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Workshop on Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture
Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 7–11 December 2013
Krish...
2 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
Abbreviation
BCR – Benefit cost Ratio
DP – Demon...
3 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
Executive summary
The green revolution made Indi...
4 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
1. Introduction
The S. M . Sehgal Foundation has...
5 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
Social
Lack of
leadership ,
participation
and
ow...
6 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
3.4 Implementation
Problem GP solution provided ...
7 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013
4. Project Impacts
4.1 Agriculture Impacts throu...
The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study
8 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgricul...
The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study
9 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgricul...
The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study
10 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgricu...
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  1. 1. Workshop on Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 7–11 December 2013 Krishi Jyoti Project A holistic development approach for improving agricultural green productivity in Mewat. Haryana. India Pawan Kumar Program Leader – Agricultural Development S M sehgal Foundation Plot No.: 34, Sector: 44, Gurgaon, Haryana 122002. India Phone: +91-124-4744105 www.irrad.org
  2. 2. 2 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 Abbreviation BCR – Benefit cost Ratio DP – Demonstrated practices EM- Effective Microorganism FP- Farmers Practices FG- Farmers Group GP- Green Productivity ICT- Information and communication technology ICRISAT- International centre for research in semi arid tropics IRRAD- Institute of rural research and development IWRM- Integrated water resource management KJ- Krishi Jyoti KL- Kilo litre NGO- Non government organization PPP- Public private partnerships PRI-Panchayati raj Institutions SHG- Self help group SMC-School management committee VLI- Village level institution VHSC- Village health and sanitation committee WHO- World health organization
  3. 3. 3 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 Executive summary The green revolution made India self sufficient in food production, simultaneously it promote chemicalization in agriculture that resulted in to constant productivity of major crops in past five years. The gap between demand and supply for food is widening and there is a need for a new revolution in agriculture called “green productivity” which increases crop productivity using process which is environmentally sustainable, economically viable and socially acceptable. Green productivity is more important in rainfed area like Mewat district of Haryana state where agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood. The major challenges in agriculture in Mewat are low productivity, poor quality soil, deforestation and limited water availability. “Krishi Jyoti’, - a joint initiative of IRRAD and Mosaic India Pvt Ltd, started in 2008 with two villages and extended to 30 villages. Krishi Jyoti applied some green productivity concept in agriculture and water management and improved the livelihoods of small and marginal farmers Village holistic development approach is used in the project that improves crop productivity and soil quality, increase access, availability and quality of water for drinking and irrigation. The adoption of green productivity measures such as integrated nutrient and pest management, composting techniques, sprinkler and drip irrigation techniques increases crop productivity by 46% in wheat, 47.61% in pearl millet and 32.56% in mustard. The benefit cost ratio between traditional to new practices comes to 4.19, 3.79 and 5.21 respectively for wheat, millet and mustard. The water intervention such as soak pit, check dam, recharge well, rain water harvesting has increase ground water recharge by 1,38,3984 kilolitres per year. The concentration of nitrite, fluoride and iron has reduced below the permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO). The social issues such as leaderships, ownerships and community participation were also addressed in the project through training, strong community mobilization and regular meeting with Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Village Health and Sanitation Committees(VHSC’s) , School Management Committees ( SMC’s) , Self Healp Groups (SHG’s) and farmers groups. The dissemination of information at mass scale is done through Alfaz-e Mewat (the voice of Mewat) community radio situated in project area. This is done to create awareness in the community about the project and various government welfare schemes to ensure all benefits should reach to poor to create good governance in the villages.
  4. 4. 4 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 1. Introduction The S. M . Sehgal Foundation has adopted intervention supporting green productivity in Krishi Jyoti (Krishi means agriculture, Jyoti means light) project in 30 villages of district Mewat. “Krishi Jyoti’, - a joint initiative of IRRAD and Mosaic India Pvt Ltd, started in 2008 in Mewat, Haryana. The overarching goal of the project is to improve livelihoods of small and marginal farmers using environmental and economically sustainable practices in agriculture and water management. The project aims at addressing the critical needs of the community for increasing farm productivity and water availability for agriculture to improve the agri based income of the household. The support services are used to improve health and sanitation, village infrastructure and improve governance situation in the villages. The capacity building of village level institutions such as panchayati raj (PRI), village health and sanitation committee (VHSC), school management committee (SMC), women self help groups (SHG) and farmers groups (FG) is done to increase awareness, participation and ownerships towards project interventions . Community radio is used for mass scale dissemination of information on sustainable agricultural practices, education health and welfare schemes. The project started with two villages in 2008 and now moves to 30 villages. 2. Issues and challenges The major issues and challenges are divided in to three categories along with cause and effect on farming communities are, as given in the table below Category Issues and challenges Cause and Affects Economical Low Agricultural income  No integrated nutrients and pest management practices (IPNM) , less organic matter- Low productivity  Excess use of fertilizers, pesticides , water and labour - High cost of cultivation  Lack of awareness and poor extension services - Poor access to credit and subsidy Environmental Limited water availability  Saline ground water – Saline water irrigation increasing soil salinity Poor soil quality  No use of micronutrients , green manure crops, crop rotation, pulses – nutrients severe deficiency Deforestation  Fuel and fodder shortage- Uncontrolled grazing , pruning and thinning
  5. 5. 5 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 Social Lack of leadership , participation and ownerships  Strong socio-political dynamics – no consensus  Lack of institutional engagement- Dismal behaviours of religious leader 3. Methodology 3.1 Village selection The village selection done on the basis of following four criteria - 1. Agriculture should be main source of livelihoods or majority of the population should be farmers 2. Need assessment analysis support the need of proposed intervention in the projects 3. The PRI agreed to work , support and contribute in all development actives to be undertaken in the projects 4. The community willingness to participate in the project – At least 2/3 population should agreed to participate and work with implementation agency 3.2 Approach A holistic development approach is used in the project to address the issues related to agriculture development, water augmentation and waste water management with support services to create good governance, capacity building of village level institutions and rural communication for information dissemination. The various village level institutions - panchayati raj, school management committee, village health and sanitation committee, women self help groups and farmers groups were involved in planning, monitoring and implementation. The following flow diagram shows the integration of various experts along with the target beneficiary and interventions done in the villages.
