excellent cat- Nanocrystalline titani- metals, it was used to develop a faucetalytic activity for chemical reactions; and um dioxide is pro- mount filter (Figure 2) available at Target, Figure 2. Faucet duced by the hydroly- mount filter that Wal-Mart, and other stores. DOW sis of titanium in Chemical has also licensed the patent and uses TiO2 solutions under con- developed a new adsorbent with the adsorbent. trolled pH, tempera- material. ture, and time. The crystalline size and In the near future, more water treatment specific surface area of the material is products will be made of nanocrystalline about 6 nm and 330 m2/g, respectively. titanium dioxide as the drive to fulfill theFigure 1. Scanning electron microscop- This high surface density of functionalic image of aggregates of TiO2 particles. promise of nanotechnology continues. s groups strongly binds arsenic and heavy 5
  8. 8. Next-generation composite materials: nanotube-reinforced polymers Dr. Frank Fisher’s Research Group Dr. Frank Fisher’s primary change in properties research area is the mechanical of this non-bulk inter- modeling of polymer nanocom- phase region, we posites with a focus on carbon have developed a nanotube-reinforced polymers coupled experimental- (NRPs). Since their discovery in modeling technique the early 1990s, carbon nanotubes to characterize the (CNTs) have excited scientists and changes in the engineers with their wide range of relaxation processes unusual physical properties. These of the nanocomposite properties are a direct result of the response due to the near-perfect microstructure of the properties of the CNTs, which at the atomic scale can non-bulk polymer be thought of as an hexagonal sheet of interphase (Figure 1, carbon atoms rolled into a seamless, center). The existence quasi-one-dimensional cylindrical of this interphase shape. Besides their extremely small region has recently Kon Chol Lee, Gaurav Mago, Dr. Frank Fisher, Vinod Challa, and Arif size (single-walled carbon nanotubes been verified via high Shaikh can have diameters on the order of 1 resolution scanning nm, or 1*10-9 m, 100,000 times smaller electron microscopy cate bone-shaped carbon nanotubes as than the diameter of a human hair), car- (SEM) images of the fracture surface of shown in Figure 2. The highly uniform bon nanotubes are half as dense as alu- a CNT-polycarbonate fracture surface geometry of these nanostructures minum, have tensile strengths 20 times (Figure 1, right). Working in conjunction (length, inner and outer diameters, wall that of high strength steel alloys, have with colleagues in chemistry and mate- thickness) can be controlled via appro- current carrying capacities 1,000 times rials science, one important application priate manipulation of the template fab- that of copper, and transmit heat twice of these modeling techniques is to rication and carbon deposition process- as well as pure diamond. Given these quantify how different processing meth- es. Enhanced load-transfer for these unparalleled physical properties, CNTs ods influence the size and properties of bone-shaped inclusions is anticipated offer the potential to create a new type this interphase region. For example, through mechanical interlocking with of composite material with extraordi- tethering short polymer chains covalent- the polymer matrix at the widened nary properties. However, the ly to the surface of the nanotube prior ends. s nanoscale interaction mechanisms between the CNTs and the surrounding polymer must be understood and cou- pled to the micro/macroscale mechani- cal response of the material. One aspect of this work is the develop- ment of enhanced modeling methods and corresponding experimental tech- niques to describe the effective mechanical behavior of these systems. For example, due to the extremely small size of the embedded nanotubes, Figure 1. (left) Three-phase model of NRP accounting for the presence of a non-bulk polymer a polymer interphase region forms in interphase region. (center) Relaxation spectra for MWNT-PC samples showing additional, long- timescale relaxation processes that are due to the mechanical behavior of the non-bulk poly- these systems with mechanical proper- mer interphase. (right) High-resolution SEM imaging of a CNT-polycarbonate fracture surface. ties that are different from the proper- ties of the bulk polymer matrix (see Figure 1, left). Due to the extremely to composite fabrication has been large surface area of the embedded shown to alter the size and properties of nanotubes, this interphase region can this interphase region. comprise