Presented by
Pawan Kumar nagar
M.Sc. ( Horti ), Fruit Science
CULTIVATION OF CITRUS
Botanical name : Citrus spp.
Family : Rutaceae
Chromosome no. : 18
Type of fruit : Hesperidium
Edibl...
Origin Citrus spp
China Sweet orange, Mandarin
India Kagzi lime
South- east Pummel, lemon
Centre of origin in citrus spp
Largest producer in the world in citrus spp.
Country Fruit crop
USA Grape fruit, Pummelo
China Mandarin
Brazil Sweet orang...
Introduction:
India ranks sixth in the production of citrus fruit in the world.
 Other major citrus producing countries ...
.
Citrus growing states in India
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya
Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Oriss...
Sr. no State
Production(t
ones)
Share (%)
1 Andhra Pradesh 3,752.59 39.70
2 Maharashtra 1,725.10 18.25
3 Punjab 904.42 9.5...
Area, production & productivity of some district of Gujarat state(2013 -14):
Area: Mehsana (10480ha) < Bhavnagar(7150ha) <...
BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CITRUS:
The five commercially important citrus fruit crops:
Sweet orange C. sinensis
Mandarin C. reticulata
Grapefruit C. paradise...
Minor cultivars:
Pummelo: Citrus maxima/grandish
Citron: Citrus medica
Tahiti lime: C. latifolia
Intercrosses: -
Inter spe...
Trispecific
•Citrangors: – (Citrage x Trifoliate orange)
•Cicatrices :– (Citrange x Trifoliate Orange )
Nutrition in different citrus fruits:
Nutrition Sweet
orange
Grapefru
it
Tangerine Lemon Lime
Water (%) 88 86 87 90 86
Pro...
They are refreshing and delicious to eat, presses minerals and vitamins
especially a high content vitamin C (varies from ...
BENEFITS AND USES OF CITRUS:
Contains high amount of flavor it helps to improve the immune
system fighting against formin...
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS:
Citrus trees are subtropical in origin and cannot tolerate severe
frosts. Moisture is also a limiti...
SOIL REQUIREMENTS:
Citrus trees grow in almost any soil that is well-drained, sufficiently aerated
and allows tap root to...
Age of Plant fertilizers ( g/Plant/Year) FYM
(kg/Plant/Year)
N
P K
First year
Second year
Third year
Fourth year
Fifth yea...
Gujarat state recommend doses manures and fertilizer Acid lime
Age of
plant
FYM kg
/plant
Nitrogen g
/plant
Phosphorus
g/ ...
MICRO NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT IN CITRUS
Major micro nutrients ,micro nutrients like zinc , magnesium ,
manganese , iron and...
Classification by Tanaka
Genus Citrus (2 subgenus, 144 species)
Subgenus –Archicitrus
(5 section, 98 species)
Subgenus –Me...
Classification by Swingle
Genus –Citrus: (2 sub genera, 16 species, 8 botanical varieties)
Sub genus Eucitrus (10 species)...
Classification and Varieties:
•Sweet Orange
•Mandarin Oranges
•Grapefruit
• Lime
• Pummelo
1.Sweet oranges:
Botanical name - Citrus sinensisosbeck
Varieties :-
•Hamlin:- Chance seeding from Florida. Early variety,...
Mandarin Oranges:
Botanical name —Citrus reticulateB
•Loose-skinned oranges are commonly designated as mandarins.
• Small ...
Crop regulation:-
•Root pruning is practiced in Central and Southern India to
regulate the flowering.
•Root pruning for re...
Mandarins or Tangerines:
C. reticulata - Tangerine, mandarin, or
Satsuma
C. unshiu (Satsuma)
C. deliciosa (Willow leaf)
C....
Satsuma group - commonly grown in Japan, very hardy and cold resistant.
Mandarins: –
•Fruits are yellow or pale orange E.g...
Clematins:-
•Fruit size is medium-small to medium. Rind medium in thickness. Surface smooth and
glossy but slightly pebble...
•The plants are spreading with a length of 10-15 m,
Petioles broadly winged. Flowers axillaries- single or in
clusters, 4-...
•Lime:-
•The lime are represented by Mexican group, Tahiti group and mandarin limes.
Acid lime/Kagzi lime: - C. aurantifol...
Tahiti (Persian) Lime: - (C. latifolia Tanaka).
•This group differs in many characters from the true limes of
the Mexican ...
Pummelo:-Citrus grandis
•It is a valuable root stock for dry lands. The fruit may be used in making marmalade.
The trees a...
Eureka lemon :-
•The trees of Eureka lemon are medium size, spreading, open, almost
thorn less.
•The Eureka is a heavy yie...
Lucknow seedless:-
•It has medium size trees, hardy, vigorous spreading and dropping almost to the ground with an irregula...
Citrus propagation:
Propagation is still practiced in the case of
acid limes and to produce rootstocks for In India
citrus...
Rising of seedling:
•Freshly extracted seeds are shown on well prepared nursery bed
at the distance of 20 x l0 cm and 1.5 ...
Rootstock characters:
•Must be compatible with the scion variety allowing good growth,
long good yield and good fruit qual...
Rootstock Characters
Rough lemon Suitable for light (sandy) and infertile soil,
resistant to Tristeza virus. But it is mos...
