There seems to be one major flaw in this research. Social and economic status was not studied and the increased likelihood of poverty among ethnic minorities would seem to be an influencing factor. While Becker and Grilo noted the differences in ethnic proclivities to poor self-esteem, they did not reflect these attitudes in relation to community status.
The statistical references of Duncan, et al. (2008) are significant in their implications. They imply that substance abuse, and perhaps self-esteem, are much more relevant to victims of CSA than to victims of CPA. Although it is evident that whether CPA or CSA survivors are considered, childhood violence has a direct correlation on substance abuse engendered in adulthood.
Counseling survivors of CSA and CPA,Edwards, et al., (2007) found a direct correlation between a variety of health and mental illnesses, as well as risky behaviors including alcoholism
While the evidence suggests a correlation between CSA, CPA, and the subsequent choice of a profession in psychology and maintains a correlation in CSA, CPA, and substance abuse, there seems to be no significant change in the correlation between intelligence, ambition, education and the subsequent abuse of substances.
Klanecky and her partners reveal a direct correlation between sexual trauma and an effort to escape emotional triggers by repeatedly dissociating. It is worth noting that Klanecky, et al. (2008) did not examine males who practiced the same symptomology, perhaps because of a relatively low statistical rate of male CSA survivors.
Stewart admits the prevalence of PTSD in America is about 2% of the population while survivors of CSA equal approximately 13% of the population. Given that a large percentage of PTSD sufferers are likely to come from war and violent crimes, it seems that very few CSA survivors suffer from PTSD.
Taiwanese do not admit to sexual abuse as a psychopathological problem, instead relating it culturally to physical abuse.Yen, et al., (2008) noted five content areas “are affected by victimization: self-esteem, sense of power, trust, intimacy, and safety.”
Much of the research has been based on female subjects, primarily under the age of 18 with an emphasis on children under the age of 12. Sexually abused male children and male incest survivors have been largely ignored perhaps because of the difficulty in identifying this population (Royce & Scratchley, 1996).
Same sex abuse of male children, especially young children under the age of 12, most often results in low self-esteem and a questioning of their own sexuality, even in the homosexual child (Royce & Scratchley, 1996).
Statistically the importance of this potential study would involve a mu population of approximately nine million Americans. An interesting subgroup would be to study the incidence of sexual orientation among these sexually abused survivors.
Psy492 Module 7 Assignment 2 Worthy D.
An Exploration of the Literature Concerning the Correlation Between Child Abuse and the Subsequent Abuse of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs by the Surviving Adult<br />Douglas W. Worthy, RN<br />Argosy University<br />Psy492: Advanced General Psychology<br />Brandy Goldston-Blount, Ph.D.<br />February 26, 2010<br />
SILENCE<br />teens and adults who have survived the horrors of child abuse may suffer Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and/or a poorly developed self-esteem encouraging the rise of alcohol and substance abuse as well as many other risky behaviors.<br />
The face of abuse<br />Though it may be obvious that there are several risk factors in the development of substance abuse by the adolescent or adult, such as familial violence, neglect, and peer coercion, Becker and Grilo (2007) reveal a nonspecific correlation between child abuse and alcoholism. <br />
ethnic differences in the development of adult alcohol abuse<br />African Americans statistically abuse drugs such as marijuana and crack cocaine in greater populations than do Hispanic and European Americans, but are not statistically different in the use of alcohol (Becker and Grilo, 2007)<br />
Significant use of cannabis<br />Duncan, et al. (2008)found no statistical difference in the sexual abuse of children, even in a population laden with authoritarian families, though there was a significant rise in the use of cannabis by these survivors. Twenty-three percent of these CSA and CPA survivors met the criteria for life-time cannabis abuse and dependence <br />
HMO STUDIES<br />59.3% of respondents admitted to more than one category of childhood maltreatment and all of this percentage self-reported autonomous health risks and behaviors.<br />
alcohol and substance abuse was between 6 and 10% <br />Elliott and Guy (1993) researched female mental health professionals and found that 43.3% had suffered some form of sexual molestation while another 13.8% had endured physical abuse.<br />
Klenecky, Harrington, and McChargue (2008) studied <br />college-aged women who reported dissociation, blackouts, and problematic drinking and found that 100% of these women were survivors of CSA<br />
Self esteem<br />A significant finding of Pekala, Kumar, Maurer, Elliott-Carter, and Moon (2009) found in survivors of child abuse and adult substance abusers is poor self-esteem noting a significant correlation between it and substance abuse<br />
Sherry Stewart (1996) refers to the DSM-IV when she<br />defines Post-traumatic Stress Disorder as “a characteristic set of symptoms that may develop following the experiencing, witnessing, or confronting of an event involving actual or threatened serious injury or death or a threat to the physical integrity of the self or others”.<br />
Ptsd and sexuality<br />Stewart based her research on female survivors of CSA leaving a significant population of male survivors not researched. Such an experience as homosexual molestation among heterosexual children may very well implicate undiagnosed PTSD and leaves the hypothesis requiring further research.<br />
Yen, Yang, Chen, Yang, Su, Wang, and Lan (2008) of the Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan<br />researched “physical abuse” of indigenous children in southern Taiwan finding a significant correlation between it and depression, problem drinking and “perceived poor health status…”<br />
The prevailing arguments in the literature<br />The average incidence of male sexual child abuse seems to be about 3-4% of the general population and significantly understudied. The incidence of sexual child abuse climbs dramatically when a parent is an alcoholic, substance abuser, and/or survivor of child abuse.<br />
