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2
An
Assignment on
Package of Practices
and
Recent advances of Papaya
Course Title : Tropical and Dry land Fruit
Productio...
INTRODUCTION
• It is known as “wonder fruit of tropics”.
• It gives higher production per hectare area.
• Rich source of n...
INTRODUCTION
•Introduce in india in 16th century from Malacca. Introduce in china as indian plant.
•Papaya is grown as tro...
AREAAND PRODUCTION
• Papaya ranks fourth in production, having about 5 percent share among all fruit
crops.
• India shares...
LEADING PAPAYA PRODUCING STATES (2013-2014)
6
PLANT DESCRIPTION
• It is a fast growing, short lived herbaceous plant, unbranched fruiting within a year.
• The plant is ...
• Richest source of Vitamin A (2020 IU/100g) after mango.
• Moisture- 90.8%
• Protein- 0.6%
• Carbohydrates- 7.2%
• Fat- 0...
BENIFITS OF PAPAYA
• Papaya gives you glowing skin
• Helps in digestion
• Papaya leaves increase the appetite in your body...
MEDITIONAL EFFECTS OF PAPAYA
• Papaya have medicinal properties and used to treat several diseases and symptoms.
It is use...
INHERITANCE OF SEX
• Papaya has male, female, hermaphrodite and some other complex sex forms.
• The sex of the flowers on ...
GENETICS OF SEX EXPRESSION
• Sex expression in papaya is controlled by a single gene, with three alleles which
have a plei...
CLIMATE & SOIL
• It is a tropical fruit plant best grown in warm areas, plenty of sunlight.
• It needs adequate moisture a...
VARIETIES
1. Solo: It is a table purpose variety. The fruits are small with deep pink pulp and a
sweet taste. Excellent fo...
9. CO-1 (1972): It is developed by sib mating
Ranchi type over a period of eight years. The plants
are dwarf in stature an...
12. CO-5 (1985): It is a selection from Washington
type. It is a dioecious type suitable exclusively for
papain production...
15. Washington: It is a table purpose
variety. Male and female plants are
seperate.
16. Taiwan: This variety is cultivated...
18. Pusa Dwarf: It is dwarf statured dioecious variety
with good yield.
19. Pusa delicious: Gynodioecious line, heavy yiel...
ENLIST CULTIVAR
Honey Dew Sunrise solo
Pusa Majesty Pink Flesh Sweet
Pusa Delicious
Washington Pant Papaya -1
Pusa Giant S...
ENLIST CULTIVAR
Gynodioecious cultivars
Pusa delicious Coorg Honey Dew
Pusa majesty Taiwan
sunrise solo Surya
CO-3 CO-7
Hy...
PROPAGATION
• Sexual Method -propagated by seeds.
• Wash the seeds and remove then gelatinous covering as this can inhibit...
PROPAGATION
Asexual method:
• Recent Techniques (Micro propagation and Tissue culture)
• tissue culture technique using Mu...
LAND PREPARATION
• FOR OPEN FIELD PLANTING –
• the land is ploughed and harrowed twice.
• An elevated plot along the row i...
PLANTING SEASONS
• 1. Spring season (February-March)
• 2. Monsoon season (June- July)
• 3. Autumn season (October - Novemb...
• The seedlings can be raised in nursery beds 3m
long, 1m wide and 1o cm high as well as in pots or
polythene bags. The se...
SOWING METHOD
It may be sown directly, but normally, it is better to
be seeded to raise seedlings and transplanted.
1. Pla...
A. Transplanting stage:
When the seedling is 10 -15 cm tall, it should be transplanted, but 30-40
cm is also all right if ...
REMOVAL OF MALE PLANTS
• About 10% of the male plants are kept in the orchards for good pollination where
dioecious variet...
IRRIGATION
• To minimize flower drop or fruit drop, irrigate the plants before the soil gets dry to
avoid fungal infection...
Time of
Application
FYM(kg) N(kg) P(g) K(g)
At Planting 10-15 - 100 125
1 month - 50 - -
3 months - 50 100 125
4 ½ months ...
WEED CONTROL
• Weeding is very necessary for papaya, to sanitize its immediate environment from
insect pests that climb th...