Shield or T Budding:
In this method of propagation, a bud from desired variety (scion) is
transferred on the rootstock. With an objective of ut...
Bud wood should be taken from parent trees which:
•Hold a record satisfactory production over a period of a t least 5 year...
a. Orange : Normal spacing - 6 m x 6 m
.Plant population - 275 / ha
b. Sweet Lime : Normal spacing - 5 m x 5 m .Plant
popu...
Pruning means removing diseased and
dead twigs, branches, and leaves which
are unproductive and are less exposed
to sunlig...
Acid lime–acid lime plants are trained to modified
central leader system with a smooth trunk
up to 70 to 100 cm height fro...
Modified central leader
Lemon- Training system followed by
open leader system method .Trees are
trained to form a low headed open
centered crown w...
Open leader system method
July-Sept. 30 % in Oct.-Jan. & 10 % in summer. During the first 6 months
the trees should be irrigated twice a week and t...
The fruits mature in six months after flowering. In Gujarat,
about 60 per cent of the total crop is harvested during July...
Yield of citrus trees vary with so many
factors like species , variety , location,
age, management practices, root stock
...
Sweet orange 150-200 fruit/ plant
Mandarins 350 -500 fruits/ plant
Limes 500-2500fruit/ plant
Grapefruit 200 -300 fruit/ p...
Insects and Pests,
Citrus trips: Thrips nilgiriensis
Symptom of damage:
Nymphs and adults lacerate the leaf tissue and suc...
Fig. Citrus thrips: Thrips nilgiriensis
Management:
Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts.
Spraying with systemic insecticides at flush growth periods.
S...
Scale: Icerya purchasi
Symptoms of damage:
Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves.
Honey dew excretion Development o...
Management:
Spray dormant oil in late winter.
Apply mixture of manure compost tea, molasses, and citrus oil.
Garlic-pep...
Cirrus butterfly: Papilio demolious, P. Polytes, P.helenus
Symptom of damage:
Caterpillars prefers on light green tender ...
Fig. Cirrus butterfly
Management:
Hand pick the larvae and destroy.
First instar - Spraying of 1.5ml monocrotophos
(Nuvacron), 1ml DDVP (Nuvan...
Citrus aphids
Damage:
Feeding by aphids distorts shoots and can
transmit plant viruses.
They produce honeydew, which enc...
Fig. Citrus aphids
Management:
Use yellow sticky trap.
Spray with methyl Demeton (Metasystox) or
Dimethoate (Rogar) 2ml /lit.
Use some con...
Citrus leaf miner: Phyllocnistic citrella
Symptom of damage
Making silvery appearance presence on the
lower surface of le...
Fig. Citrus leaf miner
Spraying of monocrotophos [Nuvacron] 1.5ml,
fenvalerate 0.2ml or dimethoate [Rogor] 2ml mixed in a
litre of water at week...
Citrus psylla (psyllid, Diaphorinacitri)
Both nymphs and adults suck sap from the plants
and injection of toxic saliva.
...
Spray Malathion 0.05% or
monocrotophos 0.036% or Carbaryl 0.1%
or methyl parathion 0.05%.
Encourage the activities natur...
Fruit sucking moth: S.N -Otheris maternal
Fig. Fruit sucking moth
Adult pierce the fruit and suck the juice Rottening at the feeding
site fruit dropping
Symptom of damage
Destroy the weed...
Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the cells
of tender branches and fruits turn pale colour Affected
plant parts - ...
Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, twigs and stems.
Debark branches and apply methyl parathion paste.
Use sticky t...
Diseases of citrus
Sooty Mould : Capnodium citri
The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug and
scale insects ...
Foot rot gummosis
Symptom:
The symptoms appear as yellowing of leaves, followed by
cracking of bark and profuse gumming o...
Fig. Foot rot gummosis
Painting 1 m of the stem above the
ground level with Bordeaux helps in
controlling the disease.
spraying and drenching w...
.
The aphid (Toxoptera citricida) transmits Tristeza virus
disease. The symptoms begin with the die back of small
branche...
Exocortis is characterized by drying narrow
strips of outer bark, which tend to separate
from the inner live-bark.
The o...
The disease can be prevented by the use of
virus-free bud wood.
Grafting tools should be disinfected after
pruning branc...
Scab: (Elsinoe fawcetti)
The lesions in early stages appear on the underside of the
leaves as small semi-translucent dots...
Fig. Scab
Control:
The diseased leaves, twigs and fruits
should be collected and destroyed.
Spraying of Bordeaux mixture or Blitox
...
Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas citri)
It is the most serious bacterial disease.
The disease symptoms appear on leaves, branc...
Fig. Citrus Canker
Three sprays of Streptocycline 100 ppm (10 g of
Streptocycline + 5 g Copper Sulphate in 100 liters
water) or Blitox (0.3%)...
Disorders in citrus
Granulation:
Granulation is a condition in which the juice sacs shrivel
because of gel formation.
 I...
Fruit drop:
The causes attributed to fruit drop in citrus are lack of
fertilization, mechanical shock, insects, disease, ...
Control:
The method of control depends upon the causes of the drop
and the variety of the fruit.
In order to reduce the ...
Greening of citrus:
This disease is spread through grafting and citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri).
Affected trees are stun...