a significant portion of the volume fraction of the composite and Another project investigates alternative significantly influence the overall methods of enhancing the load-transfer mechanical properties of the composite. mechanisms in these nanocomposite Figure 2. High magnification TEM images of a However, because of the extremely material systems. With collaborators at bone-shaped templated carbon nanotube. The small size of this interphase region, the University of North Carolina- outer stem and end diameters are ~40 and ~70 experimental characterization is exceed- Charlotte, the team is looking to exploit nm, respectively. The wall thickness is ~10 nm. ingly difficult. Thus, to quantify the a novel template-based method to fabri- The length of the T-CNT is ~5 µm.6
  9. 9. I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L L"Hundreds of tiny hands:" The making ofnano-manipulation tools Dr. Zhenqi Zhu’s Research TeamTrue realization of nanotechnologyrequires nanoscale components/struc-tures to be inexpensively assembled intofunctional systems; nanoscale manipula-tion is one of the key enabling technolo-gies in this vision.The power and capacity of manipulationtools in changing our world were high-lighted in 230 B.C. by Archimedes, aGreek mathematician, engineer, andphysicist: "Give me a lever long enoughand a place to stand, and I will move theworld." Tool searching and developmentcontinues today as scientists and engi- The jointless nanomanipulator (a & b), US patent pending featuring friction- and backlash-free 6-DOFneers demand manipulation tools small motion. (c) Photograph of initial macroscale prototype. (d) High resolution image of cilia. (e,f) Modelsenough to extend their arms into the of motion mechanism of a segment of a cilium or flagellum.nanoscale world. Such small-enoughmanipulation tools are what Feynmanfirst challenged in 1959 with his"hundreds of tiny hands" vision ofnanotechnology.Nanotechnology will enable one tounderstand, measure, manipulate, andmanufacture at the atomic and molecu-lar levels creating materials, devices,and systems with fundamentally newfunctions and properties. A great break-through in nanotechnology came with State-of-the-art, bottom-up nanomanipulation/design. (a) Atom by atom positioning on surface (Eiglerthe inventions of the scanning tunneling of IBM, 1990); (b) Singling out a DNA using optical tweezers (Chu of Stanford, 1992); (c) Path planningmicroscope in 1982 and the atomic force for automatic atomic positioning (Requicha of USC, 1999); (d) Molecular lift design (Balzani, 2003); (e) Biped DNA walker (Sherman and Sherman of NYU, 2004)microscope in 1986. These revolutionaryinventions opened the nanoworld to sci-entists and engineers. However, the rela-tively large-size mechanical nanoposi-tioning systems employed in scanningprobe microscopes and optical micro- A group ofscopes are too massive to be used in nanomanipulatorsparallel operation in the nanoworld. Bio-inspired by the motion mechanisms resolution and accuracy required for ing existing MEMs-based fabricationfound in cilia and flagella, the goal of numerous nanotechnology applications. techniques. (2) Fabrication and perform-research by Associate Professor Zhenqi These can be incorporated into ance evaluation of 6-DOFs microscaleZhu, of Mechanical Engineering, and his massively parallel, independently nanomanipulator devices, includingcolleagues from several departments, is addressable nanomanipulation tools theoretical, computational, and experi-to develop and demonstrate a disruptive (truly realizing Feynman’s ‘hundreds of mental study of the nanomanipulatorsdesign methodology based on a mono- tiny hands’ vision). with integrated actuators and sensors.lithic jointless Stewart platform to yield (3) Demonstration of device use in (a)fully three-dimensional, six degree-of- To successfully develop such a disrup- "full device" 6-DOF inspection underfreedom, surface-independent jointless tive methodology for nanomanipulator SPM probes; (b) "real device" 6-DOFmanipulation capability in free space device design, the research team in-situ scanning with nanomanipulatedwith nanometer resolution and accuracy. addresses three major challenges: (1) optical fiber based sensors; (c)Now, US patent pending (Flexible Design and analysis of a new class of massively-parallel, coordinated flexibleParallel Manipulator for Nano-, Meso-, or nanomanipulator based on a monolithic nanoautomation.Macro-positioning with Multi-degrees of jointless Stewart platform approach toFreedom), this device approach will lead yield nanometer positioning resolution This research effort is complementedto nanomanipulation tools with truly with a unique combination of fully-flexi- with an educational and outreach pro-scalable device sizes (spanning several ble 6 DOFs and truly scalable device gram with a strong support from CIESEorders of magnitude from micro- to size. The focus of the design will be on to introduce K-12 and undergraduatenanolevel), and yield the nanometer manufacturability of the device(s) utiliz- students to topics in nanotechnology. s 7
