Pawan Kumar nagar
M.Sc. ( Horti ), Fruit Science
CULTIVATION OF CITRUS
Botanical name : Citrus spp.
Family : Rutaceae
Chromosome no. : 18
Type of fruit : Hesperidium
Edible part : Juicy placenta heirs
Type of pollination : Self pollination (Homogemy)
Rate of Respiration : Non climacteric
Type of bearing habit : Mix bearing
Largest production : 111.47 Tones
Main fruits of thing group : Lime/ Lemon , Mosambi, Orange ,and Mandarin
Advance technology : Tissue culture and Micro propagation
Pre= cooling : Forced air
Transport and storage : 8-10 wreaks
Transport of quality : Waxing
Sensibility to : Refrigeration, Ethylene are color
Origin Citrus spp
China Sweet orange, Mandarin
India Kagzi lime
South- east Pummel, lemon
Centre of origin in citrus spp
Largest producer in the world in citrus spp.
Country Fruit crop
USA Grape fruit, Pummelo
Brazil Sweet orange
India Acid lime
India ranks sixth in the production of citrus fruit in the world.
Other major citrus producing countries are Spain, USA, Israel,
Morocco, South Africa, Japan, Brazil, Turkey and Cuba.
It occupies third position after mango and banana in the
production of fruits in India.
Citrus fruits originated in the tropical and sub tropical regions of
South East Asia, particularly India and China. North East India is
the native place of juice many citrus species.
It is of particular interest because of its high content of vitamin C
and refreshing Juice.
Citrus growing states in India
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya
Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Orissa,
Area, production & productivity of some district of Gujarat state(2013 -14):
Area: Mehsana (10480ha) < Bhavnagar(7150ha) < Anand (5264ha)
Production: Mehsana(117900MT) < Bhavnagar(70655MT) < Banaskatha(65589T)
AREA PRODUCTION PRODUCTIVITY
INDIA 1.O( MT) 11.1 (MT) 10.3(MT/HA)
The five commercially important citrus fruit crops:
Sweet orange C. sinensis
Mandarin C. reticulata
Grapefruit C. paradise
Lemon C. lemon
Lime C. aurantifolium
Pummelo: Citrus maxima/grandish
Citron: Citrus medica
Tahiti lime: C. latifolia
Carnage : - (Trifoliate orange x sweet orange)
Citrumelo :- (Trifoliate orange x grapefruit)
Tangor :- (Mandarin x Sweet orange)
Tangelo:- (Mandarin x grapefruit)
•Citrangors: – (Citrage x Trifoliate orange)
•Cicatrices :– (Citrange x Trifoliate Orange )
Nutrition in different citrus fruits:
Tangerine Lemon Lime
Water (%) 88 86 87 90 86
Protein (%) 44 40 44 27 37
Fat (%) 0.75 0.45 0.8 1.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3
10.3 9.5 10.5 8.2 12.3
They are refreshing and delicious to eat, presses minerals and vitamins
especially a high content vitamin C (varies from 25 to 100 mg/100 mL) .
Fruit juice contains sugar (glucose and sucrose) and acidity (primary citric acid
and a little of organic acid).
Total soluble solid (TSS) in sweet groups varies from 6 to12 % and acidity from
BENEFITS AND USES OF CITRUS:
Contains high amount of flavor it helps to improve the immune
system fighting against forming of free radical causes of tumor and
Strengthens the small blood vessels, protects against Rheumatoid
arthritis and reduces the risk of cell membranes being damage
caused the forming of free radical due to high amount of vitamin C.
Reduces the risk of heart diseases and stroke as it lowers the bad
Citrus peels are rich in pectin, valuable in making jellies,
marmalades, candies, jams and pharmaceutical preparations.
Citrus trees are subtropical in origin and cannot tolerate severe
frosts. Moisture is also a limiting factor in citrus production, when
rainfall is poorly distributed and, it is necessary to supplement
moisture by irrigation to ensure that moisture stress do not suppress
growth and production. Citrus (except lemons) require shorter days
and cooler temperatures in winter for a normal production rhythm.
Flowering should occur almost exclusively in spring, and these
spring flowers should produce a large fruit crop 7 to 12 months
later, depending on the climate.
Citrus trees grow in almost any soil that is well-drained, sufficiently aerated
and allows tap root to penetrate to the desired depth.