INTERCROPPING
• Low-growing vegetables of short duration may be taken as inter-crops.
• An occasional thinning of fruits n...
HARVESTING AND YIELD
• It is a climacteric fruit, so it should be harvested at mature stage.
• Usually fruits are harveste...
DISEASES
1. Stem rot / Foot rot:
Cause- It is caused by group of fungi but
Pythium aphanidermatum is mainly
responsible fo...
3. Anthracnose:
Cause- Colletotrichum gleoesporiodes
Symptoms- Dark brown depressed
spots of chocolate colour.
Control- Ap...
5. Leaf curl:
Cause- Papaya leaf curl virus ( Vector- White
fly, Bemicia tabbaci )
Symptoms- Curling, crinkling and distor...
7. Papaya Ring Spot:
Cause- Papaya ring spot virus ( Vector- Aphid )
Symptoms-Vein clearing, puckering and
chlorophyll lea...
INSECT- PESTS
1. White fly- Bemicia tabbaci
Symptoms of damage-Nymphs and
adults suck the sap from under
surface of the le...
2. Fruit flies- Bactrocera dorsalis
Symptoms of damage- Maggots puncture into
semi-ripe fruits with decayed spots. Oozing ...
3. Ash weevil- Myllocerus spp.
Symptom of damage- Grub feed on the
roots. Wilting of young sapling notching
of leaf margin...
5. Mealy bugs-
• Symptom of damage- Flatten oval insects (1-4
mm long). They can transmit a viral disease
known as leaf dr...
HARVEST AND POST HARVEST HANDLING
• The appearance of yellow color traces on the green fruit is an indication of
maturity ...
GRADING, PACKAGING AND STORAGE
• Grading – For Easily Transportation and obtain higher value grading is done in papaya
acc...
PAPAIN EXTRACTION
• The immature papaya fruit contains a milky latex.
• The dried latex called papain is in great demand i...
Package of practices and recent advances of papaya
Package of practices and recent advances of papaya
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Package of practices and recent advances of papaya

  1. 1. 2 An Assignment on Package of Practices and Recent advances of Papaya Course Title : Tropical and Dry land Fruit Production Course No : FSC- 501 Submitted to Submitted by Dr. M.M. Masu Pawan Kumar Nagar Assistant Research Scientist M.sc. (Fruit Science)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • It is known as “wonder fruit of tropics”. • It gives higher production per hectare area. • Rich source of nutrients and minerals. • It also have medicinal properties. • Papaya has short gestation period. • It has dioecious and gynodioecious sex forms. • Papaya is a polygamous plant. • Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Brassicales Family: Caricaceae Genus: Carica Species: C. papaya Botanical name : Carica papaya L. Origin : Tropical America 3
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION •Introduce in india in 16th century from Malacca. Introduce in china as indian plant. •Papaya is grown as tropical and subtropical crop. •It is known as “wonder fruit of the tropics”. •It gives higher production and income per hectare. •It is rich source of nutrients and has medicinal value. •Papaya has short gestation period. •Papaya is sensitive to frost and water logging condition. •It has Dioecious and Gynodioecious sex form. •Yellow color of papaya is due to Presence of Caricaxantin. •Papaya is Monocarpic, Monoarchic plant. •It gained most popularity during the last 50 years. •Papaya is ideal fruit crop for growing in Kitchen garden or Backyard of home. •It is also grown as filler plant in Orchard. 4
  4. 4. AREAAND PRODUCTION • Papaya ranks fourth in production, having about 5 percent share among all fruit crops. • India shares 31.49 %in the world in papaya production. • Major Producing States – Andhra pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatishgarh, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala, and Maharashtra • Latest Production– 5.63 Million MT • Latest Area- 0.13 Million ha • Productivity of papaya in India-42.3 MT per ha. • Andhra Pradesh is leading in production of Papaya followed by Gujarat. • In Gujarat- Area is 0.019 mha, Production is 1.18 MT and productivity is 60.52 MT/ha. • Growing belts in Gujarat- Kutch, Vadodara, Anand, Tapi, Sabarkatha, Banaskatha, Baruch. 5
