Presented By -
P.G. 1st YR
• ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENT STANDARDIZATION
• PARTS OF A ROTARY FILES
• HAND INSTRUMENTS
• SLOW ROTARY INSTRUMENTS
• CLASSIFICATION OF ROTARY HANDPIECES
• ROTARY SYSTEMS
• RECENT ADVANCES IN ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS
• STERILIZATION OF INSTRUMENTS
• REFERENCES 2
• Instruments play a very important role in the success of a root
canal treatment therefore a basic knowledge of endodontic
instruments is essential.
• Although general guidelines exist for root canal preparation,
but due to the complex and varied canal anatomy each case
presents unique characteristics requiring the clinician to vary
the armamentarium and technique to adequately clean and
shape the canals. A variety of instruments are thus available
for this purpose.
Endodontic Instrument Standardization
• Before 1958, endodontic instruments were manufactured without
benefit of any established criteria.
• The numbering (1 to 6) was entirely arbitrary.
• An instrument of one company rarely coincided with a comparable
instrument of another company.
• There was little uniformity in quality control
• No uniformity existed in progression from one instrument size to the
• There was no correlation of instruments and filling materials in terms
of size and shape.
Approximate correspondence between
conventional and standardized instruments
• In 1959, a new line of standardized instruments and
filling material was introduced to the profession.
1. A formula for the diameter and taper in each size of
instrument and filling material was developed.
2. A formula for a graduated increment in size from one
instrument to the next was developed.
3. A new instrument numbering system based on
instrument metric diameter was established.
Original recommendation by Ingle for standardized
Cutting blades 16 mm in length
2 % Taper.
The diameter of the instrument at
tip (D1) is determined by size in
hundredths of millimeters.
Diameter 2 (D2) is uniformly
0.32 mm greater than D1.
Length- 21, 25, 31 mm.
INCREMENTAL INCREASE IN
SIZE AND COLOR CODING
Two modifications were made in Ingle’s original proposed
recommendation - additional measurement at D3, 3 mm from
tip/ D1, and specification for shapes of the tip: 75 degrees, ± 15
• Earlier Two ISO standards pertained to endodontic
instruments were -
• ISO no. 3630-1 deals with K-type files (ANSI no. 28)
Hedström files (ANSI no. 58)
Barbed broaches (ANSI no. 63)
• ISO no. 3630-3 deals with condensers, pluggers, and
spreaders (ANSI no. 71).
• In 1989, the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) granted approval of “ADA Specification No. 28
for both endodontic files and reamers”
The ANSI/ADA standards have also been set for other
instruments and filling materials:
• No. 95, root canal enlargers
• No. 57, filling materials
• No. 73, absorbent points
• No.78, obturating points.
According to Grossman:
o Exploring instruments: to locate the canal orifice and
determine patency of the root canal. E.g. endodontic
explorers, smooth broaches (pathfinders).
o Debriding instruments: to extirpate the pulp and remove
any foreign debris. E.g. barbed broach.
o Cleaning and Shaping instruments: to clean and shape the
root canal laterally and apically e.g. reamers and files.
o Obturating instruments: to cement and pack gutta-percha
into the root. E.g. spreaders, pluggers and lentulospirals.
Classification of cleaning and shaping instruments
Group I: Hand use only—Files, both K type (Kerr) and H type
(Hedstroem); Reamers, K type and U type; and broaches, pluggers,
Group II: Engine-driven latch type— same design as Group I but
made to be attached to a handpiece. Gates-glidden (GG) burs and
Group III: Engine-driven nickel-titanium rotary instruments — Profile
And Profile GT , Protaper ,Lightspeed LSX , Quantec, Twisted File,
Group IV: Engine driven three dimensionally adjusting instruments
Group V: Engine driven reciprocating instruments —ENDO EZE
Group VI : Sonic and ultrasonic instruments
Spreaders and Pluggers
• Spreaders and pluggers are the significant instruments for
• The spreader is a tapered, pointed instrument intended to
displace gutta-percha laterally for insertion of additional
accessory gutta-percha cones.
• The plugger is similar but has a blunt end.
• These instruments are available with handles or as finger-held
• The instruments with handles are potentially dangerous, because
the tips of the working ends are offset from the long axes of the
• This results in strong lateral wedging forces on the working ends
of the instrument if it is not operated carefully.
• The risk of vertical damage to the root is greatly reduced with
finger spreaders and pluggers.
• Standardized instruments are available with the same taper as the
files (eg, .02 taper).
• In recent years spreaders and pluggers have become available
• It has been found that Nickel-titanium spreaders reach deeper
into canals than the stainless steel type when .02% tapered
gutta-percha is used in canals with a curvature of more than 20
• A lentulo spiral may be used for placement of the sealer,
cement, and calcium hydroxide dressings.
• It must be operated clockwise in the handpiece and started or
stopped outside the root canal. If started in the canal, it may
cut into the wall of the root canal and break.
• This instrument effectively drives the paste into the root canal.
However, for optimal effect the spiral must be as large as
possible so that the paste is forced forward.
• A typical set of endodontic instruments might include a
mouth mirror, a DG-16 endodontic explorer, cotton
pliers, a spoon excavator, a series of pluggers, a plastic
instrument, a hemostat, a periodontal probe, and a ruler.
• The DG-16 endodontic explorer is used to identify canal
orifices and to determine canal angulation.
• The CK-17 endodontic explorer serves the same purpose,
but its thinner, stiffer tip can be useful for identifying
DG-16 endodontic explorer (top),
CK-17 endodontic explorer (bottom).
DG 16 Endodontic Explorer
DG 16/17 Endodontic Explorer
DG 16/23 Endodontic Explorer
• The endodontic spoon can be used to remove coronal
pulp and carious dentin easily because of longer shank.
• A #17 operative explorer is useful for detecting any
remaining pulp chamber roof, particularly in the area of a
Endodontic spoon (left)
#17 operative explorer. (right)
Micro-Opener & Micro-Debriders
• A new addition to finding and enlarging canal orifices is
the Micro-Opener (Dentsply/Maillefer; Tulsa) with K-
type flutes in 0.04 and 0.06 tapers, that can be used to
uncover, enlarge, and flare orifices.
• This can be followed by the Micro-Debrider with ISO
0.02 taper and Hedstroem-type flutes to further flare down
COMPONENTS OF A FILETaper
It is expressed as the amount of file diameter increases each
millimeter along its working surface from the tip towards the
• SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to determine cross-sectional
diameter at a given point on a file can help the clinician to
determine the file size in the point of curvature and the
relative stress being placed on the instrument.
• Constant taper with variable tip size
• Eg. Profile and K3
• Common tip size with varying Taper
• E.g Quantec, Race, System GT
• No Taper
• E.g Lightspeed
• Multiple or Reverse Taper
• E.g Protaper
• It is the cylindrical center part of the file having its
circumference outlined and bordered by the depth of the
• Significance :The flexibility and resistance to torsion is
partially determined by the core diameter.
The depth of flute of the small instrument is
approximately the same as for the larger instrument
but it results in excess susceptibility to failure,
whereas the larger instrument has adequate flexibility
and adequate resistance to torsion failure.
