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Training Report on indian railways on AC COACH MAINTANCES


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Training Report on indian railways on AC COACH MAINTANCES

  3. 3. The opportunity given to us by Indian Railways to learn and study about their AC Coaching maintenance techniques over LHB Coaches and their state of the art devices and power supply techniques will make a real difference in our engineering aptitude, knowledge and abilities. I would like to thank all those who helped me by giving their valuable thoughts and information without which it would have been difficult for me to complete this project I am obliged and honoured in expressing the deep sense of gratitude to my training instructor Er. Sanjay Kumar S.S.E (AC Coach Maintances) and Mr. Dinesh Kumar (Foreman) of East Central Railways for his helpful guidance and suggestion at every stage of this report. ABSTRACT
  4. 4. This report takes a pedagogical stance in demonstrating how results from theoretical electrical engineering may be applied to yield significant insight into the behaviour of the devices electrical engineering practice seeks to put in place, and that this is immediately attainable with the present state of the art. The focus for this detailed study is provided by the type of ac coaches maintenances and various power supply currently being deployed throughout mainline railways. Safety and system reliability concerns dominate in this domain. With such motivation, two issues are tackled: the special problem of software quality assurance in these control systems, and the broader problem of design dependability. In the former case, the analysis is directed towards proving safety properties of the power supply which distributed to the railway lines. 1.INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. About Indian Railways Indian Railways, a historical legacy, are a vital force in our economy. The first railway on Indian sub-continentran fromBombay to Thane on 16th April 1853. Fourteen railway carriages carried about 400 guests from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 21 miles (34 Kilometers). Since then there has been no looking back. Today, it covers 6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,028 kilometers. Thetrack kilometers in broad gauge(1676 mm) are 86, 526 kms, meter gauge (1000 mm) are18, 529 kms and narrow gauge (762/610 mm) are 3,651 kms. Of the total route of 63,028 kms, 16,001 kms are electrified. The railways have 8000 locomotives, 50,000 coaching vehicles, 222,147 freightwagons,6853 stations,300 yards, 2300 goodsheds, 700 repair shops, and 1.54 million work force. Indian Railways runs around 11,000 trains every day, of which 7,000 are passenger trains. Presently, 9 pairs of Rajdhani and 13 pairs of Shatabdi Express Trains run on the rail tracks of India. It is interesting to note that though the railways were introduced to facilitate the commercial interest of the British, it played an important role in unifying the country. Railways are ideally suited for long distance travel and movement of bulk commodities. Regarded better than road transport in terms of energy efficiency, land use, environment impact and safety it is always in forefront during national emergency. Indian railways, the largest rail network in Asia and the world's second largest under one management are also credited with having a multi gauge and multi traction system. The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. It has helped the economic life of the country and helped in accelerating the development of industry and agriculture. Indian Railways is known to be the largest railway network in Asia. The Indian Railways network binds the social, cultural and economic fabric of
  6. 6. the country and covers the whole of country ranging from north to south and east to west removing the distance barrier for its people. The railway network of India has brought together the whole of country hence creating a feeling of unity among Indians. S/No. Name of the Railway Zone Zonal Headquarter Division 1 Central Railway Mumbai 1) Mumbai 2) Nagpur 3) Bhusawal 4) Pune 5) Sholapur 2 Eastern Railway Kolkata 1) Howrah-I 2) Howrah-II 3) Sealdah 4) Malda 5) Asansol 6) Chitaranjan 3 East Central Railway Hajipur 1) Danapur 2) Mugalsarai 3) Dhanbad 4) Sonpur 5) Samastipur 4 East Coast Railway Bhubaneshwar 1) Khurda Road 2) Waltair 3) Sambhalpur 5 Northern Railway Baroda House, New Delhi 1) Delhi-I 2) Delhi-II 3) Ambala 4) Moradabad 5) Lucknow 6) Firozpur 6 North Central Railway Allahabad 1) Allahabad 2) Jhansi 3) Agra 7 North Eastern Railway Gorakhpur 1) Izzatnagar 2) Lucknow 3) Varanasi 8 North Frontier Railway Maligaon, Guwahati 1) Katihar 2) Alipurduar 3) Rangiya 4) Lumding 5) Tinsukhia
  7. 7. 9 North Western Railway Jaipur 1) Jaipur 2) Jodhpur 3) Bikaner 4) Ajmer 10 Southern Railway Chennai 1) Chennai 2) Madurai 3) Palghat 4) Trichy 5) Trivendrum 11 South Central Railway Secunderabad 1) Secunderabad 2) Hyderabad 3) Guntakal 4) Vijaywada 5) Nanded 12 South Eastern Railway Garden Reach, Kolkata 1) Kharagpur 2) Adra 3) Chakradharpur 4) Ranchi 5) Shalimar 13 South East Central Railway Bilaspur 1) Bilaspur 2) Nagpur 3) Raipur 14 South Western Railway Hubli 1) Bangalore 2) Mysore 3) Hubli 4) FA/F/YNK 15 Western Railway Mumbai CST 1) BCT 2) Vadodara 3) Ahemdabad 4) Ratlam 5) Rajkot 6) Bhavnagar 16 West Central Railway Jabalpur 1) Jabalpur 2) Bhopal 3) Kota