  5. 5. LEADING PAPAYA PRODUCING STATES (2013-2014) 6
  6. 6. PLANT DESCRIPTION • It is a fast growing, short lived herbaceous plant, unbranched fruiting within a year. • The plant is 2 - 10 m in height with a straight, cylindrical soft and hollow trunk roughened by the presence of leaf and inflorescence scars. • Leaves are alternate, crowded at the apex forming a crown. The fruits are borne on the growing axils of the plant. • It is source of papain and pepsin enzyme is present in it. Why area under papaya is increasing rapidly…? • High productivity • Higher net returns • High nutritional value • Short duration crop • Increasing demand for export • Demand from processing industries. 7
  7. 7. • Richest source of Vitamin A (2020 IU/100g) after mango. • Moisture- 90.8% • Protein- 0.6% • Carbohydrates- 7.2% • Fat- 0.1% • Potassium- 69mg/100g • Calcium- 17mg/100g • Vitamin C- 57mg/100g USES • It is also used in soft drinks, jams, ice-cream flavouring, crystallised fruit. • Ripe papayas used for Papaya juice and nectar. • Unripe papaya, Green papaya is frequently boiled and served as a vegetable. • Young leaves are cooked and eaten like spinach in the East Indies. • In India, papaya seeds are sometimes found as an adulterant of whole black pepper. NUTRITIONAL VALUE 8
  8. 8. BENIFITS OF PAPAYA • Papaya gives you glowing skin • Helps in digestion • Papaya leaves increase the appetite in your body and cures menstrual pain. • It heals wounds and prevents from blood clots • It controls bowel movements • It has anti cancer properties • It protects heart • It is used for weight loss treatment Health Benefits of Papaya • Papaya contain 212 amino acids and several enzymes, including papain, a proteolytic enzyme that has an anti-inflammatory effect on the stomach, including swelling and fever that can develop post-surgery. • Papain helps proteins digest faster, which discourages acid reflux, and has demonstrated effectiveness in treating ulcers and even relieving irritable bowel syndrome. Papaya seeds have been used in folk medicine to treat parasite and ringworm infection 9
  9. 9. MEDITIONAL EFFECTS OF PAPAYA • Papaya have medicinal properties and used to treat several diseases and symptoms. It is used to remove digestive problem. • It is used as a folk medicine to remove pain. • Carpine is obtain from papaya very good for diuretic and heart stimulant. • Leaves have protective properties against malaria. • It provides protection against diabetic heart disease and cholesterol. • Acts as a anti inflammatory agent. • It provides protection from arthritis. • It promotes lungs health. • It also prevents cancer. • It also helpful in reducing weight. 10
  10. 10. INHERITANCE OF SEX • Papaya has male, female, hermaphrodite and some other complex sex forms. • The sex of the flowers on the same plant undergo change with season, age, and injury. • The male flowers hangs on long trusses. • The female flowers and hermaphrodite flowers hangs on small trusses in the axils of leaves. • Predominant 3 sex forms (male, female, Hermophrodite) • Male is controlled by satellite chromosome M1m = Maleness, M2m = Hermophrodite, mm = Femaleness • Constitution in papaya - • M1RRm – Sex reversing Homozygous male , M1Rrm - Sex reversing Homozygous male • M1rrm – pure male, M2m – Hermophrodite, mm – pistillate • Male : female (Gynodioecious) = 2:1, Male : female (dioecious) = 1:1 • Red skin color is governed by inherent heterozygosity and recessive gene. • Red skin color is present only in Gynodioecious papaya. • 10% male plant require in dioecious cultivar. • Sibmating is mostly done in papaya. 11