POST HARVEST MANANEMNT
After harvested ,fruits are washed.
Dipping fruits in fungicidal solutions- bavistin (0.1%) or
be...
Fruits are then graded according to their size
and appearance.
In export market, grades for oranges and
mandrins are Ext...
Fruits are wrapped in thin paper shrink films for
controlling moisture losses and packed in wooden
boxes or corrugated fi...
CA storase , refrigerated /cool and ventilinted facilities and quick transport
reduce fruit loss during transit.
In low ...
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Citrus ppt

  1. 1. Presented by Pawan Kumar nagar M.Sc. ( Horti ), Fruit Science
  2. 2. CULTIVATION OF CITRUS Botanical name : Citrus spp. Family : Rutaceae Chromosome no. : 18 Type of fruit : Hesperidium Edible part : Juicy placenta heirs Type of pollination : Self pollination (Homogemy) Rate of Respiration : Non climacteric Type of bearing habit : Mix bearing Largest production : 111.47 Tones Main fruits of thing group : Lime/ Lemon , Mosambi, Orange ,and Mandarin Advance technology : Tissue culture and Micro propagation Pre= cooling : Forced air Transport and storage : 8-10 wreaks Transport of quality : Waxing Sensibility to : Refrigeration, Ethylene are color
  3. 3. Origin Citrus spp China Sweet orange, Mandarin India Kagzi lime South- east Pummel, lemon Centre of origin in citrus spp
  4. 4. Largest producer in the world in citrus spp. Country Fruit crop USA Grape fruit, Pummelo China Mandarin Brazil Sweet orange India Acid lime Italy Lemon
  5. 5. Introduction: India ranks sixth in the production of citrus fruit in the world.  Other major citrus producing countries are Spain, USA, Israel, Morocco, South Africa, Japan, Brazil, Turkey and Cuba.  It occupies third position after mango and banana in the production of fruits in India. Citrus fruits originated in the tropical and sub tropical regions of South East Asia, particularly India and China. North East India is the native place of juice many citrus species. It is of particular interest because of its high content of vitamin C and refreshing Juice.
  6. 6. . Citrus growing states in India Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Orissa, Bihar, Assam.
  7. 7. Sr. no State Production(t ones) Share (%) 1 Andhra Pradesh 3,752.59 39.70 2 Maharashtra 1,725.10 18.25 3 Punjab 904.42 9.57 4 Madhya Pradesh 675.97 7.15 5 Gujarat 385.63 4.08 6 Rajasthan 308.10 3.26 7 Karnataka 287.20 3.04 8 Orissa 242.50 2.57 9 Bihar 225.40 2.38 10 Assam 205.74 2.18 Total 8,712.65
  8. 8. Area, production & productivity of some district of Gujarat state(2013 -14): Area: Mehsana (10480ha) < Bhavnagar(7150ha) < Anand (5264ha) Production: Mehsana(117900MT) < Bhavnagar(70655MT) < Banaskatha(65589T) Productivity:Banaskatha(13.30MT/HA)<Bhavnagar(13.20MT/HA)<Kheda (12.52MT/HA) COUNTRY /STATE AREA PRODUCTION PRODUCTIVITY INDIA 1.O( MT) 11.1 (MT) 10.3(MT/HA) GUJARAT 41.079 (Thousand ha) 4.4992(MT) 10.94(MT/HA)
  9. 9. BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CITRUS:
  10. 10. The five commercially important citrus fruit crops: Sweet orange C. sinensis Mandarin C. reticulata Grapefruit C. paradise Lemon C. lemon Lime C. aurantifolium
  11. 11. Minor cultivars: Pummelo: Citrus maxima/grandish Citron: Citrus medica Tahiti lime: C. latifolia Intercrosses: - Inter specific Carnage : - (Trifoliate orange x sweet orange) Citrumelo :- (Trifoliate orange x grapefruit) Tangor :- (Mandarin x Sweet orange) Tangelo:- (Mandarin x grapefruit)
  12. 12. Trispecific •Citrangors: – (Citrage x Trifoliate orange) •Cicatrices :– (Citrange x Trifoliate Orange )
  13. 13. Nutrition in different citrus fruits: Nutrition Sweet orange Grapefru it Tangerine Lemon Lime Water (%) 88 86 87 90 86 Protein (%) 44 40 44 27 37 Fat (%) 0.75 0.45 0.8 1.1 0.1 Carbohydrate (%) 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 Crude Fiber (%) 10.3 9.5 10.5 8.2 12.3
  14. 14. They are refreshing and delicious to eat, presses minerals and vitamins especially a high content vitamin C (varies from 25 to 100 mg/100 mL) . Fruit juice contains sugar (glucose and sucrose) and acidity (primary citric acid and a little of organic acid). Total soluble solid (TSS) in sweet groups varies from 6 to12 % and acidity from 0.5 to1.5%.
  15. 15. BENEFITS AND USES OF CITRUS: Contains high amount of flavor it helps to improve the immune system fighting against forming of free radical causes of tumor and cancer.  Strengthens the small blood vessels, protects against Rheumatoid arthritis and reduces the risk of cell membranes being damage caused the forming of free radical due to high amount of vitamin C.  Reduces the risk of heart diseases and stroke as it lowers the bad cholesterol. Citrus peels are rich in pectin, valuable in making jellies, marmalades, candies, jams and pharmaceutical preparations.