  8. 8. Organization Overview The Ministry of Railways under Government of India controls Indian Railways. The Ministry is headed by Union Minister who is generally supported by a Minster of State. The Railway Board consisting of six members and a chairman reports to this top hierarchy. The railway zones are headed by their respective General Managers who in turn report to the Railway Board. For administrative convenience Indian Railways is primarily divided into 16 zones: 1.1.2 The Ministry of Railways has following nine undertakings: 1. Rail India Technical & Economic Services Limited (RITES) 2. Indian Railway Construction (IRCON) International Limited 3. Indian Railway Finance Corporation Limited (IRFC) 4. Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR) 5. Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL) 6. Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Ltd (IRCTC) 7. Railtel Corporation of India Ltd. (Rail Tel) 8. Mumbai Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd. (MRVNL) 9. Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd. (RVNL) Indian Railways have their research and development wing in the form of Research, Designs and Standard Organization (RDSO). RDSO functions as the technical advisor and consultant to the Ministry, Zonal Railways and Production Units.
  9. 9. Railway Budget Since 1924-25, railway finances have been separated from General Revenue. Indian railways have their own funds in the form of Railway Budget presented to the Parliament annually. This budget is presented to the Parliament by the Union Railway Minster two days prior to the General Budget, usually around 26th February. Ithas to be passed by a simple majority in the Lok Sabha before it gets final acceptance. Indian Railways are subject to the same audit control as other government revenues and expenditure Facilities for Passengers Computer based unreserved ticketing takes care of the large chunk of unreserved segment of passengers. This facility allows issuance of unreserved tickets from locations other than boarding station. Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC): IRCTC has launched on line ticketing facility with the aid of Center for Railway Information System, which can be booked on For the convenience of customers queries related to accommodation availability, passenger status, train schedule etc are can all be addressed online. Computerized reservation facilities have made the life easy of commuters across India. National Train Enquiry system is another initiative of Indian Railways which offers train running position on a current basis through various output devices such as terminals in the station enquiries and Interactive Voice Response Systems (IVRS) at important railway stations. Indian Railways are committed to provide improved telecommunication system to its passengers. For this Optical Fibre Communication (OFC) system has been embraced, which
  10. 10. involves laying optical fibre cable along the railway tracks. In recent years Indian Railways have witnessed the marked rise of collaboration between private and public sectors. Few of the notable examples here are the broad gauge connectivity to Pipya Port wherea joint venture company is formed with Pipava Port authority. Similarly Memorandums of Understanding has been signed between Railways and State governments of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Jharkhand. Rolling Stock Today, Indian Railways havebecome self-reliantin production of rolling stock. Itsupplies rolling stock to other countries and non-railway customers. The production units are at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi, Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan, Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works,Patiala, IntegralCoach Factory, Chennai, Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala, Wheel & Axle Plant, Bangalore and Rail Spring Karkhana, Gwalior. GENESIS OF INDIAN RAILWAYS The story of the Indian Railways (IR) is not justa saga of mundane statistics and miles of rolling stock. Itis the glorious tale of a pioneering institution that has blazed a trail for nearly a century and a half, making inroads into far-flung territory and providing a means of communication. Indian Railway is one of India's mosteffective networks that keep together the social, economic, political and cultural fabric of the country intact. Be it cold, mountainous terrain or the long stretches through the Rajasthan desert, Indian Railways cover the vastexpanse of the country fromnorth to south, east to west and all in between. Morethan a hundred years ago, on the 16 April1853, a red-letter day appeared in the glorious history of the Indian Railways. On the day, the very firstrailway train in India ran over a stretch of 21 miles fromBombay to Thane. This pioneer railway train consisting of 14 railway carriages carrying about 400 guests, steamed off at 3:30 pm amidstthe loud applauseof a vast multitude and to the salute of 21 guns. Itreached Thane at about 4.45 pm. The guests returned to Bombay at 7 pm on the next day, that is, April 17. On April