  11. 11. GENETICS OF SEX EXPRESSION • Sex expression in papaya is controlled by a single gene, with three alleles which have a pleiotropic effect. • The sex homologues were designated as: M for male, MH for hermaphrodite and m for female. • All combinations of dominant alleles, such as MM, MHMH and MHH, are lethal to the zygote. • This makes all males and hermaphrodite into enforced sex heterozygote's. Twenty- five percent of the seeds in their fruits are non-viable. • The genotypes for sex are Mm for female, MH for hermaphrodite and mm for female. • Using these sex genotypes, there are eight possible cross combinations that could be made with various segregation ratios, as indicated. • Self-pollination in males, cross-pollination between males, and cross-pollination between males and hermaphrodites, can all be done using the sexually ambivalent males (SAMs) that produce perfect flowers during certain periods of the year. • Male and hermaphrodite trees undergo various degrees of sex reversal, depending on seasonal changes and climate. • The female tree is the most stable form. 12
  12. 12. CLIMATE & SOIL • It is a tropical fruit plant best grown in warm areas, plenty of sunlight. • It needs adequate moisture and even distribution of rainfall throughout the year and cannot withstand strong winds. • Temperature range of 21oC to 33oC is ideal for sturdy growth. • It grows well at altitude 1200m MSL. • Very much sensitive to frost. • Optimum temperature is 25 - 30° C and minimum 16° C SOIL • Papaya grows best in light, well-drained soil rich in organic matter. • Deep clayey soils that are prone to water-logging should be avoided. • Papaya grows best at pH 6.0 to 6.5 but can tolerate pH up to 5.8 to 7.0. • Soils with extreme high (8.0) and low (5.0) pH should be avoided. 13
  13. 13. VARIETIES 1. Solo: It is a table purpose variety. The fruits are small with deep pink pulp and a sweet taste. Excellent for kitchen garden. 2. Ranchi: It is a variety from Bihar and popular in south India. The fruits are oblong with dark yellow pulp and sweet taste. 3. Pusa Delicious: It is a gynodioecious variety with 100% productive plants with good fruit yield and quality having excellent taste and good flavor. 4. Pusa Majesty: This is also gynodioecious variety with high productivity and better keeping quality of fruits. This is also one of the highest papain yielders. 5. Pusa Giant: This is a vigorous variety and is dioecious in nature. The fruits are suitable for tooty-fruity and candies like petha. 6. Pusa Nanha- An extremely dwarf variety. It is suitable for kitchen gardens, pot and roof cultivation. It is developed through mutation breeding. 7. Coorg Honey Dew: A selection from Honey Dew, it is a gynodioecious. 8. Pink Flesh Sweet: It is a selection with excellent-quality fruits. Fruits are medium sized with pink flesh, The TSS is 12-14° Brix. It is a good dessert variety. 14
  14. 14. 9. CO-1 (1972): It is developed by sib mating Ranchi type over a period of eight years. The plants are dwarf in stature and dioecious. There is no papain in the fruit. It is a good table variety with good keeping quality. 10. CO-2 (1979): It is pureline selection from a local type. A dioecious type with good Papain yield (4-6g per fruit). 11. CO-3 (1983): It is a hybrid derivative of the cross between CO-2 (female parent) and Sunrise Solo (male parent). It is a gynodioecious variety. 15
  15. 15. 12. CO-5 (1985): It is a selection from Washington type. It is a dioecious type suitable exclusively for papain production giving 14.45g of dry papain per fruit. 13. CO-6 (1986): It is a selection from a giant papaya. The plants are dwarf. First harvest can be had in 8 months of planting. It is suitable for papain (7.5 to 8.0g of dry papain/fruit) and also for table purpose. Plants are dioecious. 14. CO-7 (1997): This variety (culture CP81) is gynodioecious in nature developed through multiple crosses. The parents are Pusa Delicious, CO-3, CP.75 and Coorg Honey Dew. 16
  16. 16. 15. Washington: It is a table purpose variety. Male and female plants are seperate. 16. Taiwan: This variety is cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. This is gynodioecious variety with blood-red coloured flesh and good taste. 17. Sunrise solo: This is gynodioecious variety having pink flesh and good taste. This variety does not has male parents. 17