Both files have flute with same depth
It is the groove in the working surface used to collect soft
tissue and dentin chips removed from the walls of the canal.
The effectiveness of the flute depends on its depth, width,
configuration, and surface finish.
• A progressively larger distance between flute space and blade
is required so as to avoid any compaction of debris and also
provides an effective channel for its removal.
• D) Cutting edge:
• The surface with the greatest diameter that follows the
groove (where the flute and land intersect) as it rotates,
forms the leading (cutting) edge, or the blade of the file.
• Significance : The cutting edge forms and deflects chips
from the wall of the canal and cut or snags soft tissue. Its
effectiveness depends on its angle of incidence and
E) Land or Marginal width
The surface that projects axially from the central axis as far as
the cutting edge between the flutes.
• Prevents ‘‘screwing in’’ of the file
• Supports the cutting edge
• Limits the depth of cut
• Reduces the propagation of
microcracks on its circumference.
• Maintains the file in the centre
of root canal.
• To reduce frictional resistance, some of the surface area of
the land that rotates against the canal wall may be reduced to
form the relief.
• Wide lands can be very useful in small diameter files as it
increases rigidity and enables the file to negotiate curvatures
when canal enlargement is minimal.
• When lands present in the files are too wide for effective
canal enlargement then the files can be used very effectively
for removing gutta percha from the canal.
GPX Instrument 37
F) Helix Angle
• The angle formed by the cutting edge with the long axis of the
• Helps in removing debris collected in the flute from the canal.
• G) PITCH
The pitch of the file is the distance between a point on the
leading edge and the corresponding point on the adjacent leading
It may be the distance between corresponding points within
which the pattern is not repeated.
• The smaller the pitch the shorter the distance between
corresponding points more spirals the file will have
greater the helix angle
• Most files have a variable pitch, that changes along the
• The result of a constant pitch
and constant helical angles is a
“thread-in” or “sucking down”
of file within the canal.
• Profile has a constant pitch throughout its cutting shank. The GT
has variable helical angles and a variable pitch. Their variable
pitched flutes provide a reamer like efficiency at the shank and K
file strength at the tip
• K3 file has been designed with constant tapers, but with variable
pitch and helical angles dramatic reduction in the “suck down”
effect for file within the canal.
• ProTaper has continuously changing pitch and helical angle
which reduces the screwing effect.
Rake Angle : is the angle formed by the leading edge and the
radius of the file when the file is sectioned perpendicular to its
• If the angle formed by the leading edge and the surface to be
cut is acute, the rake angle is said to be negative or scraping
• Most conventional endodontic files utilize a negative or
“substantially neutral” rake angle.
If the angle formed by the leading edge and the surface to be
cut (its tangent) is obtuse, the rake angle is said to be positive
or cutting. Positive rake angles will cut more efficiently than
neutral rake angles, which scrap the inside of the canal.
Examples of positive rake instruments are, hedstrom files,
second generation rotary files and most dental burs. An overly
positive rake angle will result in digging and gouging of the
dentin. This can lead to separation of the instrument.
However rake angle may not same as the cutting angle.
The cutting angle or effective rake angle is a better indication of
the cutting ability of a file and is obtained by measuring the angle
formed by the cutting (leading) edge and the radius when the file
is sectioned perpendicular to its cutting edge.
• If the flutes of the file are symmetrical the rake angle
and cutting angle will be essentially the same. Only
when the flutes are asymmetrical ,the rake angle and
cutting angle will be different
• In some instances, as with some Quantec files, a file
may have a blade with a negative rake angle and a
positive cutting angle.
• Both angles may change as the file diameters change
and may be different for file sizes.
• Tip design can affect file control, efficiency, and outcome in
the shaping of root canal systems.
• The tip of the original K-file resembled a pyramid.
• Instrument tips have been described as cutting, noncutting,
and partially cutting, although no clear distinction exists
among the three types.
• The instrument tip has two functions: to enlarge the canal and
to guide the file through the canal.
• If the canal is smaller than the file, a cutting tip would be more
• If the canal is larger than the tip, using a less effective cutting
tip can help in preventing transportation.
• Powell et al pointed out that when this tip “angle” is reduced,
the file stays centered within the original canal and cuts all
sides (circumference) more evenly. This modified-tip file has
been marketed as the Flex-R-file.
• In a study done by Miserendino et al. it was found that
although specific design features of the tip, such as tip
angle, tip length, cross-section, and tip geometry,
significantly effect the cutting efficiency of endodontic
instruments, tip geometry plays the most important role.
Cutting Efficiency of Endodontic Instruments. Part I1:Analysis of Tip Design
JOE; VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 1986
Torque is a measure of how much a force acting on an object
causes that object to rotate.
• Torque is a twist and is applied to an object to make the
object turn about its axis of rotation.
• When torque is applied it changes the object’s rate of
• Factors affecting the torque of a rotary file are the speed ,
axial pressure, contact area and presence of lubricants.
• It includes files, reamer , barbed broaches and rasps .
• Firstly in 1904 Kerr Manufacturing Company designed the,
K-style files and reamers. (ADA NO 28 / ISO standard no.
• Files are instruments that enlarge canals with reciprocal
insertion and withdrawal motions. K Files blade angle makes
them best suited for cutting dentin in the filing motion .
• Reamers cut and enlarge canals with rotational motions. K
Reamers have a rake angle which makes them most efficient
in rotary motion, hence reaming is prefered.
Group I – Manually Operated Instruments
Working motion rotational motions reciprocal insertion and
Cutting action retraction Primary during
withdrawal, although it
will cut in the push and
pull motion as well.
Flexibility more Less
Cross section triangular square
Flutes Loose spiral, half of that of
a same size file. (1/2- 1 per
The tighter spiral (1 ½-
Transport of debris Better because of space
because of closer flutes
• K-type instruments are produced using one of two
1) It is the more traditional way of production . In which
graduated sizes of round “piano”wire are ground into
various shapes such as square, triangular, or rhomboid.
• A second grinding operation properly tapers these pieces.
• To give instruments the spirals that provide the cutting edges,
the square or triangular stock is then grasped by a machine
that twists it counterclockwise a programmed number of
times—tight spirals for files, loose spirals for reamers.
2 ) The second and newer manufacturing method is to grind
the spirals into the tapered wire rather than twist the wire to
produce the cutting blades.
Grinding is totally necessary for nickel-titanium instruments.
Because of their superelasticity, they cannot be twisted.
• The Kerr Manufacturing Company in 1982 introduced a new
instrument design that they termed the K-Flex File.
• The cross-section of the K-Flex is rhombus or diamond
shaped. This new cross-section presents significant changes
in instrument flexibility and cutting characteristics.
• The two acute angles of the rhombus increased sharpness and
• The two obtuse angles of the rhombus decreased contact of
the instrument with the canal walls and provides a space
reservoir that with proper irrigation enhance debris removal.
• Kerr has introduced a hybrid instrument the Triple-Flex File.
It has more spiral flutes than a K reamer but fewer than a K
file. It is made from triangular stainless steel and twisted, not
• This instrument is more aggressive and flexible than the
regular K-style instruments.
• While testing five brands of K-type files for stiffness, it was
found that K-Flex files were the most flexible. Moreover, not
a single K-Flex file was fractured in torque testing, even when
twisted twice the recommended level given by ADA.
