Knowledge Management


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  • Knowledge Management

    1. 1. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Payam Ansari </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Murali Raman </li></ul>Multimedia University, Malaysia
    2. 2. Knowledge , KM & KMS - Definition <ul><li>According to Alter (1996), Tobin (1996), and Beckman (1999): </li></ul><ul><li>Data: Facts, images, or sounds </li></ul><ul><li>(+ interpretation + meaning = ) </li></ul><ul><li>Information: Formatted, filtered, and summarized data </li></ul><ul><li>(+ action + application = ) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge: Instincts, ideas, rules, and procedures that guide actions and decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Further attribute of Knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>Know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Know-why </li></ul><ul><li>Know-what </li></ul><ul><li>Know-who </li></ul><ul><li>Know-where </li></ul><ul><li>Know-when </li></ul>
    3. 3. Knowledge: 1) Tacit : - Subjective, cognitive, technical - Experiential learning - Hard to document - Hard to transfer / teach / learn 2) Explicit: - Objective, rational, - Easily documented - Easily transferred / taught / learned Knowledge , KM & KMS - Definition
    4. 4. Knowledge Management : KM is the process of capturing a company's collective expertise wherever it resides – in databases, Papers or people's heads! – and distributing it to wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff . (Knowledge Management Handbook By Jay Liebowitz , 1999 ) Knowledge , KM & KMS - Definition <ul><li>Intellectual Assets: </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital : relationships with customers, employees, business partners and external experts </li></ul><ul><li>Structural capital : patents, brand names, systems and processes, management philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital : education, experience, skills, attitudes </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>KMS s are computer-based information systems that: </li></ul><ul><li>• Can help an enterprise acquire, manage, retain, analyze, and retrieve mission-critical information; and help turn enterprise information into well-organized, abstract, and actionable knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Can help an enterprise identify and inter-connect experts, managers, and knowledge workers; and help extract, retain, and disseminate their knowledge in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A distributed hypermedia system for managing knowledge in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>- Search Engine and Web Portal - Data Mining </li></ul><ul><li>- Text Mining - Web Mining </li></ul>Knowledge , KM & KMS - Definition
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>1 ) Codification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify who has knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify and extract the knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ) Personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify who has knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify the knowledge and store information about who to contact to get it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the “pointers to the knowledge” </li></ul></ul>KMS - Approaches
    7. 7. <ul><li>People – Communities & Networks (Knowledge workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Processes – Policies & Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Technology – Knowledge leverage tools </li></ul><ul><li>Content – Best practices, Internal & External intelligence </li></ul>KMS - Components
    8. 8. <ul><li>- Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>- Management Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>- Document Management Systems (DMS) </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Alfresco, ColumbiaSoft, Documentum, DocPoint, Filehold, FileNet, …) </li></ul><ul><li>- Software Help Desk Tools </li></ul><ul><li>- Organizational knowledge flow Supporting System </li></ul><ul><li>- e-Learning Systems (softwares) </li></ul><ul><li>- Web conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>- Collaborative software </li></ul><ul><li>- Content management systems </li></ul><ul><li>- Corporate 'Yellow pages' directories </li></ul><ul><li>- email Lists </li></ul><ul><li>- Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>- Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>KM Tools
    9. 9. Reasons for adapting KM
    10. 10. Business uses of KM initiatives
    11. 11. Types of softwares purchased
    12. 12. Implementation challenges
    13. 13. 1 ) Behavioral Challenges - Resistance to share Knowledge! Knowledge Management Challenges
    14. 14. 1 ) Behavioral Challenges - Eagerness to access to MORE Information, MORE sources & MORE tools progressively! - Corporate Blogging! Knowledge Management Challenges
    15. 15. 2 ) Political Challenges - Management support Knowledge Management Challenges
    16. 16. 2 ) Political Challenges - Senior managers need to see the knowledge sharing improvement! Knowledge Management Challenges
    17. 17. How to confront these challenges??? Knowledge Management Challenges 1 ) Depreciative Enquiry - Formal brown bag session! - Discourage people from asking more questions, indirectly!
    18. 18. How to confront these challenges??? Knowledge Management Challenges <ul><li>2 ) Corporate Flogging! </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging For Short or Forced Blogging! </li></ul><ul><li>There are three components here : </li></ul><ul><li>1- Policy </li></ul><ul><li>(Policy says what employees “may talk about” & what you “may not”!) </li></ul><ul><li>2- Process </li></ul><ul><li>(To back policy up!) </li></ul><ul><li>3- Software selection </li></ul><ul><li>(Cost , Features) </li></ul>
    19. 19. How to confront these challenges??? Knowledge Management Challenges <ul><li>3 ) Social Network Paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>CEOs & Managers love Maps, Charts & Diagrams! </li></ul><ul><li>So : </li></ul><ul><li>Give bonus to more connected people! </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a Questionnaire with only these 2 questions : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Who do you share knowledge with? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>2.Who do you not share knowledge with? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Statistical & Mapping software </li></ul><ul><li>Show the result to CEO! </li></ul>
    20. 20. Knowledge Outsourcing <ul><li>Knowledge Outsourcing becomes attractive when: </li></ul><ul><li>- Managers think traditional KM is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Managers think they will be bothered with KM </li></ul><ul><li>Managers fear of KM challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Managers do not have KM resources </li></ul><ul><li>The size of organization is small. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Outsourcing Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Identify the Knowledge opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Decouple Human Knowledge Assets (HKA) </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Identify HKA provider </li></ul>
    21. 21. Identification of Knowledge Opportunities <ul><li>1 ) SQUAT Analysis Method </li></ul><ul><li>More people-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>More suitable for SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>A ) Specialist – They usually cost organizations significantly! </li></ul><ul><li>B ) Questioner – People who ask nonsense in meeting! </li></ul><ul><li>C ) Unusual – People with unusual ideas who make others think about innovation & doing things differently. </li></ul><ul><li>D ) Attractive people – Who attract media, distract colleagues from their duties. </li></ul><ul><li>E ) Technology Enthusiast – They are much keen on using latest technology, softwares which are so expensive & costly. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Identification of Knowledge Opportunities <ul><li>2 ) Six Stigma </li></ul><ul><li>More quality-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>More focus on Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify defective HKA </li></ul><ul><li>The phases here are similar to the 6 Sigma : DMATO </li></ul><ul><li>Define – (Failures & Problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure – (Failure rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze – (Where the problems are & where the solution could be) </li></ul><ul><li>Target – (People you’ve identified who are responsible for 80 % of failures) </li></ul><ul><li>Outsource </li></ul><ul><li>(In 6Sigma we have DMAIC where the differences are in Improve & Control) </li></ul>
    23. 23. For those who are interested in KM <ul><li>- Advanced KM in corporation – KM & RFID </li></ul><ul><li>http :// www . soumu . go . jp / menu_02 / ict / u - japan_en / new_r_i02m . html </li></ul><ul><li>- Is KM dead? (An interesting interview) </li></ul><ul><li>http :// plambe . blip . tv / #1055191 </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox Co. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li> =NR_2006March8_KMWorld&app= Newsroom&view = newsrelease&format = article&Xcntry = USA&Xlang = en_US </li></ul><ul><li>Books : </li></ul><ul><li>- Knowledge Management tools & Techniques, by MADANMOHAN RAO (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management : Current Issues & Challenges, by Elayne Coakes (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Knowledge Management in Multinational Organization , by Kevin O’Sullivan , (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Articles: The future of KM , by Ross Dawson (2004) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Imagination is more important than Knowledge Thank You for Your Patience