  17. 17. 18. Pusa Dwarf: It is dwarf statured dioecious variety with good yield. 19. Pusa delicious: Gynodioecious line, heavy yield, fruit very sweet with good flavour, medium tall plant. 20. Surya: Scientists at IIHR, Bangalore have developed a new hybrid which is cross between Sunrise Solo and Pink Flesh. It is good for distant market. 21. Pink flesh sweet: It is selection with excellent quality fruits with good dessert quality. 22. CO.4 (1983): It is hybrid derivative of the cross between CO.1 (female parent) and Washington (male parent). It is dioecious variety. 18
  18. 18. ENLIST CULTIVAR Honey Dew Sunrise solo Pusa Majesty Pink Flesh Sweet Pusa Delicious Washington Pant Papaya -1 Pusa Giant Surya Pusa Dwarf HPC-3 Pusa Nanha Kamiya Coorg Honey Dew Mexican red Mexican Yellow Sunset Red lady Sunrise Rainbow Solo CO-1 Vista solo CO-2 Waimanalo CO-3 Known you No.1 CO-4 Pant Papaya -2 CO-5 Pant Papaya -3 CO-7 Tainung No.1 CO-8 Tainung No.2 19
  19. 19. ENLIST CULTIVAR Gynodioecious cultivars Pusa delicious Coorg Honey Dew Pusa majesty Taiwan sunrise solo Surya CO-3 CO-7 Hybrids cultivars IIHR-39/Surya – (Sunrise solo x Pink flesh sweet) Cariflora – (K2 x K3) IIHR-54 – (Waimanalo x Pink flesh sweet HPSC -3 = (Tripura local x Honey Dew) CO-3 = CO-2 x sunrise solo CO-4 = CO-1 x Washington CO-7 = ( CO-3 x Pusa delicious) x ( CHW x CP-85) Arka surya= Sunrise solo x Pink flesh sweet Dioecious cultivars Pusa giant CO-5 Pusa dwarf CO-6 CO-1 CO-2 Pant 1 20
  20. 20. PROPAGATION • Sexual Method -propagated by seeds. • Wash the seeds and remove then gelatinous covering as this can inhibit germination. • Raise 3-4 seedlings per container and plant in field when they are 20 cm high. • Seed treated with Thiourea (100-200 ppm) and Gibberellic acid (GA3 at 200 ppm) germinated better. • Seed germinates in 2 weeks. • Seedlings ready for transplant in 10 weeks. CHOICE OF THE SEED • The seed selected from Hermaphrodite plant. • Select the best trees in the plantation (color, yield, fruit shape, hermaphrodite). • Cover the flowers with a bag once they form to ensure self- pollination and mark these flowers. Seeds are collected them at maturity. • Seed rate : : 250-300g/h(Gynodioecious) : 400-500g/h(Dioecious) (20 seeds/g) • Germination takes about -15-30 days • Seed viability – 45 Days 21
  21. 21. PROPAGATION Asexual method: • Recent Techniques (Micro propagation and Tissue culture) • tissue culture technique using Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with NAA. • Shoot tip culture from seedling and laterals buds from female plants of Coorg Honey Dew variety was successful. • The tissue culture plantlets measuring 5.5 to 9.5 cm and hardened in plastic chamber survived better when planted in the field. 22
  22. 22. LAND PREPARATION • FOR OPEN FIELD PLANTING – • the land is ploughed and harrowed twice. • An elevated plot along the row is made by ploughing on barring with two passes on each side. This will ensure proper irrigation and drainage. • Organic fertilizer and manure should be spread and incorporated in the soil during land preparation. • Land should be free from weeds before planting. RAISING OF SEEDLINGS • Seed rate is 500 g/ha. • Raised beds are prepared. • Seeds are sown at 1cm depth with 15x2.5 cm spacing. Covered with fine mixture of FYM + soil. • Immediate watering should be done. • Mulching should be done with dry leaves. • Seed will germinate in 15-20 days. Seedling ready in 60 days. Bordeaux Mixture (3:3:100) is sprayed against damping off. 23
  23. 23. PLANTING SEASONS • 1. Spring season (February-March) • 2. Monsoon season (June- July) • 3. Autumn season (October - November) PLANTING DENSITY • The following plant spacing can be used: 1.8 m x 1.8 m = 3086 plants/ha for normally followed in most places. 1.25 m x 1.25 m = 6400 plants/ha for Pusa Nanha is best for high density planting. 1.6 m x 1.6 m = 3906 plants/ha suitable for papain production. • A triangular 2 x 2 planting design can be adopted for non mechanized cultivation, and 2 x 2 x 4 in double rows for mechanized cultivation. • Papaya high density planting at 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4262 plant/ha) yield 146 MT/ha PLANTING SEASONS & PLANTING DENSITY 24