Roth WC, et al. A study of the strength of endodontic files. JOE
ISO Group I, K-style endodontic instruments.
A. K-style file. B. K-style reamer.
C. k- flex file.
They have a non-cutting tip which enables the
instrument to traverse along the canal rather than
gouging into it.
They are made from NiTi wire.
Flexofiles are also available in intermediate sizes.
They are similar to k-flex file except that they
have triangular cross section .This feature
provide them greater flexibility and thus ability to
resist fracture. but they have less cutting
Flex-R file (a milled K-type file)
• They are made by removing the sharp cutting edges from the
tip of the instrument .and the tip is rounded.
• The flutes are sharper and has less negative rake angle than
a traditional twisted K-file.
• The manufacturing method allows greater control of strength
and flexibility by controlling the angle of cutting edge and
cross sectional area of metal bulk.
Ultra flex files
a milled K-type NiTi file.
The flutes are less sharp
than in a steel counterpart
a milled, K-type NiTi file
has a greater helix angle
than the Ultra Flex
• Specification : ADA 58. ISO no. 3630-1.
• H-type files are made by cutting/grinding the spiraling flutes
into the shaft of a piece of round, tapered, stainless steel wire.
• H-files cuts in only one direction—retraction/ pull motion.
• It is impossible to ream or drill with this instrument.
• Because of the very positive rake angle
of the flute design, they are also
as efficient as files.
• Single helix, tear drop shaped cross-section.
• Deep grinding of the surface of H-file
reduces central mass of metal and thereby
weakned the structure. hence it should not
to be used in a rotational manner.
H-Style File Modification.
• McSpadden was the first to modify the traditional Hedstroem
• Marketed as the Unifile and Dynatrak, these files were
designed with two spirals for cutting blades, a double-helix
• In cross-section, the blades presented
an “S” shape rather than the single-helix
teardrop cross-sectional shape of the
true Hedstroem file.
• The Hyflex file (Coltene/Whaledent) appears to have the
same cross-sectional configuration. 70
• The “S” File (J-S Dental) also appears to be a variant of the
Unifile in its double-helix configuration.
• It is a perfect blend of flexibility, durability and cutting ability.
• The S-FILE is produced by grinding which makes it stiffer
• This unique instrument can be used with any hand motion
(filing or reaming) thus this file can also be classified as hybrid
• Buchanan has further modified the Hedstroem file, the
Safety Hedstrom file (Sybron Endo/Kerr), which has a
noncutting side to prevent ledging in curved canals.
A. H-style instruments
resembling a wood screw.
B. Modified Hedstroem file
(left) with non-cutting tip
with flattened non-cutting
side to prevent “stripping”.
Barbed Broaches and Rasps
• Specification : (ADA no. 63, ISO no. 3630/1).
• Barbed broaches are short-handled instruments used primarily
for vital pulp extirpation.
• They are also used to loosen debris in necrotic canals or to
remove paper points or cotton pellets.
• These instruments are manufactured by notching a round,
tapered wire with a blade to form sharp, projecting barbs that
cut or snag tissue.
• These barbs are used to engage the pulp as the broach is
carefully rotated within the canal until it begins to meet
resistance against the walls of the canal.
• The broach should never be forced into a canal as its barb
get compressed by the canal wall. And while removing it
may break on applying pressure as these barbs gets
embedded in to dentin.
• A “jammed broach” should be removed vertically without
• Although similar in design, broaches and rasps show some
significant differences in taper and barb size. The broach has
lesser taper of .007 to .010/mm and the rasp has more taper of
.015 to .020/mm .
• Barb height is much greater in the broach than in the rasp.
• In broach, barb extends up to half of its diameter and in rasp
barb extend to one third of core diameter . therefore broach is
a much weaker instrument than the rasp.
• There is also smooth broach, sometimes used as a
• The newly released Pathfinder CS (Sybron-
Endo/Kerr; Orange, Calif.), made of carbon steel, is less
likely to collapse when forced down in a fine canal.
• But carbon steel will rust and cannot be left in sodium
CLASSIFICATION OF HANDPIECES:
ACCORDING TO INGLE: Engine driven instruments can
be used in three types of contra-angle handpieces.
o Fully rotary (latch / friction grip).
o Reciprocating /quarter turn hand piece
o Special handpiece that imparts a vertical stroke but with
an added reciprocating quarter turn that "cuts-in" when
the instrument is stressed.
o Ultrasonic and Sonic
ACCORDING TO STOCK:
They can be classified according to the type of movement
they impart to the cutting instrument.
Work on the principle of continuous rotation within the
root canal at a fixed slow speed.
A, First-generation motor
without torque control.
B, Second-generation motor
with sensitive torque limiter.
C, Frequently used simple
torque controlled motor.
D, Newest-generation with
built-in apex locator and
Electric motors with gear reduction are more suitable for rotary
NiTI systems because they ensure a constant rpm level ;
however they also deliver torques much higher than required to
Examples -Micro Mega MM 324 reduction gear Handpieces,
the Sprint EDM (Electronic Digital Motor handpiece).
Now a days newer electric hand pieces are available wherein
not only the speed can be controlled but the torque as well, that
is, the speed and torque can be set for a certain size instrument
and the hand piece will “stall” and reverse if the torque limit is
Examples- Aseptico ITR Motor handpiece, the Nouvag TCM
ENDO motor, the new Endo-Pro Electric, and the new ProTorq
TRI AUTO ZX
Combination of Apex locator and hand piece
It has four modes-
• Electronic measurement of root
• Low mode
• High mode
• Manual mode
• The Tri Auto-ZX has three automatic functions:
1)The hand piece automatically starts when the file enters
the canal and stops when the file is removed.
2) If too much pressure is applied, the hand piece
automatically stops and reverses rotation.
3) It also automatically stops and reverses rotation when
the file tip reaches the apical stop, as determined by the
built-in apex locator.
• 3-M4 safety handpiece
M4 Safety Hand piece which has a 30-degree reciprocating
motion and a unique chuck that locks regular hand files in
place by their handles. 84
The root canal is prepared by means of a reciprocating
movement of the instrument (approx 60º) using the“
The Endo-Gripper is a similar
hand piece, with a 10:1 gear ratio
and a 45-degree turning motion.
VERTICAL STROKE HANDPIECE
CANAL FINDER SYSTEM
• It is a specialized handpiece with a
vertical movement of 0.3-1.0 mm and a
free rotational movement.
• The free rotational movement allows the
tip to move away from an obstruction in
the root canal.
• Increasing vertical pressure will stop the
• Is a modified speed reducing handpiece.
• It has a vertical movement of 0.4-0.8 mm and a
contra-rotational movement, which is restricted
Three cutting instruments can be use with it :
• K-file with a safe-ended tip for narrow canals.
• A more aggressive H-file.
• A flexible H-file with a safe-ended tip.
In addition to conventional burs, burs with extended shanks for
low-speed contraangle handpieces are useful for providing good
visibility during deep preparation of the pulp chamber.
Various surgical length burs.
