A statistical study of thousands of companies
identified several hundred that have been good
enough to qualify as truly exceptional.
It also revealed that their strategic choices over
decades of success have been consistent with
three elementary rules.
1. Better before cheaper—compete on
differentiators other than price.
2. Revenue before cost—prioritize
increasing revenue over reducing costs.
3. There are no other rules—so change
anything that must to follow Rules 1 and
With few exceptions, the best companies
behave as though these principles guide
them through all their important decisions
From acquisitions to diversification to
resource allocation to pricing.
More than 25,000 companies that have
traded on U.S. exchanges at any time from
1966 to 2010.
Measured performance using return on
Two categories of superior results:
Miracle Workers fell in the top 10% of ROA for all
Long Runners fell in the top 20% to 40%
A total of 174 companies qualified as
Miracle Workers, and
170 qualified as Long Runners.
Beyond Truisms (Cont…)
Was customer focus the key? Nope.
Innovation? Risk taking?
All these factors were associated with
great, good, or average performance in
pretty much equal measure.
Companies could be successful only if
The right deals,
Pursued the right innovations,
Took the right risk in the right sorts of
But those are truisms, and thus as useless
as the advice business people so typically
get form what might be called the “Do the
Right Thing School of Management”:
Get the right people on the bus!
Have a clear strategy!
Give customers what they want!
According to the study, “Competitive
positions built on greater differentiation
through brand, style or reliability are more
likely to drive exceptional performance
than positions built on lower prices.”
From the study it has been identified that
Miracle Workers typically rely much more
on gross margins than on lower costs
for their profitability advantage, whereas
Long Runners are as likely to depend on
a cost advantage as on a gross-margin
Werner Enterprises, the Long Runner in the
trucking trio, expanded in both scale (serving
essentially the entire continental U.S.) and scope
(providing a wide range of services.)
P.A.M. Transportation Services (PAM), the
Average Joe of the three, focused on a narrower
range of customers and services than Werner
did, but sought high volume through lower
Following the Rules (Mostly)
As demand outstripped supply in the
industry, PAM found itself short of drivers and
burdened with idle assets.
To restore profitability, the company switched to
contract trucking, choosing to target the auto
When exceptional companies abandon non-
price positions, their performance typically
weakens. Maytag, for example, is one of the
Miracle Workers, but only in one distinct era.
Following the Rules (Mostly)
However, the study don’t mean to suggest
that a company can afford to ignore its
relative price position, any more than one
that competes through low prices can
afford to ignore product or service quality.
The study means only that in most
cases, outstanding performance is caused
by greater value and not by lower price.
For all its virtues, a non price position isn’t
with-out danger. Typically, a company that
competes on dimensions other than price
must constantly battle rivals that have
figured out its formula.
Keep an eye out for disruptive threats.
Charging higher prices in pursuit of higher
gross margins is what creates opportunities in
less-demanding market segments and
provides oxygen for would-be disruptors with
cheaper, good-enough products.
But disruption is now well enough understood
that it’s possible to determine pretty
accurately when alternative solutions have
disruptive potential and warrant rearguard
Companies must not only create value but
also capture it in the form of profits.
An overwhelming margin, exceptional
companies garner superior profits by
achieving higher revenue than their rivals,
through either higher prices or greater
Very rarely is cost leadership a driver of
Range of contexts in which companies have
built businesses on this (higher prices can
lead to higher profits) idea, was impressive.
As an example, the U.S. discounter Family
Dollar Stores, a Miracle Worker, which has
bested the legends in discount retailing since
Many of the company’s customers are poor, it’s
perhaps surprising that Family Dollar’s success
has resulted from higher prices, which it can
charge because it offers superior convenience
Smaller stores are in locations that are easier
for customers to get to, and many shoppers
buy small amounts of a wide variety of goods.
Running these stores is unavoidably costly—in
fact, the company tolerates higher costs and
lower efficiency than would many of its larger
But its consistently higher prices have
enabled Family Dollar to enjoy a gross-
margin advantage and, consequently,
superior ROA for decades.
For eight of the nine Miracle Workers in
our sample, revenue was the main driver
The ninth is the Pennsylvania-based
grocery chain Weis Markets, which
competes on price and drives profitability
through lower costs; more on this company
Six of these eight relied mainly on higher
prices to achieve their revenue levels; the
other two relied largely or entirely on
Merck followed the better-before-cheaper rule,
refusing to compete on price relative to the
alternatives in global markets.
But the lower price ceilings in those markets
prevented the company from using gross
margins as its primary source of advantage.
Higher volume allowed Merck to achieve
superior profitability through better asset
utilization than Eli Lillyb enjoyed, which was the
main reason for the company’s higher ROA.
The first two rules should be on the table.
Saw wide variation among companies of all
Couldn’t find consistent patterns of how all
the factors mattered.
Takes enormous creativity to remain true to
the first two rules.
Changing the approaches towards the
critical determinants would still keep the
The absence of other rules doesn’t give you
permission to shut down your thinking.
For example, Abercrombie & Fitch has stayed
on top of a constantly changing retail clothing
Brand-intensive value and a higher- price-
driven profitability formula.
A&F has avoided promotions and steep
A&F resisted following other clothing
companies down the discount path
In pharmaceuticals and semiconductors
The top performers have shifted from
domestic to global distribution.
When these changes have led to superior
profitability, it has been because they
contributed to greater volume more than to
Necessary relationship between how you
create value and how you capture it.
Nonsensical for companies that compete
through lower prices
Non price positions, as we’ve said, are
typically associated with higher prices or
Research shows that companies with
lower- price positions tend to rely on lower
costs to achieve profitability.
The grocery chain Weis.
Miracle Worker was decades ahead of its
competitors in introducing house-label
The top 10% of ROA make Weis a clear
exception to our Rules 1 and 2.
Weis’s advantage began to slip in the
1980s and since 1996 it has not been in
the top 10% even once.
The bottom line is that if you want to beat
the odds, you should concentrate on
creating value using better before cheaper
and on capturing value with revenue
Get a clear picture of a company’s
competitive position and profitability formula.
Comparing with rival firm is more favorable
than comparing with past performance
because today success is not success for
The comparison can be done through
Benchmarking under single and various
dimensions including cross-functional
Following questions provide the idea
whether executives of company:
• Justify an acquisition in terms of economies of
• Are they talking about an opportunity to expand
and thereby realize the growth potential of a non-
price position that company has already earned in
the markets it currently serves?
Hence understanding the rules can be
useful to antidote the to intuition.
An understanding of the rules can be a useful
antidote to intuition
Whether that takes the form of a single
leader’s vision or the collective hunch of a top
management team (which often comes with a
veneer of post hoc rationalization).
When situations are muddy and the data
ambiguous, executives need rules to help
ensure that their interpretation of the data is
more likely to lead to the outcomes they seek.
The rules are especially powerful when it comes to
dealing with those financial ratios that govern so
many lives and lead so often to pathological
consequences which are as follows:
• Cash flow
• Return on investment,
• Economic value added
It is hard because some of the numerator of
income and the denominator is some measure of
When customers are no longer willing to pay for
company’s latest innovation and income starts to
decline, it’s too easy to try to make those ratios go
up by shrinking the denominator.