Citrus can be grown in a wide range of soil types provided they are well
drained. Fertile, well-aerated soils with a pH of between 6 and 6.5 are ideal.
The growth, development and production of a plant depend on the physical
characteristics of the soil such as drainage, density, texture, water-holding
capacity, structure, soil depth, the homogeneity of the profile, readability, and the
degree to which water can infiltrate the soil. These characteristics differ in the
various soil types.
Age of Plant fertilizers ( g/Plant/Year) FYM
Sixth year bearing tree -
MANURS AND FERTILIZER:
Gujarat state recommend doses manures and fertilizer Acid lime
1st year 10 180 150 100
2nd year 20 360 300 200
3rd year 30 540 450 300
4th year 40 720 600 400
5th year 50 900 750 500
Fertilizer dosage for lime and leman plants are N, P and K @ 500:300:500 g/plant/year.
A fertilizer dosage of 400 g N, 100 g P and K 200 g increased growth , yield and quality
attributes in Nagpur mandarin.
MICRO NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT IN CITRUS
Major micro nutrients ,micro nutrients like zinc , magnesium ,
manganese , iron and copper are also required .
Foliar application of 1.5 kg zinc sulphate , sulphate , 500
magnesium nitrate and 1.5 kg lime in 450 liters of water for
one hectare should be given during May.
Reported that foliar application of 0.5 percent potassium
increasing fruit number , physical and
biochemical qualities in Nagpur mandarin .
Botanical name - Citrus sinensisosbeck
•Hamlin:- Chance seeding from Florida. Early variety, smooth ,medium and apex
•Jaffa:- Mid season variety. Suitable for arid region.
•Pineapple:- Mid season variety.
•Valencia:- late season variety. Fruit medium to large , round or slightly oval type .
•Mosambi:- Most popular in maharatra , Best rootstock- Rangpur lime.
•Satgudi:- Most popular in Andhra Pradesh, Best rootstock- Rough leman.
•Blood Red :- Most popular in North India Best rootstock – karnaa khatt, Jatta
•Shamouti :- Seedless variety, fruit medium to large and sweet rich in flavor.
•Washington naval:- Variety is originated in Brazil and introduced to Washington
•Mudkhed- Bud mutant of Nagpur mandarin.
Botanical name —Citrus reticulateB
•Loose-skinned oranges are commonly designated as mandarins.
• Small tree 2-8m in height.
•Leaves small, Ovate, narrow, elliptical or lancelets usually crenate.
•Fruits depressed-globs, 5-8 cm in diameter, contain tangerine as prominent glycoside.
•Pulp sweet and juicy, orange in colour, seeds polyembryonic.
1.Coorg:- Most important commercial variety in South India.
2. Khasi;- Locally known as Sikkim or kamala mandarin.
3. Nagpur (Ponkan):-Finest mandarin in the world. Grown in Satpuda hill in Maharatra.
4. Emperor and Fuetrelles:- Introduction from Australia.
5.Sutwal:- Introduction from Nepal.
6.Satsuma(seedless) Commercial variety.
•Root pruning is practiced in Central and Southern India to
regulate the flowering.
•Root pruning for regulate the flowering season.
•Mandarin blooming : 3time /year in South and Central India.
•Ambe Bahar: February flowering: Fruit drop more problem.
•Mrig Bahar: June flowering .
•Haste Bahar: October flowering.
•Resting or root exposure prectiesd in deccan region
Mandarins or Tangerines:
C. reticulata - Tangerine, mandarin, or
C. unshiu (Satsuma)
C. deliciosa (Willow leaf)
C. reshni (Cleopatra)
C. nobilis (King)
Satsuma group - commonly grown in Japan, very hardy and cold resistant.
•Fruits are yellow or pale orange E.g., cultivar Emperior, Coorg, Khasi, Nagpur and
Srinagar exclusively grown in India.
Tangerines:-(Citrus tangerine hort. Tanaka)
•Fruit are deep orange-red. E.g. Clementine and dancy grown in Algeria and USA
•Fruit are large (among the largest of the mandarins) and oblate to depressed globose.
Rind thick (very thick for mandarins), moderately adherent but peel able surface
moderately smooth to rough and warty. Deep yellowish-orange to orange at maturity.