The longer length of these burs
allows a direct view
Gates Glidden Drill:
This has a long, thin shaft ending in a
flame-shaped head with a non-cutting
safe tip to guard against perforation. It
is ade of hardened carbon steel.
• For initial opening of the canal-
• To remove the lingual shoulder in
• Coronal flaring in coronal-apical BMP
• This instrument was designed to have a weak spot in the
part of the shaft closest to the handpiece, so that, if the
instrument separates, the separated part can be easily
removed from the canal.
• The flame shaped head cuts laterally and is used with a
gentle, apically directed pressure. It has a modified safe tip
i.e. non-cutting tip.
• These instruments come in sizes 1 to 6.
No. 1 .50 mm
No. 2 .70 mm
No. 3 .90 mm
No. 4 1.10 mm
No.5 1.30 mm
No.6 1.50 mm
Speed – 750-1500 rpm.
Length- 28mm, 32mm.
• It has long sharp flutes with a safe tip connected to a thick
• It is most often used in preparing the coronal part of the
root canal for a post and core.
• It cuts laterally and hence may cause perforation if used
• These instruments are also available in no.1 to 6.
No. 1 .70 mm
No. 2 .90 mm
No. 3 1.10 mm
No. 4 1.30 mm
No.5 1.50 mm
No.6 1.70 mm
Speed – 750-1500 rpm.
GPX gutta-percha remover
• It is a rotary instrument for the removal of compacted gutta-
• This device break up and removes gutta-percha from the
canal, facilitating retreatment procedures.
• Flexogates (Dentsply/Maillefer; Tulsa,
Olka) are Modified gates-glidden
designed for apical preparation.
• It consist of a smooth, flexible shank
which is circular and is small in cross
• Flame shape head
• Non cutting tip
• Weak spot at the neck
• Landed design
Group III: engine-driven nickel
titanium rotary instruments
• The greatest innovation in endodontic instrumentation in
recent times is probably the introduction of nickel titanium
rotary instruments .
• These instruments are entirely fabricated by a machining
process, in contrast to the twisting of tapered wire blanks that
has been used for the traditional manufacturing of stainless
• The widespread popularity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary
instruments arises from the relatively low elastic modulus of
the nickeltitanium alloy, which permits use of these
instruments in curved root canals that would present
considerable difficulty for stainless steel instruments .
• And this super elastic property of nickel-titanium alloy
(Nitinol) was discovered by Buehler and Wang at the US
Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the early 1960s.
• The name Nitinol was derived from the elements that make
up the alloy, nickel and titanium, and “nol” for the Naval
• The alloy used in endodontics is commonly referred to as 55
• It contains about 55 wt% Ni and 45 wt% Ti and substituting
some Ni with less than 2 wt% Co, nearly the same number of
Ni and Ti atoms are combined, being reflected in the term
Features of Ni-Ti
a) Shape memory
• The NiTi file comes back to its
original straight form without
showing any sign of lasting
deformation .This is called shape
b) Super/Pseudo elasticity
The ability of resisting stress
without permanent deformation
and going back to the initial
lattice form is called super
• Superelasticity and shape memory of NiTi alloy is because
of phase transformation in their crystal structure.
• The alloy exists in two crystallographic forms i.e. parent
Austenitic phase which is stronger and stable than the
daughter Martensitic phase.
• On heating the alloy undergoes transformation from the
Austenitic, (body-centered cubic lattice) stronger and stable
phase to the Martensitic phase, (close packed hexagonal
phase), i.e. weaker phase, and on cooling it reverts back to
Austenitic phase. A similar phase change occurs when the
alloy is stressed during root canal treatment.
• On release of stress, the structure reverts back to Austenite.
Austenite Martensite Austenite
Properties of nickel-titanium and
PROPERTY NiTi Stainless steel
DENSITY (g/cm3) 6.45 8.03
Biocompatibility EXCELLENT FAIR
Elastic modulous Approx. 48 Gigapascal 193 Gigapascal
Recovered Elongation % 8 % 0.8%
Torqueability EXCELLENT POOR
Ultimate tensile strength Approx 1240 Megapascal Approx 760 Megapascal
Table 5 ( Breme HJ & Biehl V (1998) Metallic Biomaterials. In black: handbook of
Advantages over stainless steel:
• NiTinol files have 2-3 times more flexibility then stainless
steel (Walia et al 1988).
• Superior fracture resistance in clockwise and counter
• NiTinol can retain the shape of the curved canal and does
not straighten like stainless steel.
• Ni-Ti undergoes large amounts of elastic deformation when
compared to Stainless steel.
Disadvantages compared to Stainless Steel:
• Cutting efficiency of NiTinol is only 60% than that of
matching S.S. file.
• Does not give any signs of fatigue before they fracture.
• More expensive.
Niti File: Design & Structure
• NiTi flex-files are manufactured from nickel-titanium wire that
is ground to give the typical profile of a K-file.
• The tip of the instrument is non-cutting ('batt-tip') which makes
the NiTiflex-file well suited for the preparation of curved canals
without the risk of ledge formation.
• NiTiflex-files come in sizes 15 - 60, all with a taper of 0.02.
• K-file design is identified by the square symbol on the handle.
And NiTiflex-files can be best distinguished from normal K-files
by the code that in NiTiflex-files is printed with two colors.
Files used in both hand and
• PROTAPER FILES
• GREATER TAPER FILES
• A new endodontic classification of instrument, for which there is
no ISO or ANSI/ADA specification as yet, is the U-File,
developed by Health (May 3, 1988) and marketed as ProFiles,
GT Files (Dentsply/Tulsa Dental; Tulsa, Okla.), LIGHTSPEED
(LightSpeed Technology Inc; San Antonio, Tex.), and Ultra-Flex
files (Texeed Corp., USA).
• The U-File’s cross-sectional configuration has two 90-degree cutting
edges at each of the three points of the blade.
• The flat cutting surfaces act as a planing instrument and are referred
to as radial lands.
• The new U shape adapts well to the curved canal.
• A noncutting pilot tip ensures that the file remains in the lumen of
the canal, thus avoiding transportation and “zipping” at the apex.
• Profile system was first introduced by Dr. Ben Johnson in
• It was first sold as the “series 29” stainless steel hand
instruments with 0.02 taper.
• The manufacturer soon developed rotary counterparts due to
the canal centering capacity and less aggressive cutting of NiTi.
• The tips of the profile series 29 rotary instruments had a
constant proportion of diameter increments by 29 %.
• Further developments included rotary instruments with
increasing taper (0.04 taper, 0.06 taper). 109
Later on profile series with ISO-sized tips and orifice shaper
were also marketed.
I] Series 29
a) Hand instruments -0.02 taper.
b) Rotary instruments -0.04, 0.06 taper.
II] ISO Series
a) 0.04 and 0.06 taper hand and rotary instruments.
Ⅲ] Profile Orifice shaper 0.05- 0.08 taper.
IV] Profile GT rotary instruments AND hand files
U shape design with
radial lands Parallel central core
-ve RAKE ANGLE
Recommended speed: 150-300 rpm- Cleaning & shaping
Recommended speed : 1200-1500 rpm for Retreatment
Together with a neutral or slightly negative rake angle this
configuration facilitates a reaming action on dentin rather than
-ve CUTTING ANGLE
• The rate of increment between file sizes in this series is
constant i.e. 29%.