  11. 11. 18, 1853, Sir JamsetjeeJeejeebhoy, Second Baronet, reserved the whole train and traveled fromBombay to Thane and back along with somemembers of his family and friends. This was the humble beginning of the modern Indian Railway systemknown today for its extraordinary integration of high administrative xi efficiency, technical skill, commercial enterpriseand resourcefulness. Today the Indian Railway (IR) is one of the mostspecialized industries of the world. OTHER MILESTONES Under the British East India Company's auspices, theGreat Indian Peninsula Railway Company (GIPRC) was formed on July 15, 1844. Events moved at a fast pace. On October 31, 1850, the ceremony of turning the firstsod for the GIPRC fromBombay to Kalyan was performed. The opening ceremony of the extension to Kalyan took place on May 1, 1854. Therailway line fromKalyan to Khopoli was opened on May 12, 1856. Itwas further extended to Poona on June 14, 1858 when the traffic was opened for public use. In the eastern part of India, the firstpassenger train steamed out of Howrah station for Hooghly, a distance of 24 miles, on August15, 1854. This marked the formation of the East Indian Railway. This was followed by the emergence for the Central Bengal Railway Company. These small beginnings multiplied and by 1880, the IRsystemhad a route mileage of 9,000 miles in India. The Northeastern Railway also developed rapidly. On October 19, 1875, thetrain between Hathras Road and Mathura Cantonment was started. By the winter of 1880-81, the Kanpur-Farukhabad linebecame operational and further east, the Dibrugarh-Dinjan linebecame operational on August15, 1882. In South India, the Madras Railway Company opened the firstrailway line between Veyasarpaudy and theWalajah Road (Arcot) on July 1, 1856. This 63-mileline was the first section, which eventually joined Madras and the westcoast. On March 3, 1859, a length of 119 miles was laid fromAllahabad to Kanpur. In 1862, therailway line between Amritsar and Attari was constructed on the AmritsarLahoreroute. Some of the trains started by the British are still in existence. The Frontier Mail is one such train. Itwas started on September 1, 1928 as a replacement for the Mumbai-Peshawar mail. Itbecame one of the
  12. 12. fastesttrains in India at that time and its reputation in London was very high. The Kalka Mail fromHowrah to Kalka was introduced with the specific goal of facilitating the annualmigration of British officials, their families and their retinue of servants and clerks fromthe imperial capital at Calcutta to the summer capital in Shimla. FromKalka, there was the remarkabletoy train serviceto Shimla. Plans for this narrow-gaugetrain had started as early as 1847, butit was at the intervention of the Viceroy, Lord Curzon, that work actually began. Hence this train servicewas also known as the Viceroy's Toy Train. In order to preventany head-on collisions on the single-track sections of this railway service, the Neals Token Systemhas been used ever since the train was inaugurated. The train guards exchange pouches containing small brass discs with staff on the stations en route. The train driver then puts these discs into special machines, which alert the signals ahead of their approach. The Darjeeling toy trains, the Matheran toy train from Neral to Matheran, the Nilgiri Blue Mountain Railway are other engineering marvels running on routes designed and built by the British. Trains like the Deccan Queen fromBombay to Secunderabad and the Grand Trunk Express fromDelhi to Madras are some other prominent trains initiated by the British. With the advancement in the railway system, electrifying railway lines began sideby side, and it was in 1925, that the firstelectric train ran over a distance of 16 km fromVictoria Terminus to Kurala. THE NEED FOR A RAILWAYNETWORK
  13. 13. The British rule in India was governed by three principal considerations to expand the IRsystem. Thesewere the commercial advantages, the political aspect and even moreimportantly, the inexorable imperial defense of India against the possiblemilitary attacks fromcertain powerfulcountries showing signs of extending their orbitof influence into Central Asia. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Now, to further improveupon its services, the Indian Railways have embarked upon various schemes, which areimmensely ambitious. The railway has changed frommeter gaugeto broad gauge and the people havegiven it a warmwelcome. Now, there are the impressivelooking locomotives that haul the 21st-century harbingers-theRajdhanis and Shatabdis-atspeeds of 145 kmph with all amenities and comfort. With these, the inconvenience of changing to a different gauge en route to a destination will no longer be felt. The Research, Designing, and Standardizing Organization atLucknow-the largest railway research organization in the worldwas constituted in 1957. Itis constantly devising improvements in the signaling systems, track design and layout, coach interiors for better riding comfortand capacity, etc., along with improvements in locomotives. Improvements arebeing planned by engineers. The workshops of therailways too havebeen given new equipment to create sophisticated coaches at Perambur and Kapurthala and diesel engine parts at Patiala. Locomotives are being made at Chittaranjan and Varanasi. This is in sharp contrastto the earlier British conviction that only minor repairs would be possiblein India, so all spareparts including nuts and bolts for locomotives would have to be imported fromEngland. More trains and routes are constantly being added to the railway network and services. TheBritish legacy lives on in our railway system, transformed butnever forgotten. Long live the Romance of the Rails! The network of lines has grown to about 62,000 kilometers. But, the variety of Indian Railways is infinite. Itstill has the romantic toy trains on narrow gaugehill sections, meter gauge beauties on other and broad gauge bonanzas as onevisits places of tourist interest courtesy Indian Railways!They are an acknowledgementof the Railways that tourismas an industry has to be promoted and that India is full of unsurpassed beauty. The Calcutta Metro is a fine example of highly complex engineering techniques being adopted to lay an underground railway in the densely built-
