WHAT IS AN ORGANISATION?• A tool used by people to coordinate their actions to obtain something they desire or value.• Organizations provide goods and services Organizations employ people.• O r g a n i z a t i o n s b r i n g together people and resources to produce products and services.• Basically, organizations exist to create value.
ORGANISATION EXISTS Increase specialization & division of labor Use large scale technology Which The use of increases org. allows Manage the external the value environment that an people to jointly organization can create Economize on transactional costs Exert power & control
WHAT IS ORGANISATION BEHAVIOR The systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work.
DEFINITIONOB is the field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups & structures have on behaviorwithin the organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’seffectiveness.
EXAMPLEIf I want to understand my boss’s personality, I would beexamining the individual level of analysis. If we want to knowabout how my manager’s personality affects my team, I amexamining things at the team level. But, if I want tounderstand how my organization’s culture affects my boss’sbehavior, I would be interested in the organizational level ofanalysis.
OB DRAWS FROM OTHER DISCIPLINESTO CREATE A UNIQUE FIELD.Personality and Motivation - Psychology.Team processes relies - Sociology.Decision making - Influence of Economics.Power and influence in organizations - Political sciences.Stress and its effects on individuals – Medical ScienceAttitude change, Group process – Social PsychologyIndividual culture ,org culture – Anthropology
IMPORTANCE OF OBOB provides road map to our lives in organizations .OB uses scientific research to help understand & predict org. life.OB helps us influence organizational events.OB helps understand himself & others better.OB helps to understand the basis of motivation .
IMPORTANCE OF OBOB is useful for maintaining cordial industrial relationOB is also useful in the field of marketing.The most popular reason to study OB is if one wants topursue career in management.Upward trend in economy.
SCOPE OF OBOB is the study of human behavior at work in organizations.Accordingly the scope of OB includes the study ofindividuals, groups and organization/structure. The aspectsof these three are –Individuals:- Organizations are the associations ofindividuals. Individuals differ in many respects. The study ofindividuals, therefore, includes aspects as personality,perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning andmotivation.
SCOPE OF OBGroups of individuals: Groups include aspects such asgroup dynamics, group conflicts, communication, leadership,power and politics and the like.Organization structure: The study of organization/structureincludes aspect such as formation of organizationalstructure, culture and change and development.
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OFORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURThe nature of people:ü Individual differencesü A whole personü Motivated behaviorü Value of the person
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OFORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURThe Nature Of Organization:ü Social systemü Mutual Interest
AUTOCRATICThe basis of this model ispower managerialorientation of authority.Those who are in commandmust have the power todemand “you do this orelse”
AUTOCRATICThe employee in turn areoriented towards obedience& dependence on boss.The employee need that ismet is subsistence.The performance result isminimal.
AUTOCRATICü Its principal weakness is its high human cost especially as caused by micromanagement.ü Micromanagement- a natural pattern of autocratic manager - is the immersion of manager into controlling the details of daily operations.ü Employees typically detest micromanager, with a result being low morale, paralyzed decision on making being second guessed & high turn over.
AUTOCRATICUsefulness:ü Acceptable approach to guide managerial behavior when there where no well known alternatives.ü Useful under some extreme conditions such as organizational crises.
CUSTODIAL MODELü The basis of this model is economic resources with managerial orientation of moneyü The employee in turn are oriented towards security.
CUSTODIAL MODELü The employee need that is met is security.ü Employee feel with reasonable containment.ü Most employees are not producing anywhere near there capacities.ü The performance result is passive co-operation.
SUPPORTIVE MODELü The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support.ü The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance & participationü Psychological result is a feeling of participation & task involvement in the organizationü Employees may say we insisted of they
SUPPORTIVE MODELEmployees are stronglymotivated because theirstatus & recognition needsare better met thus they haveawakened drive for work.
COLLEGIAL MODELü The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamworkü The result is that employees feel needed & useful.There is at least one thing thatcannot be done without you.
COLLEGIAL MODELü The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline.ü The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm
SOBCThe Stimulusü Is the cause that may be overt or covert, physical,social, psychological, technological, environmental etc.The Organismü Can be individual or a group. They have cognitivemediators with physiological existence.The Consequencesü Are expressed as the results that may be overt or covert.Positive or negative and can have effects on environmentaldynamics and applications.
SOBCSOBC model is based on the very practicalphilosophy of human behavior that: every behavior is caused & follows the Cause- Effect relationship.
CONCLUSIONü Evolving Modelü Relation of models to Human Needsü Increasing use of some modelsü Contingent use of all modelsü Managerial flexibility
EVOLVING MODELü Managers /organizations use of the models tends to evolve over time.ü There is no permanent model.ü Primarily challenge to management is to identify the model it is actually using & then access its current effectiveness.
RELATIONSHIP OF MODELS TO HUMANNEEDSü The five models are closely related to human needs .ü Each model is built upon the accomplishments of the other.
INCREASE USE OF SOME MODELSü The tend towards supportive, collegial & SOBC will increase .ü Only this newer models can offer the satisfaction of the employees needs for esteem ,autonomy & self satisfaction.
CONTINGENT OF OF ALL MODELSü Though one model may me used at any given time, some appropriate use will remain for other models.ü The 5 models will continue to be used, but the more advanced model will have growing use as progress is made & employees expectations rise.
MANAGERIAL FLEXIBILITYü Managers need to identify their current behavioral model & must keep it flexible & current.ü Mangers need to read, reflect, to interact with others & to be receptive to challenges to their thinking from colleagues & their employees .
MODELS OF OBBasic of Autocratic Custodial Supportive CollegialmodelManagerial Power Economic Leadership Partnershiporientation resourcesEmployee Authority Money Support TeamworkOrientationEmployee Dependence Dependence Participation SelfPsychologic on boss on org. disciplineal ResultEmployees Subsistence Security Status & Selfneed met recognition actualizationPerformance Minimum Passive Awakened Moderateresult. cooperation drives enthusiasm