• length - 21mm, 25mm
• Profile 0.04 Taper:
o Taper- 4%
o Length- 21, 25 and31mm
o Available Sizes- 15 to 90 No (15, 20, 25,
30, 35, 40, 45,60 & 90)
o These are also available as hand
o For preparing the terminal part of the
o Identification : Presence of a single
colored ring on the shank
Profile 0.06 Taper
o Taper is 6%. For example- 20 no file will have tip diameter
0.20 and diameter at 16 mm will be 1.16.
o Length is 21, 25, 31 mm
o Available Sizes- 15- 40 No
o For preparing the middle part of the canal.
o Identification – Presence of two colored rings on the shank.
ProFile 0.S.( Orifice Shaper )
• It is a preferred instrument for opening up the canal.
• Identified by three colored rings.
• Taper is 5 to 8%.
• Length is 19 mm.
• Sizes : NO. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80
• Speed - 150 – 350 rpm
• A recent addition to the profile system is the vortex.
• The major changes lies is the non landed cross section ,
whereas tip sizes and tapers are similar to existing profile
• It is manufactured using NiTi M- wire , exhibiting superior
cyclic fatigue resistance.
• Vortex also have varying helical angle to counteract the
tendency of non-landed files to thread in to the canal.
• Taper is 0.04 , 0.06
• Sizes- 15 – 50 No
• The distinctive colour of vortex blue rotary files is a visible
titanium oxide layer resulting from processing of NiTi wire for
• The standard NiTi instruments with shape memory have
tendency to go back to their original straight position
which is not advantageous in curved canals. The
processing of vortex blue rotary files reduces shapes memory
and increases the resistance to cyclic fatigue. Hence, vortex
blue follows the natural curvature of the tooth within the canal.
• Increased torque strength.
• Taper – 0.04, 0.06
• Size – 15 -50 No 118
• The Greater Taper file, or GT file, was introduced by Dr.
Buchanan in 1994.
• It was first produced as a set of four hand-operated files and
later as engine-driven files.
• The instruments came in four tapers (#.06, #.08, #.10, and
#.12), and the maximum diameter of the working part was 1
mm. The length of cutting flutes was decreased so file has
short cutting portion and the taper was increased.
• Cross section of file has triple U with radial lands.
The current set includes:
• 20, 30, 40 Series – taper 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%
• Size 50,70,90 - available in 0.12 Accessory Series with 12%
taper. The maximum diameter of these files is 1.5 mm,
similar to that of a # 6 GG (gates-glidden)
ROUNDED TIP AND LANDED
Triple U SHAPE CROSS
Negative cutting angleNegative rake angle
The GT System includes (left to right)
GT Hand File, GT Rotary File, GT
Gutta Percha, GT Paper, GT Obturator,
and GT Post.
Light Speed Instruments
• The LightSpeed file, developed by Dr. Steve Senia and R.
William Wildey in the early 1990s. These are also known as
• It is an engine driven version of the Ni-Ti Canal Master
'U‘ file .
The unique features include
• Short anterior cutting heads
• Long, thin noncutting shafts
• Sizes :
• LightSpeed /LSI set consist of totals 26 instruments with sizes
20 to 140 and in lengths of 21 mm, 25 mm, and 31 mm, 50 mm
• LightSpeed instruments also have half-sizes between 20 and 70
(22.5, 27.5, 32.5, 57.5, and 65.5)
• The half-sizes instruments are color-coded exactly as the
previous sizes, but also have white or black markings or
engraved rings on the instrument’s handles.
• LSX does not have half size files and set consist of size 20 –
80. It can be used with 2500 rpm because of high flexibility.
• Cutting heads:
• Light speed cutting head has three radial lands and three U-
shaped spiral grooves between the radial lands.
• LightSpeed cutting heads are 0.25 mm- 2.25 mm long.
• Size 20-30 – short noncutting pilot tips and a 75-degree cutting
• Size 32.5 -slightly longer noncutting pilot tip and a 33-degree
• Sizes 35 through 140- longer and more slender noncutting
pilot tips and a 21-degree cutting angle.
• Thin shafts, shank and handle:
• Instruments have thin, taperless, noncutting shafts. Because of
the thin shaft lightspeed instruments are very flexible thereby
reduces the danger of straightening the canal.
• The shank is marked with rings that indicate distances from
the instrument’s tip.
• The 21-mm instruments have only one ring on the shank,
indicating distance of 20 mm from the tip.
• The 25-mm instruments have three rings indicating distances
of 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm from the tip.
• The 31-mm instruments have four rings on the shank,
indicating distances of 24 mm, 26 mm, 28 mm, and 30 mm
from the tip. 128
Design of the instrument
Non cutting pilot tip, U shape design
Non cutting, flexible shaft with
0.25-2.25 mm head
Size 20, 32.5, 40
Principles Of LS Technique
Simplifill gutta percha
RPM –Constant- 1500-2000
1. Straight Line access
2. Coronal preparation with # 15,20,25
3. W.L determination.
Progressive larger instruments are used i.e. smaller to larger.
Apical seal: SimpliFill is a solid, 5mm tapered gutta-percha
cone attached to a stainless-steel carrier. The carrier is
removed from the canal after it condenses the G.P. cone to the
working length. The middle and coronal parts of the canal are
obturated with the technique of choice.
• Lightspeed Instrument
• Fractures may occur at two sites.
• One is at the shaft–shank junction
and is due to excessive angulation
of the instrument in the canal
combined with poor access.
• The second site for fracture is a
few millimeters from the cutting
head and generally is caused by
locking the cutting head in the
canal or by excessive speed, which
accelerates metal fatigue. 131
• Introduced by Daryl Green and manufactured by Micro Mega.
• It is the first rotary NiTi instrument designed without radial lands.
• HERO 642 means:
H - High
E - Elasticity
Ro – in Rotation
642 means that it is available in the 0.06, 0.04 and 0.02 taper .
A complete set consists of 12 files
with varying ISO sizes, tapers
and lengths of cutting segments.
Negative rake angle
Non cutting tip
• It is designed with the same triple-helix cross-section.
• The key modifications in this instrument involve the pitch of
the blade and the length of the cutting portion, which vary
depending on the taper.
• By modifying these parameters, it is possible to select the
strength, efficiency, and flexibility best suited for the taper
and the work required of the instrument – this is called as the
‘adapted pitch’ concept.
• Available Sizes and tapers
25 no file with different taper and
different length of cutting portion
• HERO Apical® are NiTi instruments used to enlarge the apical third of the
canal after the canal is prepared with HERO Shaper (ideally) following the
normal sequence. Use of HERO Apical® is indicated at the end of canal
preparation, with a reducing contra-angle handpiece at a speed of 300 to
600 rpm or manually.
2 instruments are offered:
• No- 30 HERO Apical® (black stop) with .06 taper
• No- 30 HERO Apical® (red stop) with .08 taper
• In case of root canal infection, it eliminates the dentine layers
contaminated with bacteria and enables antiseptic solution and
temporary medication to be applied. It also improves the root canal
• It flares the apical third facilitating penetration of plugger and reduces
the risk of extrusion of gutta percha beyond the apical limit.