  14. 14. up areas of Calcutta city. Itis a treat to be seen. The Calcuttans keep it so clean and tidy that not a paper is thrown around!Itonly proves the belief that a man grows worthy of his superior possessions. Calcutta is also the only city where the Metro Railway started operating fromSeptember 27, 1995 over a length of 16.45 km. Thereis also a Circular Railway fromDum Dumto Princep Ghats covering 13.50 kmto providecommuter trains. In time of war and natural disasters, the railways play a major role. Whether it was the earthquake of 1935 in Quetta (now in Pakistan) or morerecently in Latur in Maharashtra, it is the railways that muster their strength to carry the sick and wounded to hospitals in nearby towns and to the people of the affected areas. In rehabilitation and reconstruction, too, their role is vital. During the Japanesewar, the Indian Railways added further laurels to their record as they extended the railway line right up to Ledo in the extreme northeastern part of Assamand thus enabled the Allied forces under General Stillwell to combat the Japanese menace. In fact, severaltownships in Assam like Margherita and Digboi owetheir origin to the endeavors of the Indian Railways. Itwas the AssamRailway and Trading Company that opened up the isolated regions of Assamwith the laying of the railway lines and thus providing the lifeline to carry coal, tea, and timber out of the area and bring other necessary commodities to Assamand the adjoining countryside. Now, the Indian Railways systemis divided into 9 zonalrailways, a metro railway, Calcutta, the production units, construction organizations, and other railway establishments. Rajendra Nagar Terminalrailway station It was developedas an alternative railway station as part of measures to decongestPatna Junction Railway Station. Many trains such as New Delhi Rajdhani Express – Rajendranagar, Indore - Patna Express,Indore - Rajendra Nagar Via. Faizabad Express,Shramjeevi Express,Sampoorna Kranti Express,etc. originate from here.
  15. 15. Rajendra Nagar Terminal Central View It was inaugurated on March 31, 2003 as a full-fledged station. Built at a costof ₹8.61 crore, this terminus developedas an alternative to Patna Junction, has all modern facilities for the passengers.Its main entrance is oppositethe College of Commerce,Patna. Lalu also unveiled a statue of Dr Rajendra Prasad at Rajendra Nagar Terminal after whom this station has beennamed. Lalu Prasad Yadav, then Union Railway Minister, also flagged off the first stainless steel fully covered wagons (BCNHL) train from Rajendra Nagar Terminal. LINKE HOFMANN BUSCH (LHB) COACHES Linke Hofmann Busch (LHB) coachesare the passenger compartments of Indian Railways that have been developedby Linke- Hofmann-Busch of Germany (renamed Alstom LHB GmbH in 1998 after the takeover by Alstom)and produced by Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala, India. They have beenused since 2000 on the Indian Broad Gauge (1676 mm) network of Indian railways. Initially, 24 air conditioned coaches were imported from Germany foruse in the Shatabdi Expresses,after which the Rail Coach Factory started manufacturing after technology transfer.The coaches are designed for an operating speed up to 160 km/h and could go up to 200 km/h. However, they have been tested up to 180 km/h. Their length of 23.54m and a width of 3.24m means a higher passengercapacity,
  16. 16. compared to conventional rakes. The tare weight of the AC chair car was weighed as 39.5 Tons. They are consideredto be "anti-telescopic",which means they do not get turned over or flip in case of a collision (chiefly head-on). These coaches are made of stainless steel and the interiors are made of aluminium which make them lighter as compared to conventional rakes. Each coach also has an "advanced pneumatic disc brake system" for efficientbraking at higher speeds,"modular interiors" that integrate lighting into ceiling and luggage racks with wider windows. The improved suspensionsystem of LHB coaches ensures more riding comfortfor the passengers compared to conventional rakes. The air conditioning system of the LHB coaches is of higher capacity compared to the older rakes and is controlled by a microprocessorwhich is said to give passengers bettercomfortthan the older coaches during summer and winter seasons.They are relatively quieter as each coach produces a maximum noise level of 60 decibels while conventional coaches can produce 100 decibels.Each LHB coach costs between Rs 15 million to 20 million, whereas the power car which houses a generator costs about 30 million HISTORY OF LHB COACHES During 1993-94,Indian Railways decided to look for a new passenger coach designwhich would be lighter and capable of higher speeds