  24. 24. • The seedlings can be raised in nursery beds 3m long, 1m wide and 1o cm high as well as in pots or polythene bags. The seeds should be sown 1cm deep in rows 10 cm apart and covered with fine compost of leaf mould. • Light watering should be done in the morning. • The nursery beds covered with polythene sheet or dry paddy straw to protect seedlings. SOWING 25
  25. 25. SOWING METHOD It may be sown directly, but normally, it is better to be seeded to raise seedlings and transplanted. 1. Plastic bag or soft plastic pot sowing: 2. Seedling Tray sowing: Sowing Material The seedlings raised in polythene bags stand transplanting better then those raised in seed beds. Perforated polythene bags of 20 cm x 15 cm size of 150-200 gauge can be used as a container. They are filled with a mixture of FYM, soil and sand in equal proportion. 4-5 seeds are sown in each bag & 3 seedlings are retained. 26
  26. 26. A. Transplanting stage: When the seedling is 10 -15 cm tall, it should be transplanted, but 30-40 cm is also all right if it is grown in a larger container. B. Spacing: 1.8 m x 1.8 m = 3086 plants/ha 2.0 m x 2.0 m = 6400 plants/ha C. Pollinator Plants: Minimum10-20% Male plants are required for pollination. D. Planting method: (A) Black-and-white plastic mulching film on the beds can be used to: (a) Reduce the loss of water and fertilizer nutrient (b) Control weed (c) Repel the winged aphids (d) Decrease virus infection at young stage (e) Decrease bed soil erosion. TRANSPLANTING 27
  27. 27. REMOVAL OF MALE PLANTS • About 10% of the male plants are kept in the orchards for good pollination where dioecious varieties are cultivated. As soon as the plants flower, the extra male plants are uprooted. Removal of Male Plant 1. 2. 28
  28. 28. IRRIGATION • To minimize flower drop or fruit drop, irrigate the plants before the soil gets dry to avoid fungal infection. • Soil is aerated time to time through shallow cultivation to avoid root rot. • After transplanting, make sure the plants get adequate water every 2-3 days until they are well established. • Water the papaya plants regularly especially when the climate is hot or dry to prevent growth retardation, flower abortion and dropping of young fruits. • We can use method of drip irrigation for efficient use of water. • Salient features of Drip irrigation- i. 65 to 70% water saving compared to control method. ii. Crop attains early maturity. iii. Crop quality and yield increased. iv. Requires least land levelling. v. Poor quality water can be used. 29
  29. 29. Time of Application FYM(kg) N(kg) P(g) K(g) At Planting 10-15 - 100 125 1 month - 50 - - 3 months - 50 100 125 4 ½ months - 50 - - 6 months - 50 - - Total 10-15 200 200 250 MANURES AND FERTILIZERS • Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium at planting and again after six months of planting. • Deficiency of lime and boron has often been observed in papaya orchards. Spraying of 0.5% Zinc sulphate and one spray of Borax (0.1%) may be done depending upon the nutrient status of soil. • Doses of regular fertilizers are as follows- 30
  30. 30. WEED CONTROL • Weeding is very necessary for papaya, to sanitize its immediate environment from insect pests that climb the trunk like ants carrying aphids and scales. • It will remove competitor for plant food nutrients in the soil. • Weeds are host and vector carrier of pest and plant diseases. • Clean an area of one meter radius around the base of the plant. • Deep hoeing is recommended during first year to check weed growth. • We avoid herbicides as much as possible since they kill microorganism in the soil that helps enhance decomposition of organic wastes into fertilizer and plant food. • Application of Fluchloralin or Alachlorin or Butachlorine (0.2g/ha) as pre- emergence 2 months after transplanting can control all weeds for 4 months. • Slash tall weeds in between the rows or pass them with harrow to keep them down. • Maintain the cleanliness of the field at all times. • Always remember the weeds can reduce by 25% your production. • Biological Weed Control Bioagent: Insect:Octotoma scabripennis and Uroplata giraldi Weeds:Lantana camara. 31
