INTRODUCTION TOORGANIZATIONALDEVELOPMENTCOMPANIES THAT ENJOY ENDURING SUCCESSHAVE CORE VALUES AND A CORE PURPOSE THATREMAIN FIXED WHILE THEIR BUSINESSSTRATEGIES AND PRACTICES ENDLESSLY ADAPTTO A CHANGING WORLD
ORGANIZATIONALDEVELOPMENT The dynamic of preserving the core while stimulating progress is the reason that companies such as ............became elite institutions able to renew themselves and achieve superior long-term performance
DEFINITIONRichard Beckard-“Organization development isan effort(1) planned,(2) organization-wide, and(3) managed from the top,(4) to increase organizationeffectiveness and healththrough(5) planned interventions in theorganization’s “processes,”using behavioral-scienceknowledge
DEFINITIONThomas Cummings and Christopher Worley: “Organization development is a system wideapplication of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcementof organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’seffectiveness
DEFINITION Wendell French and Cecil Bell:“Organization development is a long-term effort, led and supported by top management, to improve an organization’s visioning, empowerment, learning, and problem-solving processes, through an on-going, collaborative management of organization culture - with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations - utilizing the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology applied behavioral science, including action research”
SIMILARITIES OF DEFINITION Planned change Organization wide Supported top down Improve organization effectiveness Applied Behavioral Science principles
ASSUMPTIONS & VALUES Dealing with individuals – Develop their potential Drivers to personnel growth & development. Provided with supportive & challenging environment . Desire & capable of higher level of contribution than normally permitted.
ASSUMPTIONS & VALUES Implication of managers- Ask, Listen, Support Challenge, Encourage Risk taking Permit failure , remove obstacles fear Give autonomy & responsibilities Set high Standard Reward success
ASSUMPTIONS & VALUES Dealing with groups- one of the most relevant reference group for individual is work group, including peers & boss. most people desire to be accepted & interacts with one or more small reference group . most people are capable of making greater contribution to the groups effectiveness & development.
ASSUMPTIONS & VALUES Implications for managers – let team flourish leaders should invest in groups/ teams adopt team leadership style rather than one to one style actively engage group members & help leaders in decision making & problem solving help group members deal with both positive & negative feelings solve problem through mutual interactions
ASSUMPTIONS & VALUES Designing & running organization- traditional org structure to newer organizational design. need & aspiration of the employees to be addressed. putting people first
KURT LEWINKurt Lewin is perhaps best-known for developing Force Field Analysis, using Force FieldDiagrams. The classic force field diagram helps a group picture the "tug-of-war" betweenforces around a given issue.
MCGREGORDouglas McGregor and Richard Beckhard while "consulting together at General Mills in the1950s, the two coined the term organizational development (OD) to describe an innovativebottoms-up change effort that fit no traditional consulting categories.
MCGREGOR - THEORY XY Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book The Human Side Of Enterprise. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, McGregors X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregors XY Theory remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture.
ROBERT BLAKEDr. Robert R. Blake (January 21,1918 – June 20, 2004) was anAmerican managementtheoretician. He did pioneer workthe field of organizationaldynamics.Together with Jane S. Mouton,he developed the Managerial GridModel (1964), which attempts toconceptualize management interms of relations and leadershipstyle
ROBERT TANENBAUMRobert Tannenbaum has comeup with new session called asTeam Building in 1952 &1953 atU.S Naval Ordnance test station atChina Lake, California.According to Tannenbaum, theterm vertically structured groupswas used with groups dealing with“Personal Topics”( such asInterpersonal relationship, selfanalysis etc) &with organization topics( such asduties and responsibilities, policiesand procedures etc).These sessions were conductedwith all managers of a givenorganization.