  17. 17. compared to their existing rakes. The main features of the Railways' specificationwere high speed light weight coaches to run on the present infrastructure of the Indian Railways, i.e. the railway, track and environmental conditions in India at an operating speed of 160 km/h. It was decided by the Railways that the design would first be tried in the Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala (RCF), and upon successful completionof this trial, it would be tried in the Integral Coach Factory in Perambur. In 1995,after a global selectionprocess,Alstom-LHB received the order from Indian Railways to design and develop a new passengercoach under a transfer of technologyagreement. As part of the order, Alstom- LHB had to execute two contracts, one for the supply of "Light Weight High Speed Coaches forBroad Gauge which includes the development, designand manufacture of 19 AC 2nd Class Chair Cars, 2 AC Executive Class Chair Cars and 3 Generator-cum-Brake vans and the other contract for the "TechnologyTransfer" which includes the transfer of technology for designand manufacturing, the training of Indian Railways personnelin the premises of the manufacturer and the technical assistance at RCF during the start of production. Out of the 24 coaches imported from Germany, all of them mostly being Air Conditioned chair cars, the first lot were used for New Delhi-Lucknow Shatabdi Express on a trial basis. It didn't turn out be successfulas the coaches' wide windows were targets of mischief and stone-pelting.Railways had to use sealing tapes to tape up the bruised windows. When these rakes were brought into service,couplers came unstuck and the data collectedfrom the passengerfeedbackshowed that the air conditioning was not "very effective".They were withdrawn from service and after attending to the problems,Railways reintroduced them on the New Delhi-Lucknow Shatabdi Express and proved successful. The RCF began to manufacture other variants of LHB design like the air conditioned first class, AC 2 tier sleeper,AC 3 tier sleeper,hot buffet (pantry) car etc., from 2001 to 2002,and rolled out its first rake in December2002.The first such rake was introduced for Mumbai-New Delhi Rajdhani Express in December,2003.Up to March 2011,997 LHB coaches were produced by the RCF. All of these coaches are being used in premier super fast express trains like Rajdhani, Shatabdi and Duronto Express and have been offering better passengercomfort. Soon, all the Duronto trains will be equipped with LHB coaches
  18. 18. Usage Indian Railways have decidedto replace the conventional air- conditioned and non-air-conditioned Integral Coach Factory made coaches with the LHB coaches in all the trains by the end of 2016. Presently LHB coaches are seen mostly in premium air-conditioned trains such as Rajdhani Express,Shatabdi Express and Duronto Express owing to high costof manufacturebut slowly non-air-conditioned trains like Poorva Express , Sampoorn Kranti Express,Purushottam Express , Karnavati Express , Shiv Ganga Express andMahabodhi Express have also been upgraded with non-air-conditioned LHB coaches manufactured at Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala, Punjab
  19. 19. Production Annual production of LHB coaches is around 400 per year for year 2013- 2014.  During 2010-11,RCF Kapurthala produced 300 coaches During 2012-13,the total number of coaches that were produced was 1680, while in 2013-14,RCF was able to increase the productionto 1701 coaches.  During 2013-14,Integral Coach Factory produced 25 LHB coaches. It plans to increase its manufacturing capacity of LHB coaches.It has set a target to manufacture 300 LHB coaches in 2014-15and reach a capacity of 1000 LHB coaches by 2016-17.  The planned capacity of Rail Coach Factory, Raebareli is 1000 LHB coaches per year. The plant is yet to become fully operational.  A rail coach factory has been sanctioned at Palakkad, Kerala in public private partnership mode for productionof LHB coaches. Once completed,this factory would produce 400 coaches annually.  Rail coach factory is sanctioned by government and is to be set up at Kolar, Karnataka in February 2014.The planned capacity of this plant is 500 LHB coaches per year for phase-1 and additional capacity of 500 coaches per year in phase-2
  20. 20. Types  LGS = Second class self-generating  LS = Second class non self-generating  LSCN = Second class 3-tier sleeper  LWACCW = AC2 Air-conditioned 2-tier sleeping-car(52 berths)  LWACCN= AC3 Air-conditioned 3-tier sleeping-car(72 berths)  LWCBAC = Air-conditioned pantry/kitchen/buffet car  LWFAC = AC1 Air-conditioned first class sleeping-car(24 berths  LWFCZAC= Air-conditioned executive chair car (56 seats  LWLRRM= Luggage/generator/brake van  LWSCZAC= Air-conditioned chair car (78 seats  LWSCZ = Chair car Technical details Bogies The FIAT-SIGbogie is a welded H frame type based on the Eurofima standard. The wheel base is 2560 mm, the wheel diameter new 915 mm and at maximum wear 845 mm. Main features of the bogie are primary suspensionwith articulated arms and coil springs,secondary suspensionof integral flexicoiltype with coil springs and rubber pads on top and bottom, anti-roll bar, vertical and transverse shock absorbers and anti-hunting dampers.For braking on each axle two disc brakes with
  21. 21. 640 mm diameter, brake cylinders and automatic slack adjuster are provided. Couplers The automatic center buffercouplerof AAR tight lock type at the coach end has a support frame which provides an anti-climbing protection. The couplercan be opened from the side by a lever. The designallows the use of screw couplerinstead of center buffercoupler.Therefore a fixing plate for buffers is also provided.The inter-vehicle coupler for the supply of the 750 V from the generator car is located below the under-frame. Due to the moving situation 4 brake hoses are to be used at the coach end which are brought to two hoses behind the coupler.