•Fruit size is medium-small to medium. Rind medium in thickness. Surface smooth and
glossy but slightly pebbled because of prominent oil glands; color deep orange to
reddish- orange. Seedless to very few seeds. Mature early.
•The special nature and aroma of the oil they contain. the mild and pleasantly aromatic
flavor of the juice the distinctive nature and fragrance of the rind oil and the plump and
almost spherical seeds.
Botanical name- Citrus paradise Macf.
•Grape fruits are closely related to Pummelo.
•It is used as a breakfast fruit, the juice has a characteristic flavor with wild bitterness.
•The plants are spreading with a length of 10-15 m,
Petioles broadly winged. Flowers axillaries- single or in
clusters, 4-5 cm. in diameter, petals white,
•Fruit large, 8-25 cm. in diameter, greenish or pale yellow
when ripe, rind thinner and pulp vesicles smaller than
Most widely planted cultivar is Marsh (Marsh Seedless)
with only 4-8 seeds per fruit. Thompson (Pink Marsh) has
pink flesh and 0.5 seeds per fruit. It is a bud mutant. Bud
mutations of ‘Thompson’ are 'Ruby' and 'Webb'. The
interspecific hybrid and C. reticulata is known as Tangelo
•The lime are represented by Mexican group, Tahiti group and mandarin limes.
Acid lime/Kagzi lime: - C. aurantifolia Swingle.
•Acid lime is the most important acid fruit of tropics.
•It is the tenders of all the citrus fruit.
•Pramalini : Canker tolerant
•Chakradhar: Seedless variety of acid lime
•Sai sarbati : Tolerant to tristiza and canker
•Jai devi : Pleasant Aroma.
Tahiti (Persian) Lime: - (C. latifolia Tanaka).
•This group differs in many characters from the true limes of
the Mexican group. The trees are larger, more spreading and
cold-resistant, nearly thorn less.
•Rangpur lime :- (C. limonia Osbeck)-
•Rangpur lime is indigenous to India and commonly grown for
Sweet lime-(C. limetoides Tanaka): –
•They are similar to Tahiti limes, but sweet.
•It is a valuable root stock for dry lands. The fruit may be used in making marmalade.
The trees are spiny, spreading 5-15 m. in height.
•Leaves large, petioles broadly winged, flowers large, borne single or in clusters, petals
cream coloured, stamen, 20-25 Fruit very large globose or pear shaped, 10-30 cm. in
diameter, thick peel, pale yellow or pink with sweetish juice, mono embryonic seeds.
•Important cultivars are Walter, Chakaya, Large red fleshed. Large white fleshed and
Lemon :-(C. limon Burm)
Varieties are classed on the basis of fruit and tree characters into 4 groups:
(i) Eureka group
(ii) Lisbon group
(iii) Anomalous group and
(iv) Sweet lemon
Eureka lemon :-
•The trees of Eureka lemon are medium size, spreading, open, almost
•The Eureka is a heavy yielder and begins early in age.
•The fruits normally mature from August onwards in the Punjab.
•Large and vigorous trees, spreading, shoot upright, numerous, medium
•Fruit colour lemon yellow, surface smooth, and shape ellipsoid to
oblong, size medium.
•Pulp fine-grained, pale greenish-yellow, juice abundant, clear, very acid
quality excellent seed number 0-10.
•It has medium size trees, hardy, vigorous spreading and dropping almost to the ground with an irregular
•Fruit oblong lemon, yellow, smooth, base rounded, rind thin, axis hollow, segments 10-13,
pulp light yellow and coarse, juicy.
•The fruit ripens mainly from November to January.
Hill lemon (Galgal):- C. pseudolimon Tanaka
•It has tall, hardy, vigorous, upright and spreading trees with an irregular and loose crown. The fruits ripen
form October to December.
Citron:- (Citrus medica L.)
•Citron is raised by seeds and stem cutting is Uttar Pradesh, Punjab.
•Citron is used as medicine and ornamental purpose.
•3 m high shrubs or small trees with stout spines.
•Leaves elliptical, serrate, petiole short wingless and not articulated with lamina Inflorescence raceme, 5
petioles tinged pink, stamens 30-40. Fruits large, oblong, 10-20 cm long, peel usually bumpy, yellow, very
thick having sour taste.
