Natcep day 10

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Natcep day 10

  1. 1. Infection Control NATCEP Day Ten
  2. 2. Objectives • Identify the basic principle of infection control • Define terms related to infection control • Identify reasons why infection prevention and control are important • Identify factors that promote growth of microorganisms • Identify ways pathogenic microorganisms are spread
  3. 3. Basic Principle • To reduce the number and hinder the transfer of microorganisms from one person to another or from one place to another
  4. 4. Importance of Infection Control and Prevention • Microorganisms are always present – some cause disease/infection (pathogens). • Those more susceptible to pathogens are the young, old, & those with chronic diseases. • Safety of the environment increases when we decrease the of number of microorganisms and prevent their transfer/spread. • The actions of the health care team are to protect residents, family and staff from infection.
  5. 5. Factors that Promote the Growth of Microorganisms • Food • Moisture • Oxygen • Temperature • Light
  6. 6. Germs and Their Spread • • • • • Direct – Blood – Body Fluid Indirect – Linens – Phone Through the Air (Droplets) – Coughing/Sneezing – Talking Through a Vehicle – Contaminated Food, Drugs, etc. Contact with Animals or Insects – Bites or stings
  7. 7. Chain of Infection
  8. 8. Chain of Infection
  9. 9. Infectious Agents: Pathogens • • • • • Bacteria – A type of pathogen treated with antibiotics – Aerobic or anaerobic • Aerobic applies to the bacteria requiring free oxygen in order to live. Anaerobic applies to the bacteria able to live and survive in the absence of oxygen or air. – Common examples include MRSA, E.Coli; Salmonella, Strep Throat (Streptococcus) Lyme Disease Virus – This type pathogen depends on a host to survive, grow, and reproduce; treat symptoms – Examples include the common cold; Chicken Pox; Mono; Measles, Flu Rickettsiae – This type of pathogen grows in the intestinal tract of insects, and requires a living cell to grow and multiply; bloodsucking insects such as lice, mites, and ticks carry to humans – Example is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Fungi – This type of pathogen thrives in warm, moist environments; treated with anti-fungal medications – Examples include yeast infections (thrush), Athletes Foot Protozoa – This type of pathogen is a one-celled organism that love moisture and typically spread infection through contaminated water.
  10. 10. Reservoirs • Any place an infectious agent can survive, grow or multiple – People – Plants – Animals – Soil – Water – Things • Medical Equipment
  11. 11. Portals of Exit • Path by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir – Body fluids – Mouth & Nose – Cough
  12. 12. Modes of Transmission • 4 modes of transmission – Contact • Direct • Indirect – Through the Air (Droplets) • Coughing/Sneezing • Talking – Through a Vehicle • Contaminated Food, Drugs, etc. – Contact with Animals or Insects • Bites or stings
  13. 13. Portals of Entry • Path by which an infectious agent enters the host – Any opening in the body can be a portal (entry) • • • • • • • Mouth Eyes Ears Mucous membranes Gastrointestinal tract Urinary tract Broken skin
  14. 14. Hosts • Barriers to infection are compromised (weak or broken) • How likely? – Age – Nutritional status – Stress – Environment – Pre-existing conditions
  15. 15. Key Term • Nosocomial Infection – An infection acquired while in or visiting a healthcare facility

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