  22. 22. Air conditioning Control panel for Air Conditioning in an LHB rake of Rajdhani Express Each coach is equipped with two compactroof-mounted air-conditioning units which have a cooling capacity of approximately 2x22.5 KW and a heating capacity of 2x6 KW and which are controlled by a microprocessor. The operating voltage of the unit is 3 phase, 415 V, 50 Hz. Each unit has 2 refrigerant circuits with hermetic refrigerant compressors,condensers with Copperpipes and Aluminum fins, evaporators and condenserfans.
  23. 23. The fresh air comes in through the air inlet of the AC unit. The conditioned air is transported in heat insulated aluminum ducts mounted below the roof and distributed through the perforated ceiling into the passengerroom.The return air flows back through openings above the compartmentdoor to the AC unit. The entrance area, toilets and pantry are connected to the exhaust air system. Doors The entrance doors are made of the same steel as the car body shell. They are flush with the sidewall to allow easy car-washing. Two handholds and three fixed steps are provided to enter the coach. The door inward opening to the entrance area is covered from inside with a FRP panel. Above the dooris an entrance light. The entrance steps are closed by a foldable cover.An inside handhold allows easy entry and exit. An ashtray is also provided
  24. 24. Water supply and disposal Control panel for water system of an LHB rake in a Rajdhani express train There are two connected freshwater tanks, which are made of stainless steel, with a total capacity of 1370 liters for the 3 toilets. The water level is indicated on one tank on each side. The filling can be made from both sides by one filler for both tanks. Three intermediate water tanks, each with a capacity of 30 liters, made out of stainless steel are located above the toilets. Two centrifugal pumps located in a stainless steel casing at the under frame supply the water to the tanks. One of the 415 V pumps is always kept running, while the other is kept on standby. Aftereach switch off the other pump will work. Below each toilet, a 40 litre waste water tank is provided in which toilet waste is collected whenthe coach is at standstill. It gets opened with a pneumatically operated sliding valve when a defined speedis reached. The junction box for the inter-vehicle coupler is visible. Toilets The coaches are equipped with "controlled discharge toilet system" (CDTS). By the means of this system, a toilet in the coach would become functionalonly when the speed of the coach crosses 30 kmph, which is said to help in avoiding the soiling of the track at the railway stations. Both eastern (squat) and western styles of toilets are provided. One side of the toilet is provided with a wash basin with water tap and
  25. 25. sensorbutton, a soap dispenser,a mirror, an ash tray and a waste bin. On the other side there is the toilet itself,a water tap with mug, a handhold, the toilet paper holder and the sensorbutton for the toilet flush. The window in the toilet can be opened in the upper half. The toilet doors are of folding type to use the available space to an optimum.