Propagation is still practiced in the case of
acid limes and to produce rootstocks for In India
citrus trees are propagated both by seeds and
vegetative means. Seed budding purposes. It
produces true to type seedlings i.e.
polyembroynic seedlings. Shield or T budding is
the most commonly used method of vegetative
propagation. Budding is generally done either in
spring or in September.
Rising of seedling:
•Freshly extracted seeds are shown on well prepared nursery bed
at the distance of 20 x l0 cm and 1.5 to2cm deep.
•Germination completes within 3 weeks.
•The apogamic seedlings are identical to the parent in growth and
•Seedlings are ready for transplanting 6 to 9 months after sowing.
•Seeds are sown in seedbed during July- August.
•Must be compatible with the scion variety allowing good growth,
long good yield and good fruit qualities.
•Seeds must be readily available, preferably high poly-embryonic
to get uniform seedlings and with high percentage and
•Must be adaptable to a wide range of soil depth, texture, structure,
pH, salinity, moisture, and nutrient supply. Must be resistant to soil-
borne diseases, such as Phytophthora gummosis.
Rough lemon Suitable for light (sandy) and infertile soil,
resistant to Tristeza virus. But it is most
susceptible to cold and induces poor quality
Sour orange Suitable for silty, clayey and poorly aerated
soils , improves the fruit quality and has high
sugar and acid content, improve the fruit size
Cleopatra mandarin Suitable for heavy soils
Trifoliate orange Cold tolerant, improves the fruit quality and
has High sugar and acid content, hasten fruit
maturity and the fruit size. It also induces
precocity. Resistant to Citrus nematode
(Tylenchulus semipenetrans). It is ideal for
high density plantations
In this method of propagation, a bud from desired variety (scion) is
transferred on the rootstock. With an objective of utilizing the
vigorous root system of the rootstock and combining the best
characters of both. A plump, but not too elongated bud is selected from
the middle section of the scion shoot. It is removed by making an
incision around the bud with the help of sharp budding knife. On the
selected rootstock T-shaped incision is made just enough to
accommodate the bud. The bud is inserted in the incision and tied with
a strip of plastic film in such a way that the tip of the eye remains
open. Budding should be preferably done as low as possible on the
Bud wood should be taken from parent trees which:
•Hold a record satisfactory production over a period of a t least 5 years.
•Are free from systematic diseases.
•Have true-type fruit characters.
Lay-out of citrus orchards:
•Before planting an orchard it is advisable to provide irrigation facilities such as
pipelines or oncrete canals. At present the dragline sprinkler irrigation system and the
basin system for cflood irrigation are regarded as the most suitable for citrus orchards.
•The square and rectangular planting systems applicable to citrus orchards with the
exception of the square system which is preferable where sprinkler irrigation is used,
the rectangular system is at present above other systems because the smaller planting
distance in the tree rows increases the number of trees per hectare
a. Orange : Normal spacing - 6 m x 6 m
.Plant population - 275 / ha
b. Sweet Lime : Normal spacing - 5 m x 5 m .Plant
population - 400 /ha
c. Lime/Lemon: Normal spacing - 4.5 m x 4.5 m
.Plant population - 494 / ha
•In very light soils, spacing may be 4 m x 4 m. In fertile
soils and in high rainfall areas spacing may be 5 m x 5m.
Pruning means removing diseased and
dead twigs, branches, and leaves which
are unproductive and are less exposed
to sunlight. Best time for pruning is
during the dry season or after harvest.
Acid lime–acid lime plants are trained to modified
central leader system with a smooth trunk
up to 70 to 100 cm height from ground level and
with 4-5 well spaced branches.
July-Sept. 30 % in Oct.-Jan. & 10 % in summer. During the first 6 months
the trees should be irrigated twice a week and thereafter every 7 days.
The irrigation basin should be gradually enlarged as the tree grows, so
that it is always slightly bigger than the drip line of the tree.
Be careful not to damage the fine superficial feeder roots. The water
required depends on weather conditions.
Saturated and poorly-drained conditions could result in root rot, which
will shorten the life of the trees. A lack of moisture during October to
January could result in acid fruit.
If a sprinkler is used, about 30 mm of water must be applied every 7
days, depending on the weather.4th year. Fruit take 6 months to mature 60
% in .
The fruits mature in six months after flowering. In Gujarat,
about 60 per cent of the total crop is harvested during July to
September, 30 percent from October to January and 10 percent
from February to May.