  31. 31. INTERCROPPING • Low-growing vegetables of short duration may be taken as inter-crops. • An occasional thinning of fruits necessary to prevent overcrowding . • Papaya also grows as filler or in plantations of other crops where spacing is wide enough. REMOVAL OF MALE PLANTS About 10% of the male plants are kept in the orchards for good pollination where dioecious varieties are cultivated. As soon as the plants flower, the extra male plants are uprooted. FRUITING OF PAPAYA • Fruit hangs along the trunk. • Flower borne in leaf axils. • Most plants are dioecious but some gynodioecious varieties are also present. Some flowers are hermaphroditic or perfect. • Flower remains for four month and fruit ready for harvesting in another six months. 32
  32. 32. HARVESTING AND YIELD • It is a climacteric fruit, so it should be harvested at mature stage. • Usually fruits are harvested when they are of full size, light green tinge of yellow at epical end. • We should harvest yellow green fruits as dark green fruits are not ripen. • When the latex ceases to be milky and become watery, the fruits are suitable for harvesting. • While picking fruits from the tree, care must be taken that they are not scratched, and are free from blemishes, otherwise these are attacked by fungus and start decaying during marketing. • On an average each plant of improved varieties bears 30-45 fruits, weighing 40-75 kg in one fruiting season. • Average yield of 60-75 tons/ha may be expected in a season. 33
  33. 33. DISEASES 1. Stem rot / Foot rot: Cause- It is caused by group of fungi but Pythium aphanidermatum is mainly responsible for it. Symptoms- Rotting of stem near collar region. Control- Kavach/Rovral (2ml/litre) and Metalxyl/Mencozeb (2g/litre) as and when required. 2. Powdery mildew: Cause- Oidium caricae/ Laveilulla taurica Symptoms- White mealy growth on leaves, petioles and young shoots. Control- Apply wetable sulphur ( 1g/litre ) during September-January. 34
  34. 34. 3. Anthracnose: Cause- Colletotrichum gleoesporiodes Symptoms- Dark brown depressed spots of chocolate colour. Control- Apply Carbendazim (1g/litre ) and Mencozeb ( 2g/litre ) 15 days before harvesting. 4. Damping off: Cause- Complex of organisms responsible but mainly Pythium spp. Symptoms- Causes drooping of seedlings which ultimately die off. Control- Treat seeds with Captal ( 2g/kg ). 35
  35. 35. 5. Leaf curl: Cause- Papaya leaf curl virus ( Vector- White fly, Bemicia tabbaci ) Symptoms- Curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves, reduction of leaf lamina, rolling of leaf margins inward and downward, thickening of veins. Control- Uproot affected plants. Avoid growing tomato, tobacco near papaya. Spraying with systemic insecticides to control the vector. 6. Papaya mosaic: Cause- Potex virus (Vector- Aphid). Symptoms- Plants stunted. Yellowing, mottling & distortion of leaves, bending of petiole. Control- Control vector aphid. Remove affected plant. Spray phosphomidon 3ml in 10 litre water 36
  36. 36. 7. Papaya Ring Spot: Cause- Papaya ring spot virus ( Vector- Aphid ) Symptoms-Vein clearing, puckering and chlorophyll leaf tissues lobbing in. Margin and distal parts of leaves roll downward and inwards, mosaic mottling, dark green blisters, leaf distortion which result in shoe string system and stunting of plants. On fruits circular concentric rings are produced. If affected earlier no fruit formation. Control-Raise papaya seedlings under insect- proof conditions. Plant disease free seedlings. Raise sorghum / maize as barrier crop before planting papaya. Rogue out affected plants immediately on noticing symptom. Do not raise cucurbits around the field. Select to grow the tolerant varieties such as Red Lady. 37
  37. 37. INSECT- PESTS 1. White fly- Bemicia tabbaci Symptoms of damage-Nymphs and adults suck the sap from under surface of the leaves. Cause yellowing of leaves. Control- Installation of yellow sticky traps. Spraying Imidachloprid 200SL at 0.01% or triazophos 40EC at0.06% during heavy infestation. Release of predators viz., Coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Release of parasitoids viz., Encarsia haitierrsis and E.guadeloupae. 38