• Both instruments are inserted, one after the other till the apical limit of
the preparation (Working Length) . The resultant .08 tapered width
ensures a uniform stop for the gutta percha.
• FIRSTLY- .06 WL
• THEN .08 WL
It is a Ni-Ti instrument used for coronal flaring.
Available as :-
• Larger Taper .12 with size # 25.
• Blade Length 15 mm
• Safe Non-Active Tip.
• Positive Cutting Angle.
• Excellent Debridement
Rotation speed: 300 - 600 rpm
Endoflare with INGET shaft
Endoflare with CLASSIC shaft
• 1. Initially open the canal with a Micromega Hand File size No
10, length 21 mm or 25 mm.
• 2. Insert ENDOFLARE in the coronal third to a maximum depth
of 3 mm using a gentle back & forth motion.
• 3. Irrigate generously.
• 4. In complicated cases, press lightly against the chamber walls in
order to selectively debride the area.
• The ProTaper system (Dentsply/Maillefer) represents a new
generation of NiTi instruments.
• This instrument was designed by Prof. Pierre Machtou, Dr.
Clifford Ruddle and Prof. John West in coperation with
• Can be used at 200 to 300 rpm.
features of protaper
Modified guiding tip
Varying tip diameters
Varying helical angel and pitches
Shorter handle of the file
Progressive taper - The unique design factor is the varying
tapers along the instruments' long axes. This progressively
tapered design serves to significantly improve flexibility, cutting
efficiency and safety.
Protaper files have changing helical angle and pitch over
their cutting blades which reduces the potential of an
instrument from screwing into the canal.
Cross section- Modified K file type with sharp cutting edges and no
radial lands .This convex triangular cross section enhances the cutting
action while decreasing the rotational friction between blade of the
file and dentin. The cross section of F3 finishing file is slightly
relieved for increased flexibility.
Protaper have modified non cutting guiding tip that helps in making
the file centred in the canal while rotation.
cross-section of F3 with a
• The ProTaper system originally comprised of just six instruments:
three shaping files for the crown-down procedure and three
finishing files for apical shaping and creating a smooth transition
from the middle one third of the canal.
The S-X Shaper is an auxiliary instrument used in canals
of teeth with shorter roots or to expand the coronal aspects
of the preparation. It is similar to the use of Gates-Glidden
drills or orifice openers.
• Shaping files
• The first auxiliary shaping file is Shaper X or SX.
• SX is recognized by the lack of an identification ring on its handle
and its extraordinary shape, resembling “Eiffel Tower in Paris”.
• All the three shaping files have partially active tips.
• The three shaping files are characterized by increasing taper
coronally and the reverse pattern is seen in the three finishing files.
They have 14 mm long cutting blades .
• S1 & S2 have tip diameter of 0.17 mm and 0.20 mm respectively,
diameter at D14 are 1.2 and 1.1 mm, respectively.
• The finishing files ( Fl, F2, and F3) are marked with a yellow,
red, and blue identification ring, respectively and have tip
diameters of 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 mm, respectively.
• The finishing files have noncutting tips.
F 1 finishing file (size 20)
Initial taper of .07 from D1 to D3
Decreased taper of 5.5% from D4 to D14
Maximum flute diameter: 1.13 mm
• F2 finishing file (size 25)
Initial taper of .08 from D1 to D3
Decreased taper of 5.5% - 6.0 % from D4 to D14
Maximum flute diameter: 1.2 mm
• F3 finishing file (size 30)
Initial taper of .09 from D1 to D3
Decreased taper of 5.0% - 7.0% from D4 to D14
Maximum flute diameter: 1.2 mm
• It was introduced by McSpadden. & Manufactured by Sybron
• The original Quantec 2000 series had a 90° tip. This sharp tip
appears to predispose problems like zipping, elbow formation and
perforations. So, they were replaced.
• Newer Quantec series are available in both QLX Non-cutting (LX)
and QSE safe-cutting tip (SC) having 60° tip.
Quantec LX Quantec SC 153
Quantec system is available as-
With variable taper and constant tip:
Length- 17, 21, 25mm
Tip diameter- 0.25mm
Taper- .03, .04, .05, .06
With variable tip and constant taper
Length- 21, 25mm
Tip- 15, 20,25….55,60.
AXXESS HANDLE: it results in an overall height reduction of file
• Tip Geometry
• LX Non-Cutting – The LX pilot tip maintains a central axis and
deflects around severe curvatures.
Ideal for: Routine cases
Delicate apical region
SC Safe-Cutting -The Quantec SC features a negotiating tip that cuts
as it moves apically, following canal pathways and minimizing stress.
• Ideal for: Small, tight canals
• Quantec system had a positive blade angle Hence it shave the
dentin rather than scraping.
Two wide radial lands are also present along
with relief behind the lands. This unique design
minimises its contact with the canal thereby –
• Reduces rotational friction and torque
• Prevent the crack formation
• Increases the strength
• Graduating Tapers
Instruments come in #.02, #.03, #.04, #.05, #.06, #.08, #.10, and #.12
taper. The increasing tapers changes the point at which the file
engages the canal wall.
Quantec system utilizes the ‘‘gradual taper technique’’ to prepare a
canal, starting with larger tapered file first, progressing with files of
lesser taper until working length is established. This technique
restricts the contact area of file in contact with canal wall leading to
increase efficiency of instrument because forces will be concentrated
on smaller area.
The current K3 system (SybronEndo) was developed in a sequence of
further development of the Quantec system by Dr. McSpadden in
The most obvious difference between the Quantec and K3 models is
the K3’s unique cross-sectional design : a slightly positive rake angle
for greater cutting efficiency, wide radial lands, and a peripheral
blade relief for reduced friction.
Unlike the Quantec a two-flute file, the K3 features a third radial land
which prevents screwing-in of the file. A safety tip is also
incorporated into the design .
The instrument is available in #.02, #.04, and #;06 tapers.
A series of body shapers in #.08, #.10, and #.12 is also available.
Body shaper files
K3 canal shaping files
simple color coding to distinguish between
different tip sizes and tapers
• This instrument has the most positive rake angle of all the
instruments currently available and is considered among the
most resistant to fracture because of its cross-sectional
• The third radial land on K3 files stabilizes and keeps the
instrument centered in the canal and minimizes over
Positive rake angleWide radial lands
•Peripheral blade relief
•Third radial land
• Peripheral Blade
• The K3 Blade Relief areas, in addition to reducing frictional
resistance helps to control the depth of cut. This aids in
protecting the file from over-engagement, and separations
• U-shaped files without such a relief have a greater potential
for over-engagement, apical blocking and instrument failure.
relief to reduce friction
and facilitate smoother
U- FILE K3 file
Asymmetrically placed flutes make the k3 system with better
canal tracking ability, add peripheral strength and prevent
Variable core diameter
This may be better described as variable flute depth. The proportion
of the core diameter to the outside diameter is greatest at the tip,
where strength is most important. This proportion then decreases
uniformly, resulting in greater flute depth and increased flexibility
while maintaining strength. An additional benefit to this is that debris
is also removed more efficiently.