  10. 10. Engineering the Nano-Bio-Interface Dr. Matthew R. Libera’s Research Group Chemical, Biomedical and Materials Engineering Professor Matthew R. Libera leads the Microstructure Research Group and is Director of the Electron-Optics Laboratory at Stevens. Using powerful transmission and scanning electron microscopes Libera, his colleagues, and his students have graphically demonstrated the possibilities that flow from engineering materials in the micro and nano worlds. Libera’s research centers on the tools and new ways of thinking based development, implementation, and on nanotechnology are opening radical- application of advanced electron-opti- ly different pathways to achieve suc- cal techniques for the measurement cess. We certainly see this in our work." and control of microstructure and mor- Polymeric materials have been increas- phology in engineering materials at ingly utilized at surfaces and interfaces high resolution. A main theme of his for a variety of biomedical applications research concentrates on the study of including tissue-engineering matrices, polymers and polymeric biomaterials implants with biocompatible surfaces, such as hydrogels using such tech- drug delivery, and biosensors. Due to niques as electron holography and elec- Figure 1. A 7x7 array of PEG nanohydrogels the chemical diversity of polymeric surface patterned into an area 5 microns by 5 tron energy-loss spectroscopy. One of materials, both biological and synthetic, microns in size. Imaged dry (top) and in water his group’s recent innovations has been researchers can fine tune the desired (bottom). the development of new methods to physical properties of surfaces and map the spatial distribution of water in didate Peter Krsko, generated nanohy- design bioactive interfaces from a drogels with lateral dimensions of order synthetic materials for health and per- molecular perspective. Understanding sonal care applications using advanced 200 nanometers – about 500 times the complex interactions between bio- smaller than the diameter of a human methods of cryo-electron microscopy. It material surfaces and their environment is important to understand such prob- hair - which can swell by a factor of five is critical to improving healthcare tech- or more, depending on the radiative lems, for example, as how bioerodable nologies related to implants, devices, polymer tissue-engineering scaffolds dose of electrons. and future innovations in these areas. degrade in the human body. "These things are like little sponges," Significantly, Libera’s team is aggres- explains Krsko, "and we can control Over the past few years, Libera’s group sively investigating the properties of has been using electron microscopes how spongy they are by controlling hydrogels, the kinds of polymeric mate- how we irradiate them in the SEM. not only as materials-characterization rials that form the basis for everyday tools but also as materials-processing One of the really cool things we found soft contact lenses and other common is that we can control whether or not tools. High energy electrons can modify biomedical applications. the structure and properties of poly- various types of proteins bind to these "We have used focused electron-beam little nanosponges." mers, and because electrons can be cross-linking to create nanosized hydro- With the focused electron beam, high- focused by a microscope into fine gels," says Libera, "and this provides us density arrays of such nanohydrogels probes with nanoscale dimensions, with a new method with which to bring can be flexibly patterned onto silicon electron microscopes can be used to the attractive biocompatibility associat- surfaces. Significantly, the amine pattern polymers into nanostructures. ed with macroscopic hydrogels into the groups remain functional after e-beam These properties have been exploited in nano length-scale regime." exposure, and the research shows that the practice of electron beam lithogra- phy, which has been essential to the Using thin films of polyethylene glycol they can be used covalently to bind