  38. 38. 2. Fruit flies- Bactrocera dorsalis Symptoms of damage- Maggots puncture into semi-ripe fruits with decayed spots. Oozing of fluid and brownish rotten patches on fruits. Dropping of fruits. Control- Monitor the activity of flies with methyl Eugenol sex lure traps. Spray Malathion 50 EC 2ml/litre. 39
  39. 39. 3. Ash weevil- Myllocerus spp. Symptom of damage- Grub feed on the roots. Wilting of young sapling notching of leaf margin by adults. Control- Dust Lindane 1.3 D at 25 kg/ha to kill grubs. Spray Carbaryl 50 WP at 2g/litre. 4. Aphid- Myzus persicae Symptom of damage- Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, petioles and fruits. Leaf curling and falling. Premature fruit drop. Control- Spray Dimethoate 0.03% or Methyl demeton 0.025%. 40
  40. 40. 5. Mealy bugs- • Symptom of damage- Flatten oval insects (1-4 mm long). They can transmit a viral disease known as leaf drop and will cause a reduced yield. • Control- Spraying Malathion at the rate of 1.5 to 3.0 tbs. per 16 liter knapsack sprayer. 41
  41. 41. HARVEST AND POST HARVEST HANDLING • The appearance of yellow color traces on the green fruit is an indication of maturity and ready for harvest. • The papaya fruits shall be harvested when 25% or ¼ of the fruit is ripen. • Hold on the fruit, twist until it snaps or cut peduncle with a shape knife. • Handle the fruit carefully to avoid bruising and unnecessary cuts. • Never drop fruits to the ground. On tall trees, use ladder to reach and pick the fruits by hand. • Place the fruits gently on baskets with soft padding. • Fruits should be delivered to the packing house of cannery 2-4 hours from harvest. • Heavily bruised, damaged, diseased, over-ripe, or old fruits should be rejected. • Schedule harvesting at least twice a week to minimize incidence of over ripe fruits. • Treat the fruits with dip in hot water (45oC for 20 minutes, 52oC for 10 minutes or 58oC for 1 minute). Airs dry the fruits and wrap in clean paper and place in wooden or hard plastic fruit crates. • Never allow harvested fruits to be exposed to direct sunlight. • Transport them carefully by stocking fruit crates so as not to allow movement and bumping during transit to market. • 42
  42. 42. GRADING, PACKAGING AND STORAGE • Grading – For Easily Transportation and obtain higher value grading is done in papaya according to fruit size and skin appearance quality • Grading is done by different grading machine and grade size boxes. • Packaging – Papaya fruit are Packed in corrugated fibre board boxes and plastic crates. • Cushioning material should be placed on the base. • For local consumption ,stored in single layer on straw. • For distant market , packed in basket with straw. • Sometimes wrapped in news paper • Storage at : 10 oC-13 oC with Relative humidity 85-90% for 1-3 weeks with proper handling. • Ethaphon treatment 1000 ppm increase ripening 43
  43. 43. PAPAIN EXTRACTION • The immature papaya fruit contains a milky latex. • The dried latex called papain is in great demand in the international markets. • Papain is used for detecting stomach and intestinal cancers and also in correcting diphtheria. • Papain production is influence by several factors : • Fruit size 2. Fruit maturity 3. Season 4. Cultivars (CO-5best) 5. Effect of PGRs • The papain content of fruit decrease rapidly as it ripens. • Papain extracted from the unripe fruit can fetch another Rs.35000 per hectare. • Papaya fruits, which arc about 90-100 days old (fully mature but not ripe), are selected for tapping. Tapping should be done in the morning hours before 10.00 am. • The latex should be collected in suitable containers (arecanut spathes, aluminium trays or glass vessels). • Papain Uses: Proteolytic enzyme extracted from latex, Meat tenderizer, Cosmetics, Leather industry,Medicinal uses. • Papain yield: Crude papain from a plant yield 250-300 kg/ha. 44

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