Variable flute pitch- “Screwing-in’’ occurs as each successive flute
naturally follows the path created by the one before. But K3 file has
a variabe pitch that allows debris to effectively move coronally and
reduces ‘‘screwing-in’’ effect.
Variable core diameter variable flute pitch
Axxess handle- it allows the
operator easier access to the
posterior region of the mouth. The
K3 files are 4mm shorter, yet the
working (fluted) length is the
Safe-ended non-cutting tip -follows
the canal system and assists the
practitioner in avoiding ledging,
perforations and zipping.
INCREASED HELICAL ANGLE
The increasing variable helical angle from tip to handle helps reduce
the “pull-down” effect and helps in pushing debris coronally. This
feature allows continuous instrumentation with little or no
interruption from clogged flutes.
• The RACE stands for reamers with alternating cutting edges.
• The RaCe was manufactured by FKG and was later distributed in
the United States by Brasseler (Savannah, GA).
• A RaCe has alternating twisted and straight segments, giving a
larger space for debris removal and reduces the tendency to screw
in the canal.
• Crosssection- traingle or square for small
instruments (15/0.02 and 20/0.02) and
triangle in remaining larger size RaCe
• The length of cutting parts vary from 9 to
• The tips are round and noncutting.
• The instruments are marked by color-coded
handles and milled rings.
Available in size 15-40 with 0.02, 0.04, 0.06
• The surface quality of the RaCe has been improved by
electropolishing, and the two largest files (size #35 with .08 taper
and size #40 with .10 taper) are also available in stainless steel.
Race system has been incorporated with Safety Memo Disc for
controlling NiTi fatigue. It quantifies usage and stress to minimize
the overuse and metal fatigue.This disc has petals which are peeled
off after every use. Once the petals are over, the file should be
discarded. There are 8 petals in each disc. the SMD can be sterilised
and never leave the instrument.
D-Race instruments are used to remove most of the old root filling
material from the canals such as gutta-percha, obturators or resin-based
material. It removes a large part of the ancient filling material without
The D-Race set consists of two NiTi files – DR1 and DR2. The first
instrument, DR1, has an active tip to allow engagement of the root
filling material and is used in the first few millimetres of the coronal
and straight part of the canal. Once the access is cleared with the DR1,
the second instrument, DR2, is used to reach WL. As this instrument is
highly stressed, it is intended for single use.
NON ACTIVE TIP
600 rpm 173
• Manufactured by: VDW
• The cutting blades of FM instruments
have no radial lands and have round,
• Because of their convex cross-sectional
profile, it has a more substantial core
that reduces the risk of instrument
fracture and deformation.
round, passive tipsmilled ring markings
• Available in #.02, #.04, and #.06 tapers.
• The tip diameters are 0.15 to 0.7mm for #.02 taper instruments and
0.15 to 0.4mm for #.04 taper and #.06 taper files .
• In addition to the standard set, the Intro file, which has a #.11 taper
and a 9 mm cutting part is also available.
9mm cutting part , 11%
• The manufacturer provides a system box that indicates
sequences for narrow, medium size, and wide canals.
REAL WORLD ENDO SEQUENCE
• Introduced by Brave and Koch.
• Triangular cross-section
EndoSequence remains centered without the need
for radial lands by incorporating a unique
Alternate Contact Point(ACP) geometry into its
• Preserves the natural flexibility of NiTi.
• Reduces the torque requirement
• Keeps the file centered in the canal .
• Prevents self-threading / “screwing in” to canal
• Enhances debris removal
• Maximizes cutting efficiency
No radial lands-
• Flexibility is maximized
• Torque is minimized
Electropolished surface –
• promote better fatigue resistance.
• Eliminates surface imperfections that weaken other files
• Increases file sharpness
Precision Tip- Non-active at the tip, fully
active precisely at 1mm
Works at rotational speed of 450 – 600 rpm.
Taper – .04 and .06 in three sizes each:
small, medium and large.
Available in 0.04 and 0.06 taper having a precision tip.
Come in package of four files along with Expeditor file which is
used as a guide in estimating canal size. It comes as #27 with .04
Taper and 21mm length. • Creates coronal flaring while staying
centered hence expedites(speed up) the use of subsequent
Group V: Engine-driven
• Giromatic :It accepts only latch-type instruments. In this device,
the quarter-turn motion is delivered 3,000 times per minute.
• Instruments available to be used with this handpiece are:
Giro pointer -orifice opener (16 mm)
Giro-file with headstroem configuration
Rasps and broaches are most often used in giromatic handpiece ,but k-
type and H-type instruments also can be used.
Endo-Eze file system is recently introduced addition for giromatic
handpiece. The set has four instruments .The size and taper are-
0.10 # 0.025 taper,
0.13 # 0.35 taper,
0.13# 0.45 taper ,
0.13# 0.06 taper .
Group IV: Engine-driven three
dimensionally adjusting file
The SAF is a hollow device, designed as a
cylinder of thin-walled, delicate NiTi
lattice with a lightly abrasive surface,
which allows it to remove dentin with a
back-and-forth grinding motion.
The SAF is operated with a KaVo
handpiece that generates in-and-out
vibrations about 5000 vibrations per
minute and 0.4 mm amplitude.
A special irrigation device is connected by
a silicon tube to the irrigation hub on the
file and provides continuous flow of the
irrigant during the procedure, at flow rates
of 1 to 10 mL/min.
• The SAF is available in two diameters: 1.5 mm and 2 mm. The
SAF 1.5 mm is available in 3 standard lengths (21, 25, 31
mm) whereas the SAF 2 mm is available in two lengths (21, 25
File is initially compressed into the canal and gradually enlarges
while cleaning and shaping . This unique feature adapts the file to
the shape of the canal not only longitudinally but also to the cross-
section of the canal. Consequently basic shape of the root canal is
The absence of a metal core also makes the SAF extremely
resistant to fracture.
Group VI: sonic and
• These include the Sonic air 1500 and Megasonic 1400.
• It impart vibrations in the frequency of between 1500 and 3000
Hz, which is imparted to the file shank.
• Air pressure is adjusted to 0.4 Mpa.
• Instruments used:
• Rispi files, heli-sonic files, shapers.
• Rispi files are used in the coronal two third and shapers are used in
the apical third of the canals.
• These instruments have safe ended non cutting tip with 1.5 to 2
mm in length. The size of these instruments range from 15- 40.
• Instruments oscillate outside the canal which is converted in to
vibrational up and down movement within the canal.
• The movement of the file creates a form of acoustic
microstreaming around the mid shank and at the tip .It is the
generation of time independent unidirectional steady circulation of
fluid in the vicinity of small vibrating object(file’s tip) .This will
result in large hydrodynamic shear stress around the file capable of
distrupting most biological materials.
• There are two methods of generating ultrasonic oscilations in the file
• Magnetostrictive- that converts electromagnetic energy into
mechanical energy. A stack of magnetostrictive metal strips in a
handpiece is subjected to a standing and alternating magnetic field, as
a result of which vibrations are produced.
• Magnetostrictive units create figures of eight (elliptical movement),
which is not ideal for endodontic use and another drawback with these
units is that heat is generated, so adequate cooling is required.