  16. 16. CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS: Citrus trees are subtropical in origin and cannot tolerate severe frosts. Moisture is also a limiting factor in citrus production, when rainfall is poorly distributed and, it is necessary to supplement moisture by irrigation to ensure that moisture stress do not suppress growth and production. Citrus (except lemons) require shorter days and cooler temperatures in winter for a normal production rhythm. Flowering should occur almost exclusively in spring, and these spring flowers should produce a large fruit crop 7 to 12 months later, depending on the climate.
  17. 17. SOIL REQUIREMENTS: Citrus trees grow in almost any soil that is well-drained, sufficiently aerated and allows tap root to penetrate to the desired depth. Citrus can be grown in a wide range of soil types provided they are well drained. Fertile, well-aerated soils with a pH of between 6 and 6.5 are ideal. The growth, development and production of a plant depend on the physical characteristics of the soil such as drainage, density, texture, water-holding capacity, structure, soil depth, the homogeneity of the profile, readability, and the degree to which water can infiltrate the soil. These characteristics differ in the various soil types.
  18. 18. Age of Plant fertilizers ( g/Plant/Year) FYM (kg/Plant/Year) N P K First year Second year Third year Fourth year Fifth year Sixth year bearing tree - Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu 30 120 270 400 560 550 1500 1000 400 135 120 270 250 370 370 350 100 200 13 78 180 400 550 550 400 200 300 00 30 25-30 30 MANURS AND FERTILIZER:
  19. 19. Gujarat state recommend doses manures and fertilizer Acid lime Age of plant FYM kg /plant Nitrogen g /plant Phosphorus g/ plant Potash g/ plant 1st year 10 180 150 100 2nd year 20 360 300 200 3rd year 30 540 450 300 4th year 40 720 600 400 5th year 50 900 750 500 Fertilizer dosage for lime and leman plants are N, P and K @ 500:300:500 g/plant/year. A fertilizer dosage of 400 g N, 100 g P and K 200 g increased growth , yield and quality attributes in Nagpur mandarin.
  20. 20. MICRO NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT IN CITRUS Major micro nutrients ,micro nutrients like zinc , magnesium , manganese , iron and copper are also required . Foliar application of 1.5 kg zinc sulphate , sulphate , 500 magnesium nitrate and 1.5 kg lime in 450 liters of water for one hectare should be given during May. Reported that foliar application of 0.5 percent potassium increasing fruit number , physical and biochemical qualities in Nagpur mandarin .
  21. 21. Classification by Tanaka Genus Citrus (2 subgenus, 144 species) Subgenus –Archicitrus (5 section, 98 species) Subgenus –Metacitrus (3 section, 46 species) Section Papeda (12 species) Section Osmocitrus (9 species) Limonellus (16 species) Acrumen (36 species) Citrophorum (21 species) Pseudofortunella (1 species) Aruntium (28 species) Cephalocitrus (21 species)
  22. 22. Classification by Swingle Genus –Citrus: (2 sub genera, 16 species, 8 botanical varieties) Sub genus Eucitrus (10 species) Sub genus Papeda (6 spieces) C. medica (citron) C. ichangensis C .limon (Lemon) C.latipes C .aurantifolia (Lime) C.micrantha C.aurantium (Sour lime) C.celebia C.sinensis (Sweet lime) C.macraptera C. reticulta (Mandarin) C.hystrix C.grandisi (Pummelo) C.paradisi (Grape fruit) C.indica (Indian wild orange) C.tachibana (tachibana orange)
  23. 23. Classification and Varieties: •Sweet Orange •Mandarin Oranges •Grapefruit • Lime • Pummelo
  24. 24. 1.Sweet oranges: Botanical name - Citrus sinensisosbeck Varieties :- •Hamlin:- Chance seeding from Florida. Early variety, smooth ,medium and apex round. •Jaffa:- Mid season variety. Suitable for arid region. •Pineapple:- Mid season variety. •Valencia:- late season variety. Fruit medium to large , round or slightly oval type . •Mosambi:- Most popular in maharatra , Best rootstock- Rangpur lime. •Satgudi:- Most popular in Andhra Pradesh, Best rootstock- Rough leman. •Blood Red :- Most popular in North India Best rootstock – karnaa khatt, Jatta khatti. •Shamouti :- Seedless variety, fruit medium to large and sweet rich in flavor. •Washington naval:- Variety is originated in Brazil and introduced to Washington during 1870. •Mudkhed- Bud mutant of Nagpur mandarin.
  25. 25. Mandarin Oranges: Botanical name —Citrus reticulateB •Loose-skinned oranges are commonly designated as mandarins. • Small tree 2-8m in height. •Leaves small, Ovate, narrow, elliptical or lancelets usually crenate. •Flowers white. •Fruits depressed-globs, 5-8 cm in diameter, contain tangerine as prominent glycoside. •Pulp sweet and juicy, orange in colour, seeds polyembryonic. Varieties:- 1.Coorg:- Most important commercial variety in South India. 2. Khasi;- Locally known as Sikkim or kamala mandarin. 3. Nagpur (Ponkan):-Finest mandarin in the world. Grown in Satpuda hill in Maharatra. 4. Emperor and Fuetrelles:- Introduction from Australia. 5.Sutwal:- Introduction from Nepal. 6.Satsuma(seedless) Commercial variety.