In north India, the main harvesting seasons in the months of
Greenish yellow fruits picked by hook.6-8 pickings/season.
Yield of citrus trees vary with so many
factors like species , variety , location,
age, management practices, root stock
used etc. Average yield of different
citrus cultivation is given below.
Insects and Pests,
Citrus trips: Thrips nilgiriensis
Symptom of damage:
Nymphs and adults lacerate the leaf tissue and suck the
sap from fruits, Leaf curling, Ring like appearance on
the fruit ,Irregular mottled patches on rind
Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts.
Spraying with systemic insecticides at flush growth periods.
Spray malathion 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.036% or
carbaryl 0.1% .
Encourage the activities natural enemies such as Syrphids
Scale: Icerya purchasi
Symptoms of damage:
Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves.
Honey dew excretion Development of sooty mould
Spray dormant oil in late winter.
Apply mixture of manure compost tea, molasses, and citrus oil.
Garlic-pepper tea also helps.
Natural predators usually keep this insect in check.
Control ants and dust which can give the scale a competitive
Field release of Vidalia and Australian ladybugs
Cirrus butterfly: Papilio demolious, P. Polytes, P.helenus
Symptom of damage:
Caterpillars prefers on light green tender leaves.
Feeding voraciously and leaving only the mid-ribs.
Severe infestation the entire tree gets defoliated.
Spraying of monocrotophos [Nuvacron] 1.5ml,
fenvalerate 0.2ml or dimethoate [Rogor] 2ml mixed in a
litre of water at weekly intervals at the time of
emergence of new flush.
Spray application of NSKE 5%.
Citrus psylla (psyllid, Diaphorinacitri)
Both nymphs and adults suck sap from the plants
and injection of toxic saliva.
Nymphs - are more destructive, crowd on the
terminal shoots, buds and tender leaves.
Excrete honeydew - growth of sooty moulds.
Affected plant parts dry and die away.
It is transmits the "Greening" virus.
Symptoms of damage
Spray Malathion 0.05% or
monocrotophos 0.036% or Carbaryl 0.1%
or methyl parathion 0.05%.
Encourage the activities natural enemies
such as Syrphids and Chrysopids.
Fruit sucking moth: S.N -Otheris maternal
Fig. Fruit sucking moth
Adult pierce the fruit and suck the juice Rottening at the feeding
site fruit dropping
Symptom of damage
Destroy the weed host Tinosporacardifolia and cocculespendules.
Bag the fruit with polythene bag (500 gauges).
Apply smoke to prevent adult moth.
Trap crop – growing tomato crop in orchards to attract the adult moth
Poison bait-dilute suspension of fermented molasses and malathion 0.05%
(50 EC at 1ml/lit)
Use light trap or food lure to attract moths.
Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the cells
of tender branches and fruits turn pale colour Affected
plant parts - wilt and dry up. large amounts of honey
dew excrete - sooty mould fungus. Fungus covers the
foliage and fruits.
In severe infestation the flowers do not form fruits.
Mealy bugs: Planoccus citri
Symptom of damage
Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, twigs and stems.
Debark branches and apply methyl parathion paste.
Use sticky trap (5cm length) on fruit bearing shoots
Spray dichlorvas 0.2% in combination with fish oil rosin soap 25g/lit.
Single soil application of aldicarb 10G at 50g/tree at the time of pruning.
Spraying of trees with methyl parathion 2ml or monocrotophos 1.5ml per /lit
Soil treatment with chlorophyriphos apply on the near the tree trunk.
Spraying of trees with acephate, methomyl, or chlorpyriphos.
Field release of Australian lady bird beetle Cryptoleamus montrouizeri 10 per
Diseases of citrus
Sooty Mould : Capnodium citri
The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug and
scale insects are not controlled efficiently. Black velvety coating
on the leaves, twigs and fruits is the characteristic of disease.
The coating is superficial and can be pulled of easily from leaf.
Spraying of Web table sulfur (0.2%)+ Metacid (0.1%)+ gum
acacia (0.3%) in the month of May.
Foot rot gummosis
The symptoms appear as yellowing of leaves, followed by
cracking of bark and profuse gumming on the surface. The main
source of infection is infected planting material.
As a result of severe gumming, the bark becomes completely
rotten and the tree dries owing to girdling effect.