• Piezoelectric –this method uses a crystal which changes size when an
electrical charge is applied. When the crystal deforms, it goes into
mechanical oscillation without producing heat hence does not require
• The tips of piezoelectric units work in a linear, back-and-forth,
“piston-like” motion, which is ideal for endodontic treatment .
• Maximum movement occurs at file tip in both types. Piezoelectric
• Instrument used:
• modified K files and diamond impregnated file for straight part of
• The magnetostrictive can produce a tapered canal preparation.
• The piezoelectric may produce apical widening and ledges in
• Manufactured by- VDW.
• High bending strength due to a special thermal
• The inactive pilot tip conducts the instrument
safely along the canal .
• Additional length marking on handle.
• Intermediate size ISO 12.5 is also available
• Available sizes: ISO 06 to 15 + 12.5
• Liberator™ rotary NiTi file manufactured by: Miltex has a unique
straight blade design and manufacturing process that eliminates the
traditional helical flutes. Hence they have a less tendency to self-
• Liberator files are manufactured with a process using electro-
chemical grinding (ECG) techniques, in which a liquid chemical is
used that decreases the thermal impact of grinding process. Thus
the heat affected zones on the file get reduced, which usually
affects surface hardness or brittleness and creates potential for file
• In conventional files the direction of the grinding wheel is
perpendicular to the file axis resulting in transverse micro-cracks.
These micro-cracks have been attributed to file separation. Hence
in liberator files the direction of grinding wheel has been changed
from perpendicular to parallel to prevent crack formation.
• Due to relatively high RPM(1,500-2,000), the
abrasion of dentin results in very fine debris
particles which can be easily removed by
• Roane safety tip minimizes ledging and
transportation. It also helps the file to remain
centered in the canal.
• Available as:
• .02 taper- ISO size 15-40, 45-80.
• .04 taper- ISO size 15-40, 45-70.
• .06 taper- ISO size 15-40, 45-70.
• Length- 21, 25 mm.
Roane safety tip
NiTi-TEE consists of six files with varying taper for use with crown
First three files (12/30, 8/30 and 6/30 ) are used as Coronal shapers.
The next three files (4/30, 4/25 and 4/20) have the unique S-profile
hence they shape the apical portion of the canal quickly and
• The V-Taper™ Rotary System is a
series of three (3) variable taper NiTi
• Manufactured by- Guidance Endo
• Safe-Core- Reduces the chance for
• Variable Pitch- Eliminates “screw-
• Neutral Rake Angle- Eliminates the
gouging action of positive rake
angles and heat build-up and
inefficiency of negative rake angles.
• No Radial Land- no dragging,
friction, heat build-up which can
cause breakage 199
1) Glide path using V-Taper Glide-Path hand
files in step back tech :10(V02) ➞ 10(V04) ➞
10(V06) ➞ repeat
2) Coronal flare - 25(V08)➞ 30(V10) ➞
Coronal Shaper :Gates-Glidden, straight, or
3) Apical shaping using crown down tech:
30(V10)➞ 25(V08)➞ 20(V06)➞ repeat
4) Final Shape- 30(V10)-Large Canals 25(V08)-
Medium Canals 20(V06)-Small Canal
Non-cutting tip prevents ledging and transportation.
Flex Shaft- Reduces torque, bending forces, and
30 25 20
(V10) (V08) (v06)
• Manufactured by: Plastic endo .
• Single Use Only
• Size: 20
• Taper: 0.04mm
• Lengths Available: 21mm, 25mm, 31mm
• Diamond coated- hence agitate sodium hypochlorite and remove
remaining dentinal wall debris without further enlarging the
Additional Uses of the F File
• Removal of calcium hydroxide dressing
• Placement of sealer
• Removal of canal debris after post preparation
• Placement of post cements
• The F File should be the last file to be used in a canal before
• Prior to placement of the F File, the canal should be filled with
• The F File can be used with 600-900 rpm.
• The working length is set on the F File with a rubber stopper, then
the file is placed passively into the canal and circumferentially
worked along the dentinal walls with cyclic axial motion (up and
• The F file should be used in the canal for approximately 30 seconds,
then the canal is flushed with sodium hypochlorite and dried for
obturation or placement of an intracanal medicament. 203
S5 Rotary Files• Features
1. Short shank (13mm) for better
2. Progressive flute design - reduces
3. Unique "S" profile ensures enhanced
• File Dimensions
Set consists of 5 files
File no 1 = .08/30
file no 2 = .06/30
file no 3 = .04/30
file no 4 = .04/25
file no 5 = .04/20
• All 23mm in length (file no1 is only 18mm
in length). 204
3 unique processes to deliver strength and flexibility.
• R-phase heat treatment technology- it effects the
molecular phase and properties of Ni-Ti. Thereby
resulting crystalline structure maximizes flexibility
and resistance to breakage.
• Twisted design, not ground- twisting optimizes
grain structure and eliminates micro-fractures
formation. However grinding weakens the metal’s
structure at the molecular level and creates micro-
fractures on the metal surface.
• Advanced surface treatment- it increases the
hardness of the file
Advantages of EndoWave files
Five files for preparation
Anti screwing design : the unique‘‘continuous Wave design’’
ensures that file do no screw or jam in to the canal, prevents
the file being automatically drawn in to the root canal and
reduced the force to be applied by the operator.
Unique safety tip : rounded tip ensures maximum safety
when preparing in the apex . The tips follow the canal contour
perfectly and prevent canal straightening. No step formation
in narrow and curved canals
Optimum cutting edges: triangular design of the files
produces sharp cutting edges, which excavate the root canal
quickly and efficiently.
Smooth surface texture: files are electrochemically
conditioned which increases the metal fatigue resistance and
resiliency and durability of the instrument.
Kit A FOR NORMAL ROOT
Kit B FOR SEVERLY CURVED
M TWO• Manufactured by: VDW
• Simple: one sequence for all types of root canals
• Single length: all instruments are brought to full
• Simultaneous shaping: M2 cuts automatically while
advancing apically and also laterally when using in a
• Each instrument creates a glide path for the next one.
• Two efficient cutting edges. In addition, it is
designed with minimum radial contact as well as
large and deep flutes for continuous upwards
evacuation of dentine chips.
• Highly flexible due to small core and S –shaped
• Tapers-.04, .05, .06, .07 Length–21,25, 31mm
• Sizes- ISO No. 10- 25 208
(10/.04 , 15/.05,
1 Ring .04 taper
Negative rake angle Positive cutting angle
“S” shape cross section
Non cutting tip
Variable helical angle
• From a biological perspective, root canal treatment is
directed toward the elimination of micro-organisms from the
root canal system and the prevention of reinfection.
• Technological advances in the form of rotary NiTi
instruments have led to dramatic improvements in the ability
to shape root canals with potentially fewer procedural
• Ingle’s Endodontics: 5th & 6th Edition
• Torabinejad & Walton’s Endodontics Principle & Practice: 4th
• Grossman’s Endodontic Practice: 11th Edition
• Cohen’s Pathways Of Pulp:9th Edition
• Franklin Weine’s Endodontic Therapy:6th Edition
• H. R. Pitt Ford’s Problem Solving In Endodontics: 3rd Edition
• Mastering endodontic instrumentation (2007) Dr. John T.Mc