pro- semiconductor device community for (PEG) films on silicon and glass sub- teins and other molecules. several decades. Libera and his stu- strates, Libera, working with Ph.D. can- "We use bovine serum albumin to dents have pushed this technology in an entirely new direction by applying it to polymers of interest because of the way in which they interact with physio- logical systems involving proteins, cells, and tissues. The central idea is to create biospecific surfaces – surfaces which interact with physiological systems in very controlled ways. "People have been working in this area in different ways for several Figure 2. GFP transfected mouse neuron following a cell-adhesive path patterned onto a surface decades," Libera explains, "but new using functional nanohydrogel technology.8
  11. 11. I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L Lamplify the number of amine groups,"says Krsko, "and we further demonstratethat different proteins can be covalentlybound to different hydrogel pads on thesame substrate to create multifunctionalsurfaces useful in emerging bio/pro-teomic and sensor technologies.""There is a lot of student interest in thisstuff," says Libera. "When I talk about itin my undergraduate materials class, Ialways find students – very good stu-dents – appearing at my office door latertrying to find out more about it."Indeed, one such interaction has led to asenior design project of patterninghydrogels for possible application tonerve regeneration in spinal cord injury."Our NIH collaborator on this is so excit-ed he has invited one of my undergrad Chandra Valmikinathan (Masters), and Ph.D. candidates Merih Sengonul, Sergey Yakovlev, andresearch students – Jen Sipics - to work Alioscka Sousa are members of Dr. Libra’s his lab in Bethesda this summer."Another student – Ali Saaem – joined the our work is really being helped a lot by exactly what [Stevens researchers] aregroup after taking Libera’s Materials the rapid growth of the new biomedical now doing in biomedical engineering.Processing course. "This guy is an EE engineering program at Stevens." They’re trying to use nanotechnology tomajor. He came in and reconstructed Nanopad arrays consist of protein-adhe- fabricate devices that can be insertedthe computer interface to our SEM and sive regions separated by non-adhesive into the human body."elevated the entire level of e-beam pat- regions. The adhesive regions are "There’s an awful lot of potential forterning capabilities. Now, I think we’ve created by lithographically patterning a companies that are able to get sufficient patent protection for innovations thatLibera’s work on nanohydrogels holds implications for the eventu- they have made in nanotechnology,"al production of the next generation of protein microarrays, which says Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Frank Fisher, commentingcan be used to establish the function of various genes that become on the commercial potentialities of cur-active during cancer, disease, and aging processes. rent-day nanotechnology research. "We’re talking about instruments andgot him really interested in the biologi- hydrophobic polymer to which control- capabilities that would have a verycal problems the group is pursuing," lable amounts of fibronectin is adsorbed. significant economic impact for thosecomments Libera. Fibronectin is one of several proteins companies and those entities that makeLibera’s work on nanohydrogels holds that signals cellsimplications for the eventual production to adhere to sur-of the next generation of protein faces. The physi-microarrays, which can be used to ological effect ofestablish the function of various genes nanopad arraythat become active during cancer, variations isdisease, and aging processes. being assessed using cell cultureBecause hydrogels mimic many of the of fibroblasts andphysiological conditions of the body, monitoring theirproteins bound to them retain their bio- expression oflogical function far better than when extracellular Figure 3. The adhesion of Stapphyloccocus Epidermidis bacteria to syntheticbound to a hard substrate as is done in surfaces can be controlled using functional hydrogels on surfaces, a cell- matrix. Related repulsive hydrogel pad (left) and a cell-adhesive hydrogel pad (right).current protein and DNA microarray experiments aretechnology. Furthermore, the nanosize of being developed tothe hydrogels made in Libera’s lab study neuron growth relevant to spinal these developments. That’s why we’remeans that 10,000 times more proteins cord injury. seeing the US make a strong push as