NATCEP Day 24

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NATCEP Day 24

  1. 1. Measuring Intake & Output NATCEP Days Twenty Four
  2. 2. Objectives • Identify what is meant by fluid balance, fluid imbalance and effects of aging on fluid balance • Identify what is meant by the terms I&O, force fluids, restrict fluids, and NPO • Identify the reasons for measuring intake and output • Identify the procedure for measuring and recording fluid intake • Discuss and demonstrate the procedure for measuring and reporting output
  3. 3. What is Fluid Balance? • The body equalizes the amount of fluid taken in with the amount of fluid excreted via urination, feces, perspiration and/or breathing
  4. 4. What is Fluid Imbalance? • Too much fluid retained/kept in body tissue (edema – swelling) • Too much fluid lost (dehydration) from vomiting, diarrhea, poor fluid intake, bleeding, excess perspiration and increased urine production
  5. 5. Effect of Aging on Fluid Balance • Swallowing difficulties may cause inadequate intake of fluids • Physiologial disorders may cause retention of too much fluid • Imbalances occur more quickly in the elderly • Thirst mechanisms may be impaired
  6. 6. Daily Adult Requirements • 1500 ml/cc of water required to survive • 2000 – 2500 ml of fluid are needed for normal fluid balance
  7. 7. Why Measure I & O • Diagnosis and treatment • Monitor progress of treatment of a disorder (i.e., effects of a diuretic or kidney disease) • Daily weights are also routinely ordered in conjunction with I&O
  8. 8. Measuring Intake • Measurement is cc (cubic centimeter) or ml (mililiters) • All fluids observed and measured per facility policy • Include foods that are liquid at body temperature • Totaled at end of shift and at the end of 24 hours
  9. 9. Liquid Foods • • • • • • • • • Jello Clear broth/strained soups Hard candy Popsicles Custard/Eggnog Ice Cream/Sherbets/Milkshakes Cooked cereals Pudding Yogurt
  10. 10. Measuring Output • Follow standard/universal precautions • All urine and emesis should be measured • Residents must void into a container (bedpan/hat) • Poured into a graduated container so it can be measured • Measure urine from a catheter by emptying the bag into a graduate pitcher and then measuring. • Incontinent = record number of times it occurs • All liquid stool should also be measured • Totaled at the end of each shift and at the end of 24 hours

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