  26. 26. Pantry Each vehicle is equipped with a pantry for storing cold and hot meals which are to be served to the passengers at their seats. In the gangway between the passengerroom door and the entrance is on one side the pantry and on the other side the storage area. The pantry is closed by a double leaf sliding doorand the storage area by roller shutters. On the left side, a 15 litre water boiler, an 11 litre soup-warmer, a sink, and racks are provided.The other side is equipped with three hot cases,the bottle cooler,the refrigerator and the deep freezerfor the 78 passengers.The storage area gives space for racks and also for the serving trolley. Other equipment
  27. 27. On the outside wall of the toilet a waste bin and a fire extinguisher are located. The fire extinguisher on the power panel end is filled with carbon dioxide, the one on the other end with water. The vestibule is of UIC rubber type. The vestibule door is a double leaf stainless steel sliding door. On the left side the socketof the local 415 V supply is located. A 60 kVA transformerwith copperwinding transforms the power given by the generator car from 750 V to 415 V. All brake control equipmentis centrally located in a brake container. A main brake pressure reservoir of 125 litres and a service pressure reservoirof 75 litres are provided. SICK LINE Sick line is the workshop for the major and periodical maintenance of the coaches it consists of modern facilities like pit for working under frame And crane for separation of coach & bogie for repair of all type of defects
  28. 28. BUFFER MAINTENANCE Buffers are the horizontal shock absorbing parts with coupling the adjacent coaches of the train so need regular changing of shock absorbing rubber pads. 1.Incoming Power Supply
  29. 29. The incoming power supply scheme is similar to 25 W simple feed system. Power supply for ac traction is obtained from the nearest grid sub-station of the Power Supply Authority. For this purposeduplicate feeders, generally at 132 kV or 220kV, comprising only two phases are provided from the grid sub- station to traction substation. The loads, however, are 2-3 times higher compared to.25 kV system and therefore Wood-bridge/V-connected transformers are provided in the traction substations to bring down the unbalance within acceptable limits. It is possible to absorb such unbalances without exceeding the permissible limits if the grid system capacity is adequate. 2. Power ReceivingArrangement.TractionSub-station The incoming extra high voltage power is stepped down to 2x25 kV by the main traction power transformer. The 2x25 kV supply is then fed to an auto- transformer. One terminal of the auto-transformer is connected to the overhead catenary wires and the other terminal to a feeder wire which runs parallel to overhead contact/catenary wire all along the section and is usually supported from super masts fixed on the OHE structures. The mid point of the auto- transformer is connected to the rail, thus providing a 25 kV supply, with reference to the rail potential, for traction. The capacity of the auto-transformers and their spacing is decided based on the traffic pattern in the section. The general arrangement of the scheme for 2x25 kV auto-transformer feeding system is indicated. This is for a Scottconnected transformer substation. 3. Distributionof TractionPower SupplyFeeding Post (FP) The arrangement at the feeding postis generally similar to that at the 25 kV conventional system feeding post. Sectioning and Paralleling Post(SP) A short neutral section is provided in the OHE oppositethe feeding postas well as mid-way between two adjacent traction substations. The feeder wire is also provided with a neutral section by means of two cut-in insulators coincidental in spacewith the ends of the neutral section. Sub-sectioningand ParallelingPost (SSP)
  30. 30. The arrangement at the SSP is generally similar to that at the 25kV conventional SSP system. Auto-TransformerPost These are provided adjacent to the track through-out the length of the section. The spacing and capacity of the auto-transformers is decided as a part of system design based on specific requirements and traffic pattern. Typically the spacing is 15 km and capacity 2 MVA. Distribution of current in AT system
  31. 31. 4. Overhead Equipment: The OHE system is generally similar to that for the 25 kV conventional system except that an additional conductor, called feeder wire is also run parallel to OHE, all along the length of the track. This feeder wire is insulated at 25 kV from the steel structure and at 2x25 kV from the traction OHE. 5. Protectivesystem. In addition to the relays and protection devices for the transformer protection, a set of following relays are provided at the traction sub-stations specially for 2x25 kV AT feed system. Distance relay ac failure detection device Over-current relay
  32. 32. OHE Recording-cum-TcstCar 1. Forsatisfactory current collection, the geometry of the overhead equipment is required to be maintained within very stringent limits. Presently monitoring of various parameters of overhead equipment like height, stagger, wear of contact wire, condition at the cross-overs and overlaps, is being done manually which could introduce errors in measurement due to individual's judgment. Moreover, it is time consuming. For the very high reliability of operation expected of electric traction system, mechanized monitoring of various parameters is essential. 2. Due to increasing demand for freight and passenger traffic, trailing loads and speed of trains are being increased gradually. Heavier freight trains hauled by one or two consists of locomotives will draw heavy currents from the substation. For meeting the requirement of increasing passenger traffic, trains with higher speeds are being introduced. In view of these developments, it is necessary to ascertain potential of the existing OHE and pantograph contact system for effecting requisite improvement and developing newer designs to achieve satisfactory current collection at higher speeds and heavier loads. 3. Forachieving these objectives, efforts are on to develop an Overhead Equipment Recording cum Test Car. This car will be used to measure and record various parameters of OHE and pantograph both under static and dynamic conditions. The proposedcarwill be of trailer type, suitable for running at speeds of 160 km/h with potential to run up to 200 km/h. The car shall be hauled by locomotive or attached to a train. The car will be provided with on-board computer based data acquisition and processing system. The facility for video recording of arcs generated due to interruption in current drawn by locomotive as a result of loss of contactbetween pantograph and the OHE is also proposedto be provided. 4. The various parameters proposed to be monitored are: Measurements on pantograph: a) aero-dynamic upward force of the pantograph; b) contact force between pantograph and contact wire; c) vertical and horizontal movement of pantograph; d) quality of current collection- loss of contact;
