Advance production technology of
Pawan Kumar Nagar
M. Sc. (Pomology)
Reg. No. 04-26902015
Botanical Name : Litchi chinensis
Origin : South China
Order : Sapindales
Family : Sapindaceae
Subfamily : Sapindoideae
Inflorescence : Panicle
Chromosome no. : 2n =30
Edible part : Aril
Type of pollination : cross pollination
Mechanism of pollinate o : Insect
Growth curve : Double sigmoid
Description:HEIGHT- less than 19 m (62 ft)
The bark is grey-black, the branches a
ROOT- shallow rooted
Leaves-compound with leaflets in 2-4 pairs
Flowers -small, yellowish-white
Inflorescence- compound raceme
Fruit type- nut, contain:- aril- 70-86%
Edible portion- fleshly aril
Pollination system: cross pollinated crop
Energy : 276 kJ (66 kcal)
Carbohydrates :16.5 g
Dietary fiber : 1.3 g
Vitamin C : 72 mg (87%)
Fat : 0.4 g
Protein : 0.8 g
Calcium : 5 mg (1%)
Magnesium : 10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus : 31 mg (4%)
`China` is the biggest producer of litchi in the world.
India rank second in the the world(Area & Production).
In India litchi is grown on large scale in Bihar.
State rank – `Bihar`(area & production)
AREA & PRODUCTION
Bihar 27.7 221.7 8.0
West Bengal 5.9 61.4 10.5
Assam 4.1 18.7 4.6
Punjab 1.2 11.6 10.0
Orissa 3.5 10.2 2.9
Tripura 1.7 9.0 5.1
Jharkhand 1.5 7.5 5.0
Uttaranchal 7.8 7.5 1.0
Nagaland 0.8 4.0 5.1
Others 4.0 4.5 -
TOTAL 58.2 356.2 6.1
State-wise Area, Production & Productivity of
Litchi is subtropical fruit
Bearing tree is much affected by HOT
WIND causing fruit cracking
Alluvial soil with good drainage is
suitable for litchi orchard.
It can grow in wide range of soils
from light sandy to heavy clay.
The temperature should not go
beyond 40.5 0C in summer and
below freezing point in winter
EARLY-dehradoon(fruit have an attractive colour),
Early badam (seedless variety) ,
MEDIUM- rose santed, Mclean
LATE- seedless late(late bedana), calcttia, china
Litchi seed loses its viability with in 4-5days of its extraction from the fruit.
The trees raised from seeds are very slow to come into bearing and may
take 10-12 years to come to bearing.
In vegetative propagation technique, litchi can be propagated through
cutting, budding, layering and grafting.
AIR LAYERING(in the month June-July) is the Commercial method of
Details Usual Practice
Planting Time • August – September
• Planting may be done in spring and early summer if irrigation facility is available
Planting Distance • 10×8m.
• Average no. of plants- 200 per ha.
Size of pits • 1x1x1 m (pits are dug a few weeks prior to planting)
Filling of pits • Pits are left undisturbed initially for a period of 15-20 days.
• Filled with top soil mixed with manures and fertilizers @ 20-25 kg FYM, 2 kg
bone meal and 300 g muriate of potash per pit.
Planting • Square system of planting is usually followed.
• A small hole is made at the centre of the pit and the desired material is planted.
Water is applied immediately after planting
Age of the plant
Manure/Fertilizer applied (per plant/year in kg)
FYM CAN (Calcium
Super phosphate Muriate of potash
1-3 10 - 20 0.3-1.00 0.2-0.6 0.05-0.15
4-6 25 - 40 1.0-2.0 0.75-1.25 0.20-0.30
7-10 40 – 50 2.0-3.0 1.50-2.0 0.35-0.45
Above 10 60 3.5 2.25 0.60
Methods- Basin or ring system of irrigation is recommended.
Two irrigations at an interval of 45 – 60 days during winter months
is required for bearing litchi trees.
The trees are irrigated from flowering onwards until the completion
of the post-harvest flush.
However, the growers normally irrigate the tree at 7 to 10 days
interval from panicle emergence to fruit harvest or until the post-
harvest flush appears
Mulching- The farmyard
manure, compost or straw may
be used for soil mulching.
Cutting down of tall growing
weeds in the orchard and
spreading them over the soil is
another method of mulching the
Training & Pruning- After
planting, a certain amount of
pruning is often necessary to
give proper shape to the litchi
Once the desired shape is
achieved, no pruning is usually
necessary, except the removal
of dead or diseased branches
Weeds compete with the trees for water and nutrients.
Mulches used include wheat, barley or rice straw, hay,
sorghum stubble and similar materials.
Reduce costs by growing mulch material between the rows
for later slashing.
colour change to deep red
flattened of tubercles
smoothening of epicarp
Stages of maturity
Depending on the tree age there are four
growth phases in litchi plants
young non-bearing stage (1-3 years),
young bearing stage (6-10 years),
junior adult bearing stage (11-20 years)
senior adult bearing stage (21 years and
Harvesting is usually done in May and June.
The fruits are harvested in bunches along with a portion of the branch
and a few leaves.
80-150 kg fruits/tree.
Storage temp:- 0 -1 °c with 80-85% RH.
Stogae life:- 3-4 weeks.
Grade used in litchi:-extra class, grade-I, grade-II.
Yield and storage
s.r no Disease name Causal organism symptom management
1 Fruit fly Bactocera dorsalis 5 gm. trichloroform
with 10 ltrs of water
2 Fruit borer Cryptophlebia illepida fenvolarate @ 0.01%
3 Eriophide mite Acaria litchi Pruning and apply
4 Bark eating caterpillar Inderbella tetragonis Plugging the hole
5 Red rust algae Sulphur spray 3
times in autumn and
Pests of litchi
Physiological disorders of litchi
s.R no Disorder name Causing by symptom management
1 Little leaf Zn deficiency Aplly ZnSo4
2 Fruit crack Excess water with high temperature Irrigate properly
3 Chicken tongue Embryo abortion Properly pollinate the
4 Sun burn Direct exposure of sun light Practice of sod
Handbook of Horticulture by K. L. Chadha
Management of Horticultural crops by Singh H. P.
Fruit crops by T. Radha and Mathew
Instant Horticulture Edition 11 by S. N. Guptha
Fruits by Ranjeet singh