  26. 26. Crop regulation:- •Root pruning is practiced in Central and Southern India to regulate the flowering. •Root pruning for regulate the flowering season. •Mandarin blooming : 3time /year in South and Central India. •Ambe Bahar: February flowering: Fruit drop more problem. •Mrig Bahar: June flowering . •Haste Bahar: October flowering. •Resting or root exposure prectiesd in deccan region
  27. 27. Mandarins or Tangerines: C. reticulata - Tangerine, mandarin, or Satsuma C. unshiu (Satsuma) C. deliciosa (Willow leaf) C. reshni (Cleopatra) C. nobilis (King) C. temple(Temple).
  28. 28. Satsuma group - commonly grown in Japan, very hardy and cold resistant. Mandarins: – •Fruits are yellow or pale orange E.g., cultivar Emperior, Coorg, Khasi, Nagpur and Srinagar exclusively grown in India. Tangerines:-(Citrus tangerine hort. Tanaka) •Fruit are deep orange-red. E.g. Clementine and dancy grown in Algeria and USA respectively. King mandarin:- •Fruit are large (among the largest of the mandarins) and oblate to depressed globose. Rind thick (very thick for mandarins), moderately adherent but peel able surface moderately smooth to rough and warty. Deep yellowish-orange to orange at maturity.
  29. 29. Clematins:- •Fruit size is medium-small to medium. Rind medium in thickness. Surface smooth and glossy but slightly pebbled because of prominent oil glands; color deep orange to reddish- orange. Seedless to very few seeds. Mature early. Willow leaf:- •The special nature and aroma of the oil they contain. the mild and pleasantly aromatic flavor of the juice the distinctive nature and fragrance of the rind oil and the plump and almost spherical seeds. Grapefruit:- Botanical name- Citrus paradise Macf. •Grape fruits are closely related to Pummelo. •It is used as a breakfast fruit, the juice has a characteristic flavor with wild bitterness.
  30. 30. •The plants are spreading with a length of 10-15 m, Petioles broadly winged. Flowers axillaries- single or in clusters, 4-5 cm. in diameter, petals white, •Fruit large, 8-25 cm. in diameter, greenish or pale yellow when ripe, rind thinner and pulp vesicles smaller than Most widely planted cultivar is Marsh (Marsh Seedless) with only 4-8 seeds per fruit. Thompson (Pink Marsh) has pink flesh and 0.5 seeds per fruit. It is a bud mutant. Bud mutations of ‘Thompson’ are 'Ruby' and 'Webb'. The interspecific hybrid and C. reticulata is known as Tangelo
  31. 31. •Lime:- •The lime are represented by Mexican group, Tahiti group and mandarin limes. Acid lime/Kagzi lime: - C. aurantifolia Swingle. •Acid lime is the most important acid fruit of tropics. •It is the tenders of all the citrus fruit. Varieties: •Pramalini : Canker tolerant •Vikram •Chakradhar: Seedless variety of acid lime •PKM-1 •Sai sarbati : Tolerant to tristiza and canker •Jai devi : Pleasant Aroma.
  32. 32. Tahiti (Persian) Lime: - (C. latifolia Tanaka). •This group differs in many characters from the true limes of the Mexican group. The trees are larger, more spreading and cold-resistant, nearly thorn less. •Rangpur lime :- (C. limonia Osbeck)- •Rangpur lime is indigenous to India and commonly grown for rootstock purpose. Sweet lime-(C. limetoides Tanaka): – •They are similar to Tahiti limes, but sweet. •Mitha chikna •Mithotra
  33. 33. Pummelo:-Citrus grandis •It is a valuable root stock for dry lands. The fruit may be used in making marmalade. The trees are spiny, spreading 5-15 m. in height. •Leaves large, petioles broadly winged, flowers large, borne single or in clusters, petals cream coloured, stamen, 20-25 Fruit very large globose or pear shaped, 10-30 cm. in diameter, thick peel, pale yellow or pink with sweetish juice, mono embryonic seeds. •Important cultivars are Walter, Chakaya, Large red fleshed. Large white fleshed and Gill's Jellicoe. Lemon :-(C. limon Burm) Varieties are classed on the basis of fruit and tree characters into 4 groups: (i) Eureka group (ii) Lisbon group (iii) Anomalous group and (iv) Sweet lemon
  34. 34. Eureka lemon :- •The trees of Eureka lemon are medium size, spreading, open, almost thorn less. •The Eureka is a heavy yielder and begins early in age. •The fruits normally mature from August onwards in the Punjab. Lisbon lemon: •Large and vigorous trees, spreading, shoot upright, numerous, medium thorny. •Fruit colour lemon yellow, surface smooth, and shape ellipsoid to oblong, size medium. •Pulp fine-grained, pale greenish-yellow, juice abundant, clear, very acid quality excellent seed number 0-10.