farcan be probed in a single experiment as investing in nanotechnology, becauseand much less of each protein needs to Physics Department Head Kurt Becker comments: "Years ago, there was a sci- the real large payouts aren’t necessarilybe used each time. Pushing this same going to be within the next one to threetechnology one step further, nano- and ence-fiction movie called Fantastic Voyage, where people were shrunk to years; it’s a longer time frame ofmicrohydrogels can be used to control investment." swhether and where cells adhere to sur- micro-sizes, injected into a person’sfaces. "This has been one of our targets blood stream, and then traveled aroundfor a long time," says Libera, "and now the body to repair some damage. That’s 9
  12. 12. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH In the Realm of the Very Small By Patrick A. Berzinski In the popular mind, and sometimes in popular science writing, nano- and microtechnology are often used interchangeably to describe very different human hair that can be used as minia- phenomena. Professor Frank Fisher explains the distinction. ture structural materials, electronic "The most straightforward difference is the feature size," says Fisher. components and drug delivery systems. "Microtechnology typically refers to feature sizes on the order of one micron, whereas nanotechnology refers to feature sizes on the order of a nanometer. Scientists also depend on such tools as To put that into perspective: The width of a human hair is about 100 microns. In Scanning Tunneling Microscopes and nanotechnology, on the other hand, we’re interested in exploiting novel phenome- Scanning Probe Microscopes to build na that happen on the nanoscale. So it’s a distinction between miniaturization ver- images on surfaces, manipulate atoms into miniature structures, or analyze sus taking advantage of novel properties that are available below the microscale." the identities of atoms and molecules "The first direction that we went, as we started looking at microdevices, really one atom at a time. evolved from microchip technology," says Associate Dean of Engineering Keith "When you come from basic physics, Sheppard. "The techniques that were developed to create different layers on the what you like to do is understand surface of silicon, particularly for chips, which typically involve adding layers or things on the smallest possible scale, which for all these applications is the etching layers or changing the properties of surfaces – those same technologies atomic or the molecular level," says Dr. have then been directed to making devices." Kurt Becker, who works in the field of Various of those microdevices have of precisely arranged atoms include microplasmas. "That level is typically been tailored to accomplish work on in the realm of about a nanometer. So molecular self-assembly, in which from the science perspective, you take the nanoscale, where engineered molecular building blocks assemble it apart, step-by-step, until you reach arrangements of individual atoms are themselves in pre-designed ways. the nanoscale; and then, of course, now becoming a reality. Using this technique, researchers have once you understand it, you put every- Some methods necessary to build created carbon nanotubes with diame- thing back layer by layer, and go back structures consisting of large numbers ters of about one ten-thousandth of a into the micro- and macroscale." s WHY NANO-MICRO-BIO? US Patent Recent Reflections and Revelations by Dr. Woo Y. Lee On October 26, 2004, US Patent #6,808,760 was issued to Woo Y. Lee; When Dean Korfiatis decided to high- reactor and let them react preferentially Yi-Feng Su; Limin He; and Justin light "nano-micro-bio" activities in this on the substrate surface. Subsequently, Daniel Meyer; titled, A Method for issue of SSOE InFocus, I thought that it small clusters of atoms produced from preparing .alpha.