pedophilia<br />Male children who have been molested by older women generally do not think of this act or acts as abuse, but rather as a rite of passage into adulthood (Royce & Scratchley, 1996). Male children who are molested by older boys or men generally find the abuse as demeaning, embarrassing, and imminently secretive, even into old age (Royce & Scratchley, 1996).<br />
One research question that should be raised<br />is the emotional, spiritual, and cognitive results in the adult male who has been sexually molested in childhood by men, and the comparison among heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual adults. Sexually abused adult men comprise a significant population of the U.S.A. and even more so within a specific population of addictive and abusive familial generations.<br />
references<br />Advocates for Youth (2008). Child sexual abuse: An overview. Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=410&Itemid=336.<br />Becker, D., and Grilo, C. (2007). Ethnic differences in the predictors of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr6.webfeat.org/0BhVN14752/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf19_22/pdf/2007/B6H/01Sep07/26641250.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=26641250&S=R&D=pbh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0ieprBSrqu4TbSWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA.<br />
Duncan, A., Sartor, C., Scherrer, J., Grant, J., Heath, A., Nelson, E., Jacob, T., Bucholz, K. (2008). The association between cannabis abuse and dependence and childhood physical and sexual abuse: Evidence from an offspring of twins design. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://hb9an4jp2d.search.serialssolutions.com/directLink?&atitle=The%20association%20between%20cannabis%20abuse%20and%20dependence%20and%20childhood%20physical%20and%20sexual%20abuse%3A%20evidence%20from%20an%20offspring%20of%20twins%20design&author=Alexis%20E%20Duncan%3B%20Carolyn%20E%20Sartor%3B%20Jeffrey%20F%20Scherrer%3B%20Julia%20D%20Grant%3B%20Andrew%20C%20Heath%3B%20Elliot%20C%20Nelson%3B%20Theodore%20Jacob%3B%20Kathleen%20Keenan%20Bucholz&issn=09652140&title=Addiction&volume=103&issue=6&date=20080601&spage=990&id=doi:10.1111%2Fj.1360%2D0443.2008.02210.x&sid=ProQ_ss&genre=article&lang=en<br />
Edwards, V., Dube, S., Felitti, V., & Anda, R., (2007). It’s ok to ask about past abuse. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from<br />http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15421/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf23_24/pdf/ddd/pdh/amp/amp-62-4-327.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=amp-62-4-327&S=L&D=pdh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4Sq6WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA.<br />Elliott, D. and Guy, J. (1993). Mental health professionals versus non-mental-health professionals: Childhood trauma and adult functioning. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr6.webfeat.org/0BhVN14749/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf19_22/pdf/ddd/pdh/pro/pro-24-1-83.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=pro-24-1-83&S=L&D=pdh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq9Ss6%2B4TK%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />
Klanecky, A., Harrington, J., McChargue, D. (2008). Child sexual abuse, dissociation, and alcohol: Implications of chemical dissociation via blackouts among college women. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15403/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf9/pdf/2008/DAA/01May08/31730378.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=31730378&S=R&D=s3h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4SbWWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />
Lo, C., and Cheng, T. (2007). The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults’ substance abuse. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15406/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf19_22/pdf/2007/DAA/01Jan07/24333673.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=24333673&S=R&D=s3h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4SbWWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA.<br />
Pekala, R., Kumar, V., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., Moon, E. (2009) Self-esteem and its relationship to serenity and anger/impulsivity in an alcohol and other drug-dependent population: Implications for treatment. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15382/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf9/pdf/2009/ALQ/01Jan09/36438348.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=36438348&S=R&D=sih&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4Sa%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />Royce, J. & Scratchley, D. (2009). Number of alcoholics. Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems. Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://www.enotalone.com/article/5540.html.<br />
Seinfeld, J. (2008). A commentary on “male child” sexual abuse: A phenomenology of betrayal. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15397/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf9/pdf/2008/CSW/01Sep08/33158490.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=33158490&S=R&D=sih&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4Sa%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />
Stewart, S. (1996). Alcohol abuse in individuals exposed to trauma: A critical review. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15426/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf23_24/pdf/ddd/pdh/bul/bul-120-1-83.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=bul-120-1-83&S=L&D=pdh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4Sq%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />
Yen, C., Yang, M., Chen, C., Yang, M., Su, Y., Wang, M., Lan, C., (2008). Effects of childhood physical abuse on depression, problem drinking and perceived poor health status in adolescents living in rural Taiwan. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from http://wf2dnvr12.webfeat.org/1BhVN15411/url=http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf9/pdf/2008/82I/01Oct08/34554899.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=34554899&S=R&D=pbh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7Q4yNfsOLCmr0iepq5SsKy4SbeWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrsU2vp65KuePfgeyx44Hy7fEA<br />