  35. 35. Lucknow seedless:- •It has medium size trees, hardy, vigorous spreading and dropping almost to the ground with an irregular crown. •Fruit oblong lemon, yellow, smooth, base rounded, rind thin, axis hollow, segments 10-13, pulp light yellow and coarse, juicy. •The fruit ripens mainly from November to January. Hill lemon (Galgal):- C. pseudolimon Tanaka •It has tall, hardy, vigorous, upright and spreading trees with an irregular and loose crown. The fruits ripen form October to December. Citron:- (Citrus medica L.) •Citron is raised by seeds and stem cutting is Uttar Pradesh, Punjab. •Citron is used as medicine and ornamental purpose. •3 m high shrubs or small trees with stout spines. •Leaves elliptical, serrate, petiole short wingless and not articulated with lamina Inflorescence raceme, 5 petioles tinged pink, stamens 30-40. Fruits large, oblong, 10-20 cm long, peel usually bumpy, yellow, very thick having sour taste.
  36. 36. Citrus propagation: Propagation is still practiced in the case of acid limes and to produce rootstocks for In India citrus trees are propagated both by seeds and vegetative means. Seed budding purposes. It produces true to type seedlings i.e. polyembroynic seedlings. Shield or T budding is the most commonly used method of vegetative propagation. Budding is generally done either in spring or in September.
  37. 37. Rising of seedling: •Freshly extracted seeds are shown on well prepared nursery bed at the distance of 20 x l0 cm and 1.5 to2cm deep. •Germination completes within 3 weeks. •The apogamic seedlings are identical to the parent in growth and production. •Seedlings are ready for transplanting 6 to 9 months after sowing. •Seeds are sown in seedbed during July- August.
  38. 38. Rootstock characters: •Must be compatible with the scion variety allowing good growth, long good yield and good fruit qualities. •Seeds must be readily available, preferably high poly-embryonic to get uniform seedlings and with high percentage and germination. •Must be adaptable to a wide range of soil depth, texture, structure, pH, salinity, moisture, and nutrient supply. Must be resistant to soil- borne diseases, such as Phytophthora gummosis.
  39. 39. Rootstock Characters Rough lemon Suitable for light (sandy) and infertile soil, resistant to Tristeza virus. But it is most susceptible to cold and induces poor quality fruit Sour orange Suitable for silty, clayey and poorly aerated soils , improves the fruit quality and has high sugar and acid content, improve the fruit size Cleopatra mandarin Suitable for heavy soils Trifoliate orange Cold tolerant, improves the fruit quality and has High sugar and acid content, hasten fruit maturity and the fruit size. It also induces precocity. Resistant to Citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). It is ideal for high density plantations
  40. 40. Shield or T Budding:
  41. 41. In this method of propagation, a bud from desired variety (scion) is transferred on the rootstock. With an objective of utilizing the vigorous root system of the rootstock and combining the best characters of both. A plump, but not too elongated bud is selected from the middle section of the scion shoot. It is removed by making an incision around the bud with the help of sharp budding knife. On the selected rootstock T-shaped incision is made just enough to accommodate the bud. The bud is inserted in the incision and tied with a strip of plastic film in such a way that the tip of the eye remains open. Budding should be preferably done as low as possible on the rootstock
  42. 42. Bud wood should be taken from parent trees which: •Hold a record satisfactory production over a period of a t least 5 years. •Are free from systematic diseases. •Have true-type fruit characters. Lay-out of citrus orchards: •Before planting an orchard it is advisable to provide irrigation facilities such as pipelines or oncrete canals. At present the dragline sprinkler irrigation system and the basin system for cflood irrigation are regarded as the most suitable for citrus orchards. •The square and rectangular planting systems applicable to citrus orchards with the exception of the square system which is preferable where sprinkler irrigation is used, the rectangular system is at present above other systems because the smaller planting distance in the tree rows increases the number of trees per hectare
  43. 43. a. Orange : Normal spacing - 6 m x 6 m .Plant population - 275 / ha b. Sweet Lime : Normal spacing - 5 m x 5 m .Plant population - 400 /ha c. Lime/Lemon: Normal spacing - 4.5 m x 4.5 m .Plant population - 494 / ha •In very light soils, spacing may be 4 m x 4 m. In fertile soils and in high rainfall areas spacing may be 5 m x 5m. Plant density
  44. 44. Pruning means removing diseased and dead twigs, branches, and leaves which are unproductive and are less exposed to sunlight. Best time for pruning is during the dry season or after harvest. Pruning:
  45. 45. Acid lime–acid lime plants are trained to modified central leader system with a smooth trunk up to 70 to 100 cm height from ground level and with 4-5 well spaced branches. Training:
  46. 46. Modified central leader
  47. 47. Lemon- Training system followed by open leader system method .Trees are trained to form a low headed open centered crown which can harvest maximum sunlight.