-dialuminum trioxide would be a timely forum for me to share the decomposed gaseous species nucle- nanotemplates. my latest view of this very broad inter- ate and grow on the surface, and are disciplinary research area. My interest assembled into a solid thin-film struc- in making "very small things" started ture. For example, as part of my Ph.D. when I was given a chance to study work, I produced my first nanostructured ing technology advances arising from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for my material, a self-lubricating nanocompos- the exploitation of new physical, chemi- Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering ite coating that contained hard AlN cal, and biological properties of systems under the interdisciplinary supervision whiskers (2 nm wide and 1 µm long) in a that are intermediate in size, between of Prof. Jack Lackey, a ceramist, and soft BN matrix phase from a gaseous isolated atoms and molecules and bulk Prof. Pradeep Agrawal, a chemical engi- mixture of AlCl3, BCl3, and NH3. materials, where the transitional proper- neer, at Georgia Tech. What Is Nanoscale Science and ties between the two limits can be con- CVD is a coating technique widely used Engineering? trolled." The nanoscale covers "a frac- for making semiconductor, solid state tion of nanometer to about 100 nm." To a large extent, my Ph.D. research laser, and photonic devices as well as This newly emerged nanoscale science exemplifies the National Science aerospace structures, synthetic diamond and engineering perspective did not Foundation’s broad definition of films and carbon nanotubes. In this obviously exist, although I was practic- Nanoscale Science and Engineering: "the method, we mix gaseous chemicals in a ing it. fundamental understanding and result- continued on next page10
  13. 13. I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L L another example, a graduate student, Dr. are present in microreactors (just like in Yi-Feng Su, observed that α-Al2O3 (sap- CVD) because of their high surface-to-vol- phire) grains present in a thin-film form ume ratios and the technological need to can grow laterally, abnormally, and control these interactions for rational incredibly at temperatures about 950ºC microreactor design. Third, as I just below the melting point of α-Al2O3, as became Chair of the newly merged long as the film is thinner than 100 nm Department of Chemical and Materials (Figure 2b). We also demonstrated that Engineering, I envisioned that microreac- the abnormally grown α-Al2O3 film tors could provide a common engineering increases the oxidation life of a single platform for synergistically integrating crystal Ni-based superalloy used in individual faculty research interests and advanced gas turbines by five-times. motivations. Fourth, I foresaw that we These examples show how nanoscale were able to compete in some major phenomena can provide enabling funding opportunities due to the strong building blocks for making useful multi- presence of chemical, defense, pharma- scale structures that are relevant to the ceutical and microsystems industries in human scale. our region and their growing interests in the emerging microreactor technology.Mr. Justin Meyer, a Ph.D. candidate and a "Nano-Micro" Integrationco-inventor of the nanotemplate patent Through collaborative work with my col- About 4 years ago, I initiated a new leagues, Professors Ronald Besser, research effort in microreactors for sever- Suphan Koven and Adeniyi Lawal, andAs I have continued my CVD research at al reasons. First, after receiving my with strong support from our partnerUnited Technologies Research Center, Oak tenure, I wanted to expand my research organizations such as ARDEC-Picatinny,Ridge National Laboratory and Stevens horizon beyond CVD. Second, I was intel- Bristol-Myers Squibb, FMC, Lucent-Bellfor the past 15 years, I have encountered lectually driven by the recognition of Labs and Sarnoff, this effort has grownsome fascinating nanoscale phenomena. complex surface-fluidic interactions that from a small internal seed project to the establishment of the New Jersey Center for MicroChemical Systems ( My contribu- tion to this team effort is to explore new ways to design, control, and make "very small" surface structures as an integral part of fabricating "small" microreactors. For example, Mr. Honwei Qiu, a Ph.D. candidate, in my research group, is inves- tigating self-assembly infiltration methods to deposit a layer of close-packed micros- pheres (Figure 2a) as a potential means of integrating catalyst particles into microre- a b actors with help from Professor Svetlana Figure 1. Two examples of nanoscale behavior: (a) critical particle radius below which Sukhishvili and her expertise in polyelec- t-ZrO2 phase can be stabilized due to the lower surface energy of t-ZrO2 over that of trolytes. Mr. Haibao Chen, another Ph.D. m-ZrO2 as a function of deposition temperature and (b) abnormal grain growth rate of candidate, is experimenting with 3-dimen- α-Al2O3 as a function of film thickness at 1100ºC. Research sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Office of Naval Research. sional cellular structures (Figures 2b and 2c) which can be directly infiltrated as net-For example, recently