  33. 33. Measurements on OHE: a) height of contactwire; b) stagger of the contactwire; c) gradient of the contactwire; d) detection of hard spots; e) checking of cross-overs and turn-outs; f) bodyvertical acceleration; g) bodylateral acceleration; h) quality of current collection loss of contact. Rail-cum Road Vehicle Such a vehicle is suitable for propulsion both on the road as well as on the track. Two sets of wheels are provided for this purpose. This vehicle is provided with an extendible swivelling platform. The vehicle can be driven on road to the level crossing nearest to the work site and taken there on the track. Transportable Self Propelled Trolley This is a self propelled trolley which can be transported by a truck to a point accessible through road, close to the work site, for carrying out work on OHE. The trolley is provided with extendible swivelling platform. Dry Type Booster Transformer and Auxiliary Transformers Conventional oil filled transformers require lot of care and attention for maintaining the characteristic of oil within the permissible limits to avoid failure of insulation. Dry type castresin transformer is a relatively new technology. The chief advantage of this type of transformer over the oil filled ones is that they are practically maintenance free. The copperin the windings cannot be retrieved
  34. 34. from the cast resin and so the risk of theft is eliminated. There being no oil risk of fire and explosion are also absent. Dry castresin transformers are currently
  35. 35. StaticDistanceProtectionRelayfor Protectionof OHE 1. Forthe distance protection of the overhead equipment, the relay which is in use is the electro-mechanical type. This relay has a Mho characteristic as illustrated in Fig. 11.03. The relay is prone to trip on normal overloads because of its inadequate discrimination between load current and the fault current when the fault is at the farther end causing undesirable tripping of the feeder circuit breaker. This problem will be more acute in the future due to the further increase in traffic anticipated and the increase in the traction power transformer capacity at TSS. 2. To over-come the above problem RDSO has developed a static type distance protection relay. This relay is a three zone relay, the first two zones having Mho characteristic and the third zone having a lenticular characteristic with adjustable aspect ratio. The relay characteristic is illustrated in Fig. 11.04. While the first zone operation is instantaneous, the second and third zones have adjustable time settings (zero to Is). The first zone can be set to cover about 80% of the OHE from TSS to SP, the second zone to cover a distance which is slightly shorter than the distance to the adjacent TSS and the third zone may cover the adjacent TSS. By providing a time delay of about 0.4s to 0.5s in the second zone/third zone of the relay, adequate discrimination between faults from TSS to SP and SP to the adjacent TSS can be achieved - the under voltage relay at the SP acting as primary protection and the second/third zones of the distance relay at TSS acting as back up protection for faults beyond SP in case of feed extension. The settings of the various zones of the relay should be based on the RDSO's guidelines in this regard. 3. As an alternative to the static distance relay described above, the static relay with parallelogram characteristic as illustrated in Fig. 11.05 can also be used. At present these relays have to be imported. However, efforts to develop these relays indigenously are on. The advantages of this relay as compared with the electro-mechanical relay with Mho characteristic are similar to those of the static relay described above. The rtlay settings for this relay also should be based on the RDSO's guidelines in this regard. CompositeInsulators The conventional porcelain insulators have poorimpact withstand capability. The sheds of such insulators are easily broken during handling and also due to acts of vandalism. The glazed surface of porcelain also does not have good hydro-phobic property. These limitations can be overcome to a great extent with
  36. 36. the use of composite insulators. The composite insulator comprises a porcelain (alumino) or a resin bonded glass fibre core and moulded sheds of elastomeric/plastic material e.g., silcone elastomer or poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE). The interface between the core and the sheds is sealed with special compound to prevent ingress of moisture and direct tracking along the length of the core. The end fittings are usually crimped to the core. Such insulators have exhibited excellent performance in simulated pollution tests. They also have excellent impact withstand capability. Efforts are on in RDSO to introduce such insulators. Power dividers and directionalcouplers Power and directionalcouplers are passive devicesused in the field of radio technology.They couple a defined amount of the electromagnetic power in a transmission line to a port enabling the signal to be used in another circuit. An essential feature of directional couplers is that they only couple power flowing in one direction. Power entering the output port is coupled to the isolated port but not to the coupled port. Directional couplers are most frequently constructed from two coupled transmission lines set close enough together such that energy passing through one is coupled to the other. This technique is favoured at the microwave frequencieswhere transmission line designs are
  37. 37. commonlyused to implementmany circuit elements. However, lumped componentdevices are also possible at lower frequencies.Also at microwave frequencies,particularly the higher bands, waveguide designs can be used.Many of these waveguide couplers correspond to one of the conducting transmission line designs, but there are also types that are unique to waveguide. Directional couplers and power dividers have many applications, these include; providing a signal sample for measurement or monitoring, feedback,combining feeds to and from antennae, antenna beam forming, providing taps for cable distributed systems such as cable TV, and separating transmitted and received signals on telephone lines. Pantry car
  38. 38. Photography of training side