  48. 48. Open leader system method
  49. 49. July-Sept. 30 % in Oct.-Jan. & 10 % in summer. During the first 6 months the trees should be irrigated twice a week and thereafter every 7 days.  The irrigation basin should be gradually enlarged as the tree grows, so that it is always slightly bigger than the drip line of the tree. Be careful not to damage the fine superficial feeder roots. The water required depends on weather conditions. Saturated and poorly-drained conditions could result in root rot, which will shorten the life of the trees. A lack of moisture during October to January could result in acid fruit.  If a sprinkler is used, about 30 mm of water must be applied every 7 days, depending on the weather.4th year. Fruit take 6 months to mature 60 % in . Irrigation:
  50. 50. The fruits mature in six months after flowering. In Gujarat, about 60 per cent of the total crop is harvested during July to September, 30 percent from October to January and 10 percent from February to May. In north India, the main harvesting seasons in the months of August-September.  Greenish yellow fruits picked by hook.6-8 pickings/season. Harvesting
  51. 51. Yield of citrus trees vary with so many factors like species , variety , location, age, management practices, root stock used etc. Average yield of different citrus cultivation is given below. Yield
  52. 52. Sweet orange 150-200 fruit/ plant Mandarins 350 -500 fruits/ plant Limes 500-2500fruit/ plant Grapefruit 200 -300 fruit/ plant Pummelo 100- 250 fruit/ plant
  53. 53. Insects and Pests, Citrus trips: Thrips nilgiriensis Symptom of damage: Nymphs and adults lacerate the leaf tissue and suck the sap from fruits, Leaf curling, Ring like appearance on the fruit ,Irregular mottled patches on rind
  54. 54. Fig. Citrus thrips: Thrips nilgiriensis
  55. 55. Management: Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts. Spraying with systemic insecticides at flush growth periods. Spray malathion 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.036% or carbaryl 0.1% . Encourage the activities natural enemies such as Syrphids and Chrysopid.
  56. 56. Scale: Icerya purchasi Symptoms of damage: Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves. Honey dew excretion Development of sooty mould fungus .
  57. 57. Management: Spray dormant oil in late winter. Apply mixture of manure compost tea, molasses, and citrus oil. Garlic-pepper tea also helps. Natural predators usually keep this insect in check. Control ants and dust which can give the scale a competitive advantage. Field release of Vidalia and Australian ladybugs
  58. 58. Cirrus butterfly: Papilio demolious, P. Polytes, P.helenus Symptom of damage: Caterpillars prefers on light green tender leaves. Feeding voraciously and leaving only the mid-ribs. Severe infestation the entire tree gets defoliated.
  59. 59. Fig. Cirrus butterfly
  60. 60. Management: Hand pick the larvae and destroy. First instar - Spraying of 1.5ml monocrotophos (Nuvacron), 1ml DDVP (Nuvan). Later stage - Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2ml/lit Field release of parasitoids Trichogramme .
  61. 61. Citrus aphids Damage: Feeding by aphids distorts shoots and can transmit plant viruses. They produce honeydew, which encourages the growth of sooty mould .
  62. 62. Fig. Citrus aphids
  63. 63. Management: Use yellow sticky trap. Spray with methyl Demeton (Metasystox) or Dimethoate (Rogar) 2ml /lit. Use some concinellid beetles and syrphid flies.
  64. 64. Citrus leaf miner: Phyllocnistic citrella Symptom of damage Making silvery appearance presence on the lower surface of leaves. Leaves – distorted and crinkled. Severe attack caused defoliation.
  65. 65. Fig. Citrus leaf miner
  66. 66. Spraying of monocrotophos [Nuvacron] 1.5ml, fenvalerate 0.2ml or dimethoate [Rogor] 2ml mixed in a litre of water at weekly intervals at the time of emergence of new flush. Spray application of NSKE 5%. Management
  67. 67. Citrus psylla (psyllid, Diaphorinacitri) Both nymphs and adults suck sap from the plants and injection of toxic saliva. Nymphs - are more destructive, crowd on the terminal shoots, buds and tender leaves. Excrete honeydew - growth of sooty moulds. Affected plant parts dry and die away. It is transmits the "Greening" virus. Symptoms of damage
  68. 68. Spray Malathion 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.036% or Carbaryl 0.1% or methyl parathion 0.05%. Encourage the activities natural enemies such as Syrphids and Chrysopids. Management
  69. 69. Fruit sucking moth: S.N -Otheris maternal Fig. Fruit sucking moth
  70. 70. Adult pierce the fruit and suck the juice Rottening at the feeding site fruit dropping Symptom of damage Destroy the weed host Tinosporacardifolia and cocculespendules. Bag the fruit with polythene bag (500 gauges). Apply smoke to prevent adult moth. Trap crop – growing tomato crop in orchards to attract the adult moth Poison bait-dilute suspension of fermented molasses and malathion 0.05% (50 EC at 1ml/lit) Use light trap or food lure to attract moths. Management:
  71. 71. Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the cells of tender branches and fruits turn pale colour Affected plant parts - wilt and dry up. large amounts of honey dew excrete - sooty mould fungus. Fungus covers the foliage and fruits. In severe infestation the flowers do not form fruits. Mealy bugs: Planoccus citri Symptom of damage
  72. 72. Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, twigs and stems. Debark branches and apply methyl parathion paste. Use sticky trap (5cm length) on fruit bearing shoots Spray dichlorvas 0.2% in combination with fish oil rosin soap 25g/lit. Single soil application of aldicarb 10G at 50g/tree at the time of pruning. Spraying of trees with methyl parathion 2ml or monocrotophos 1.5ml per /lit of water. Soil treatment with chlorophyriphos apply on the near the tree trunk. Spraying of trees with acephate, methomyl, or chlorpyriphos. Field release of Australian lady bird beetle Cryptoleamus montrouizeri 10 per tree. Management:
  73. 73. Diseases of citrus Sooty Mould : Capnodium citri The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug and scale insects are not controlled efficiently. Black velvety coating on the leaves, twigs and fruits is the characteristic of disease. The coating is superficial and can be pulled of easily from leaf. Symptom: Spraying of Web table sulfur (0.2%)+ Metacid (0.1%)+ gum acacia (0.3%) in the month of May. Control:
  74. 74. Foot rot gummosis Symptom: The symptoms appear as yellowing of leaves, followed by cracking of bark and profuse gumming on the surface. The main source of infection is infected planting material. As a result of severe gumming, the bark becomes completely rotten and the tree dries owing to girdling effect.