graduated Ph.D. continued on next pagecandidate, Dr. Hao Li, in my researchgroup observed that tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) grains of about 35 nm in radiusundergo martensitic transformation tomonoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) at a tempera-ture of 1100ºC, when the t-ZrO2 grainsgrow to be larger than this critical sizedue to the thermodynamic reason sum-marized in Figure 1a. We discovered thatthis size-dependent phase transformation a b ccauses delamination within the ZrO2 coat- Figure 2. Self-assembled structures for multiscale integration with microreactors: (a) aing near the coating/substrate interface, single layer of 500 nm SiO2 spheres electrostatically attached to an Si surface usingand consequently provides a unique weak polyelectrolytes, (b) interconnected cellular structure formed from an inverse template ofinterface mechanism which can be used self-assembled and partially sintered 15 µm polystryne spheres infiltrated into an Sito produce damage-tolerant fiber-rein- microreactor, and (c) the skeleton phase of the cellular structure consisting of partially sintered 500 nm SiO2 spheres. Research sponsored by the New Jersey Commission onforced ceramic matrix composites. In Science and Technology, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Department of Energy. 11
  14. 14. ...nano-micro-bio continued shape structural elements into microreactors using poly- meric and ceramic microspheres as key building blocks. With my collaborators, we are evaluating these new struc- tures for controlling and improving microreactor perform- ance for miniaturized chemical, fuel cell, and pharmaceutical system applications. Importance of Bio in "Nano-Micro-Bio" I admit that I was somewhat skeptical about the relevance of nanotechnology, based on my initial estimate of the potential return on the federal government’s investment in nanotechnolo- Dr. Lucie Bednarova, and Dr. Yi-Feng Su, co-inventor of the nanotem- gy. This view has changed over the past several years, as I read plate are both Dr. Lee’s Postdoctoral Research Associates about human physiology, cell biology, and biological transport phenomena in conjunction with the implementation of our new Biomedical Engineering program. From my recent understanding of cells (as super-intelligent nanostructure factories) and proteins (as ultimate nanostructures), I began to see some exciting integra- tion points that may link my past, current, and future research activities. Also, through my participation in various workshops sponsored by the National Academies, the Keck Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Health, I was profoundly influenced by some remarkable progress being made in the bio- Mr. Hongwei Qiu, a Ph.D. candidate in Lees group medical research com- munity with emerging microsystem and nan- otechnology tools. As my view was drastically evolving, I came across an interesting "nano-micro-bio" research topic last October: microbial infections of implanted medical devices which constitute an ever increasing threat to human health with significant clinical and economic con- sequences. In most infections, bacteria attach to the surfaces of indwelling medical devices (such as intravascular catheters, cere- brospinal fluid shunts, aortofemoral grafts, intraocular lenses, pros- thetic cardiac valves, cardiac pacemakers, and prosthetic joints) by forming adherent and cooperative communities known as biofilms. Bacteria in a biofilm are well protected from host defenses and antibiotics, making most biofilm infections difficult to treat with conventional antibiotics which have been developed assuming the planktonic state of bacteria. I have become interested in the topic because of similar issues at a methodological level between biofilms and the "physical" thin-films of my previous research, while recognizing the greater complexity of biofilms due to the Mr. Haibiao Chen, Dr. Lee’s Ph.D. candidate "living" aspects of microorganism communities. Prof. Matt Libera, who has a somewhat different scientific perspec- ing this article, our graduate students are traveling to tive, Prof. Jeff Kaplan, a microbiologist at the University of Newark to learn how to grow Staphylococcus epidermidis Medicine and Dentistry– NJ, and I are working on a long-term plan bacteria in Prof. Kaplan’s laboratory. to design and build microreactors with 3-dimensional nanoscale surface elements and patterns that will: (1) emulate physiologically I am very excited by this interdisciplinary collaborative relevant micro-environments and (2) increase the predictive capa- effort. As our region is the center of the global health care bility of "in vitro" investigations of cell-material and cell-cell inter- economy, I look forward to developing extensive research actions in reference to "in vivo" and clinical studies. We foresee and educational collaborations that leverage the exciting that this type of new "in vitro" microreactors can be instrumental in initiatives we are engaged in at Stevens as we push out the rapid development of rational therapeutic delivery strategies the "nano-micro-bio" frontier. I can be reached at: for treating a variety of infectious and other diseases. As I am writ- s12