Painting 1 m of the stem above the
ground level with Bordeaux helps in
controlling the disease.
spraying and drenching with Ridomil
MZ 72@ 2.75 g/l or Aliette (2.5 g/l) is
effective in controlling the disease
The aphid (Toxoptera citricida) transmits Tristeza virus
disease. The symptoms begin with the die back of small
branches and twigs, yellowing of leaves and heavy bearing
Tristeza is also called a quick decline disease.
Tristeza Virus Disease
The best method to check this disease is to control the
aphid population by application of insecticides in the
nursery and also in plantations.
Exocortis is characterized by drying narrow
strips of outer bark, which tend to separate
from the inner live-bark.
The outer bark slowly peels off as it withers.
The affected trees show lack of vigorus
resulting in dwarfing.
The disease can be prevented by the use of
virus-free bud wood.
Grafting tools should be disinfected after
pruning branches from diseased trees.
Scab: (Elsinoe fawcetti)
The lesions in early stages appear on the underside of the
leaves as small semi-translucent dots.
In later stages leaves often become distorted, wrinkled,
stunted and deformed On the fruit, lesions consist of corky
projections, which often break into scabs.
The diseased leaves, twigs and fruits
should be collected and destroyed.
Spraying of Bordeaux mixture or Blitox
(0.3%) is quite effective.
Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas citri)
It is the most serious bacterial disease.
The disease symptoms appear on leaves, branches
and fruit stalks. Canker lesions appear as yellowish
spots, surrounded by a characteristic yellow halo.
The market value of the canker-affected fruits is very
Three sprays of Streptocycline 100 ppm (10 g of
Streptocycline + 5 g Copper Sulphate in 100 liters
water) or Blitox (0.3%) or neem cake suspension (1
kg in 20 litres water) during February, October and
December can control the disease.
Disorders in citrus
Granulation is a condition in which the juice sacs shrivel
because of gel formation.
It is often associated with fast growth.
It occurs more in large fruit, on young trees, in humid climates
and on trees growing on sandy soils.
The causes attributed to fruit drop in citrus are lack of
fertilization, mechanical shock, insects, disease, high
temperature, rainfall, and defective irrational practices.
The most pronounced stages of fruit drop occurs when
the fruits are at marble stage.
On the onset of hot summer weather during May-June the
second wave of intense fruit drop occurs while pre-harvest
drop occurs during ripening period, which lasts from
The method of control depends upon the causes of the drop
and the variety of the fruit.
In order to reduce the pre-harvest drop, NAA (10 ppm) is
sprayed from August till October at monthly interval.
Fruit cracking might be caused by great climatic and soil
It has been speculated that internal pressure developed by the
pulp causes the rind to split.
Regular application of fertilizer and water to provide Smooth
uninterrupted growth might reduce the problem.
Greening of citrus:
This disease is spread through grafting and citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri).
Affected trees are stunted with pronounced leaf and fruit drop .
The fruits of affected trees remain mostly green even on maturity and the
fruits, which are directly exposed to sun show a conspicuous yellow patch on
the rind surface.
Disease fruits are valueless owing to small size, distortion, low juice and
POST HARVEST MANANEMNT
After harvested ,fruits are washed.
Dipping fruits in fungicidal solutions- bavistin (0.1%) or
benlate (500ppm) helps to reduce spoilage in storage.
Retardants like GA (100-200ppm) or calcium
nitrate(1%)delay ripening and increaing shelf life of fruits.
In some places, waxing and polishing with soft brushes are
done to substitute natural wax coat that may be lost in
Fruits are then graded according to their size
In export market, grades for oranges and
mandrins are Extra ,Special and Commeecail
Fruits are wrapped in thin paper shrink films for
controlling moisture losses and packed in wooden
boxes or corrugated fiber board cartons for distant
For local marketing ,bamboo baskets padded with
dry grass or straw are usually used
CA storase , refrigerated /cool and ventilinted facilities and quick transport
reduce fruit loss during transit.
In low temperature storage (temp.8-10 centigrate and 90% RH), self life is 6
to 8 weeks and in CA storage (temp.10-15 centigrate and oxygen 3-5% and
corbon di oxide 5-10%) it 8-10 weeks .
International waxing and wex coating are useful for extending storase life of
Nagpur mandarin up to 75 days from one week seilf life at ambient