  75. 75. Fig. Foot rot gummosis
  76. 76. Painting 1 m of the stem above the ground level with Bordeaux helps in controlling the disease. spraying and drenching with Ridomil MZ 72@ 2.75 g/l or Aliette (2.5 g/l) is effective in controlling the disease Control:
  77. 77. . The aphid (Toxoptera citricida) transmits Tristeza virus disease. The symptoms begin with the die back of small branches and twigs, yellowing of leaves and heavy bearing small fruits. Tristeza is also called a quick decline disease. Tristeza Virus Disease Control: The best method to check this disease is to control the aphid population by application of insecticides in the nursery and also in plantations. Symptom:
  78. 78. Exocortis is characterized by drying narrow strips of outer bark, which tend to separate from the inner live-bark. The outer bark slowly peels off as it withers. The affected trees show lack of vigorus resulting in dwarfing. Citrus Exocortis: Symptom:
  79. 79. The disease can be prevented by the use of virus-free bud wood. Grafting tools should be disinfected after pruning branches from diseased trees. Control:
  80. 80. Scab: (Elsinoe fawcetti) The lesions in early stages appear on the underside of the leaves as small semi-translucent dots. In later stages leaves often become distorted, wrinkled, stunted and deformed On the fruit, lesions consist of corky projections, which often break into scabs. Symptom:
  81. 81. Fig. Scab
  82. 82. Control: The diseased leaves, twigs and fruits should be collected and destroyed. Spraying of Bordeaux mixture or Blitox (0.3%) is quite effective.
  83. 83. Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas citri) It is the most serious bacterial disease. The disease symptoms appear on leaves, branches and fruit stalks. Canker lesions appear as yellowish spots, surrounded by a characteristic yellow halo. The market value of the canker-affected fruits is very much reduced. Symptom:
  84. 84. Fig. Citrus Canker
  85. 85. Three sprays of Streptocycline 100 ppm (10 g of Streptocycline + 5 g Copper Sulphate in 100 liters water) or Blitox (0.3%) or neem cake suspension (1 kg in 20 litres water) during February, October and December can control the disease. Control:
  86. 86. Disorders in citrus Granulation: Granulation is a condition in which the juice sacs shrivel because of gel formation.  It is often associated with fast growth. It occurs more in large fruit, on young trees, in humid climates and on trees growing on sandy soils.
  87. 87. Fruit drop: The causes attributed to fruit drop in citrus are lack of fertilization, mechanical shock, insects, disease, high temperature, rainfall, and defective irrational practices. The most pronounced stages of fruit drop occurs when the fruits are at marble stage. On the onset of hot summer weather during May-June the second wave of intense fruit drop occurs while pre-harvest drop occurs during ripening period, which lasts from August-January.
  88. 88. Control: The method of control depends upon the causes of the drop and the variety of the fruit. In order to reduce the pre-harvest drop, NAA (10 ppm) is sprayed from August till October at monthly interval. Fruit cracking: Fruit cracking might be caused by great climatic and soil moisture irregularities. It has been speculated that internal pressure developed by the pulp causes the rind to split. Regular application of fertilizer and water to provide Smooth uninterrupted growth might reduce the problem.
  89. 89. Greening of citrus: This disease is spread through grafting and citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri). Affected trees are stunted with pronounced leaf and fruit drop . The fruits of affected trees remain mostly green even on maturity and the fruits, which are directly exposed to sun show a conspicuous yellow patch on the rind surface. Disease fruits are valueless owing to small size, distortion, low juice and insipid taste.
  90. 90. POST HARVEST MANANEMNT After harvested ,fruits are washed. Dipping fruits in fungicidal solutions- bavistin (0.1%) or benlate (500ppm) helps to reduce spoilage in storage. Retardants like GA (100-200ppm) or calcium nitrate(1%)delay ripening and increaing shelf life of fruits. In some places, waxing and polishing with soft brushes are done to substitute natural wax coat that may be lost in washing.
  91. 91. Fruits are then graded according to their size and appearance. In export market, grades for oranges and mandrins are Extra ,Special and Commeecail Grading:
  92. 92. Fruits are wrapped in thin paper shrink films for controlling moisture losses and packed in wooden boxes or corrugated fiber board cartons for distant markets. For local marketing ,bamboo baskets padded with dry grass or straw are usually used PACKGING
  93. 93. CA storase , refrigerated /cool and ventilinted facilities and quick transport reduce fruit loss during transit. In low temperature storage (temp.8-10 centigrate and 90% RH), self life is 6 to 8 weeks and in CA storage (temp.10-15 centigrate and oxygen 3-5% and corbon di oxide 5-10%) it 8-10 weeks . International waxing and wex coating are useful for extending storase life of Nagpur mandarin up to 75 days from one week seilf life at ambient temperature . STORAGE:
  94. 94. THANK YOU

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