  15. 15. SSOEDR. CARDINAL WARDE ’69: HERITAGEMICROSYSTEMS ENTREPRENEUR By Patrick A. BerzinskiDr. Cardinal Warde, a professor of electrical engineering at MIT, is consid-ered one of the worlds leading experts on materials, devices and systemsfor optical information processing. Warde holds ten key patents on spatiallight modulators, displays, and optical information processing systems.He is a co-inventor of the microchannel Yale, he joined MIT’s faculty of Electricalspatial light modulator, membrane-mir- Engineering and Computer Science asror light shutters based on micro- an Assistant Professor.electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), an At MIT, Wardes interest shifted towardoptical bistable device, and charge- engineering the applications of optics.transfer plate spatial light modulators. He became involved with other facultyWarde grew up on the small Caribbean in the development of devices forisland of Barbados. His parents enhancing the performance of opticaldemanded excellence in school but atmospheric (wireless) communicationgave him lots of freedom and support systems to improve communicationto engage his inquisitive mind outside performance in inclement weather, andthe classroom. By age 16, he had con- photorefractive materials for real-timeverted his fathers unused carpenters holography and optical computing. Toshop into a chemistry and physics labo- date, he has published over a hundredratory, and with high school friends, he technical papers on optical materials,launched homemade rockets (with mice devices and systems.aboard) from the beach near his home. Today, Wardes research is focused on Dr. Cardinal WardeFortunately, he says, none escaped developing the optical neural-networkearths gravity and most of the mice tures transparent liquid-crys- co-processors that are expected to tal microdisplays for digitalwere freed when the rockets crashed. endow the next generation of PCs with camera viewfinders, portableAfter high school, Warde boarded a rudimentary brain-like processing; telecommunications devices,plane for the United States. He received transparent liquid-crystal microdisplays and display eyeglasses.a bachelors degree in physics from for display eyeglasses and novel cellu-Stevens in 1969, where he was also a lar phones; membrane-mirror-based Dr. Warde is also dedicated tomember of the varsity soccer team. His spatial light modulators for optical working with Caribbean gov-passion for physics continued at Yale switching and projection displays; and ernments and organizations toUniversity where he earned his Master’s spectro-polarimetric imaging sensors help stimulate economic devel-and Ph.D. degrees in 1971 and 1974. for remote-sensing applications. opment. He lectures through- out the Caribbean at scientificWhile at Yale, Warde invented a new Warde is also an entrepreneur. In 1982, and government meetings oninterferometer that worked at near he founded Optron Systems, Inc., a the role of technology and edu-absolute zero temperature in order to company that develops electro-optic cation reform. Also, for the lastmeasure the refractive index and thick- and MEMS displays, light shutters and decade , Warde has mentoredness of solid oxygen films. This experi- modulators for optical signal process- students in the Networkence stimulated his keen interest in ing systems. Later, he co-founded Program of the New Englandoptics and optical engineering. After Radiant Images, Inc., which manufac- Board of Higher Education, whose mission is to motivate and encourage minority youth to consider majoring in sci- ence and engineering and to pursue careers in these fields. He has received a number of awards and hon- ors, including the Renaissance Science and Engineering Award from Stevens in 1996, and cur- rently serves on Stevens’ Board of Trustees. sCoach Singer, Cardinal Warde (bottom row center) and the Cardinal Warde, 19691968 Soccer Team, the Tech Booters. 13