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Advanced production technology of litchi

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Advanced production technology of litchi

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Advanced production technology of litchi

  1. 1. Advance production technology of Submitted by- Pawan Kumar Nagar M. Sc. (Pomology) Reg. No. 04-26902015
  2. 2. LITCHI  Botanical Name : Litchi chinensis  Origin : South China  Order : Sapindales  Family : Sapindaceae  Subfamily : Sapindoideae  Inflorescence : Panicle  Chromosome no. : 2n =30  Edible part : Aril  Type of pollination : cross pollination  Mechanism of pollinate o : Insect  Growth curve : Double sigmoid
  3. 3. Plant Description:HEIGHT- less than 19 m (62 ft) The bark is grey-black, the branches a brownish-red ROOT- shallow rooted Leaves-compound with leaflets in 2-4 pairs Flowers -small, yellowish-white Inflorescence- compound raceme Fruit type- nut, contain:- aril- 70-86% peel-8-15% seed-4-18% Edible portion- fleshly aril Pollination system: cross pollinated crop
  4. 4. Nutritional value  Energy : 276 kJ (66 kcal)  Carbohydrates :16.5 g  Dietary fiber : 1.3 g  Vitamin C : 72 mg (87%)  Fat : 0.4 g  Protein : 0.8 g  Calcium : 5 mg (1%)  Magnesium : 10 mg (3%)  Phosphorus : 31 mg (4%)
  5. 5.  `China` is the biggest producer of litchi in the world. India rank second in the the world(Area & Production). In India litchi is grown on large scale in Bihar. State rank – `Bihar`(area & production) `West Bengal`(productivity) AREA & PRODUCTION
  6. 6. Litchi growing state
  7. 7. State Area (Ha.) Production (MT) Productivity (MT/Ha.) Bihar 27.7 221.7 8.0 West Bengal 5.9 61.4 10.5 Assam 4.1 18.7 4.6 Punjab 1.2 11.6 10.0 Orissa 3.5 10.2 2.9 Tripura 1.7 9.0 5.1 Jharkhand 1.5 7.5 5.0 Uttaranchal 7.8 7.5 1.0 Nagaland 0.8 4.0 5.1 Others 4.0 4.5 - TOTAL 58.2 356.2 6.1 State-wise Area, Production & Productivity of Litchi
  8. 8. ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENT  Litchi is subtropical fruit  Bearing tree is much affected by HOT WIND causing fruit cracking  Alluvial soil with good drainage is suitable for litchi orchard.  It can grow in wide range of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. SOIL  The temperature should not go beyond 40.5 0C in summer and below freezing point in winter TEMPERATURE
  9. 9. VARIETIES EARLY-dehradoon(fruit have an attractive colour), Early badam (seedless variety) , muzzafarpur, shahi MEDIUM- rose santed, Mclean LATE- seedless late(late bedana), calcttia, china
  10. 10. PROPAGATION  Through Seed  Through vegetative. Litchi seed loses its viability with in 4-5days of its extraction from the fruit. The trees raised from seeds are very slow to come into bearing and may take 10-12 years to come to bearing.  In vegetative propagation technique, litchi can be propagated through cutting, budding, layering and grafting.  AIR LAYERING(in the month June-July) is the Commercial method of propagation. SEED VEGETATIVE
  11. 11. PROCESS OF AIR LAYERING
  12. 12. Details Usual Practice Planting Time • August – September • Planting may be done in spring and early summer if irrigation facility is available Planting Distance • 10×8m. • Average no. of plants- 200 per ha. Size of pits • 1x1x1 m (pits are dug a few weeks prior to planting) Filling of pits • Pits are left undisturbed initially for a period of 15-20 days. • Filled with top soil mixed with manures and fertilizers @ 20-25 kg FYM, 2 kg bone meal and 300 g muriate of potash per pit. Planting • Square system of planting is usually followed. • A small hole is made at the centre of the pit and the desired material is planted. Water is applied immediately after planting Planting
  13. 13. Age of the plant (in years) Manure/Fertilizer applied (per plant/year in kg) FYM CAN (Calcium ammonium nitrate) Super phosphate Muriate of potash 1-3 10 - 20 0.3-1.00 0.2-0.6 0.05-0.15 4-6 25 - 40 1.0-2.0 0.75-1.25 0.20-0.30 7-10 40 – 50 2.0-3.0 1.50-2.0 0.35-0.45 Above 10 60 3.5 2.25 0.60
  14. 14. Methods- Basin or ring system of irrigation is recommended. Two irrigations at an interval of 45 – 60 days during winter months is required for bearing litchi trees. The trees are irrigated from flowering onwards until the completion of the post-harvest flush. However, the growers normally irrigate the tree at 7 to 10 days interval from panicle emergence to fruit harvest or until the post- harvest flush appears Irrigation
  15. 15. Intercultural Operations Mulching- The farmyard manure, compost or straw may be used for soil mulching. Cutting down of tall growing weeds in the orchard and spreading them over the soil is another method of mulching the soil. Training & Pruning- After planting, a certain amount of pruning is often necessary to give proper shape to the litchi plant Once the desired shape is achieved, no pruning is usually necessary, except the removal of dead or diseased branches
  16. 16. Weed control Weeds compete with the trees for water and nutrients. Mulches used include wheat, barley or rice straw, hay, sorghum stubble and similar materials. Reduce costs by growing mulch material between the rows for later slashing.
  17. 17. Maturity index colour change to deep red flattened of tubercles smoothening of epicarp Stages of maturity
  18. 18. Harvesting  Depending on the tree age there are four growth phases in litchi plants  young non-bearing stage (1-3 years),  young bearing stage (6-10 years),  junior adult bearing stage (11-20 years)  senior adult bearing stage (21 years and above).  Harvesting is usually done in May and June.  The fruits are harvested in bunches along with a portion of the branch and a few leaves.
  19. 19. 80-150 kg fruits/tree. Storage temp:- 0 -1 °c with 80-85% RH. Stogae life:- 3-4 weeks. Grade used in litchi:-extra class, grade-I, grade-II. Yield and storage
  20. 20. s.r no Disease name Causal organism symptom management 1 Fruit fly Bactocera dorsalis 5 gm. trichloroform with 10 ltrs of water 2 Fruit borer Cryptophlebia illepida fenvolarate @ 0.01% 3 Eriophide mite Acaria litchi Pruning and apply spinosyn. 4 Bark eating caterpillar Inderbella tetragonis Plugging the hole with formalin 5 Red rust algae Sulphur spray 3 times in autumn and spring. Pests of litchi
  21. 21. Physiological disorders of litchi s.R no Disorder name Causing by symptom management 1 Little leaf Zn deficiency Aplly ZnSo4 2 Fruit crack Excess water with high temperature Irrigate properly 3 Chicken tongue Embryo abortion Properly pollinate the plant 4 Sun burn Direct exposure of sun light Practice of sod culture
  22. 22. Uses of litchi fruit
  23. 23. THANK YOU http://WWW.AMN.SITE90.NET REFERENCES:  Handbook of Horticulture by K. L. Chadha  Management of Horticultural crops by Singh H. P.  Fruit crops by T. Radha and Mathew  Instant Horticulture Edition 11 by S. N. Guptha  Fruits by Ranjeet singh

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