  6. 6. 6 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 3.4 Implementation Problem GP solution provided and benefits Low Agriculture income  Increase crop productivity - Balance fertilizers use (PoP), micronutrients , quality seed, increase water availability , use of quality organic matter , agri advice and micronutrients  Reduce of cultivation- Reduce fertilizer use , seed rate , less pesticides , water saving by drip, sprinkler , mulching , furrow irrigation, seed drill, zero tillage  Strengthen linkages with government schemes and banks – Increase access to credit and subsidy Limited water availability  Increase ground water availability - Check dam, recharge well, farm ponds, rainwater harvesting ponds Poor Soil quality  Reduce soil salinity- Increase use of gypsum, green manure crops, crop rotations, salt resistant variety, quality organic matter Deforestation  Reduce fuel wood and fodder demand -Community led forest protection , tree plantation, cyclic grazing, thinning and pruning, Biogas formation - Lack of leadership, participation and ownerships  Increase issue based consensus - Community level meeting, separate village level committees meeting- PRI, SMC, VHSC, GF, SHG  Positive attitudinal change in religious leader - Regular meeting with religious leader and participation
  7. 7. 7 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 4. Project Impacts 4.1 Agriculture Impacts through adoption of GP practices 4.1.a Increase agri income and productivity To increase crop productivity, customised package of practices demonstrated on farmer’s field. The customised package of practices comprises soil testing, recommended doses of fertilizers, micronutrients, and appropriate seed quantity and on farm advised. Farmers are allowed to use the given input for half acre and remaining half acre used with traditional practices to compare the results. This is followed by use of well decompose organic manure using EM solution. The average productivity increase is 30-42% in Wheat, Pearl Millet and Mustard. The coverage of project is given in the following table Krishi Jyoti Project Total villages 30 HH covered 4784 Land covered (Acre) 10575 Total Demo 6693 Total Population 45000 School repair 6 Composting methods 25 Sprinkler demo 10 SRI methods in cereal crops 20 acre Crop- Wheat, Mustard, Millet, Tomato, Onion, Eggplant The total 20000 farmers get benefits in terms of increasing crop productivity from demonstrated practices and farmers practices. The BCR analysis is done between farmer’s traditional practices with new package of practices. The yield increase and BCR (in parenthesis) for wheat, mustard and pearl millet are 46 %( BCR: 4.19), 47.61% (BCR: 3.79) and 32.56% (BCR: 5.21) respectively. 4.1.b Fodder nutrition The soil defciiency also affacts the nutrient content of dry bio mass used as fodder . The soil health management prcatices increases the nutritive values of fodder for animals . The availability of zinc, iron, potash and megnissum is high in demonstrated fodder than farmers prcatices . The analysis is done in ICRISAT laboratory, Andhra Pradesh. 4.1.c Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation
  8. 8. The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study 8 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 The 75% water through drip and 45% water through sprinkler are saved compare to traditional flood irrigation. The 10 acre drip unit and 25 acre sprinkler unit set up in project villages. 4.1.d Composting techniques The traditional methods of preparing compost take 120-160 days and 70% of their nutrient lost due to rain and direct sunlight. The new methods decompose the fresh cowdung and prepare manures in 45-60 days. The compost is prepared in compost bad using EM (Effective Microorganism) solution to decompose faster. 4.2 Water Impacts through adoption of GP practices 4.2.a Increase ground water recharge and availability Water management interventions increase the access to freshwater for drinking and domestic use, improve water storage and distribution, manage wastewater, and replenish depleted groundwater levels. These models are implemented in project villages. There is measurable improvement in the availability and quality of water and reduction in water borne diseases. Availability of water in schools increases student attendance. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) modules uses innovative and cost-effective interventions include check dams for subsurface water augmentation, rejuvenation of village, rain water harvesting, community water tanks, and groundwater recharge wells. Safe drinking water provided using bio-sand filters. Total 52,5,900 kilo liter water is recharges through check dams , soak pit , hand pumps , recharge well, roof rain water harvesting . 4.2.b Decrease ground water contamination There has been reduction of nititartes , Iron and Flouride concentration due to building of check dams .This water infiltration through the sub soil diluted the concentration of harmful elements which is dangerous for humen and animal health. The following figures shows that execpt iron, nitrates andflourides content down below the WHO permissioble limits 4.3 Capacity Building of Village level institutions The capacity building of village level institutions such as- Village Health and Sanitation Committee , School Management Committee , Panchayati Raj Institute women Self Help Groups and Gram Sabha ( village Council) done through training, sensitization meeting and community mobilization to increase awareness towards the adoption of green productivity for long term sustainability of the intervention and knowledge . Total 10940 people participated in 906 meeting done with these
  9. 9. The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study 9 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 institutions and groups. The capacity building of these institutions able to mobilize the government funds of US$ 634844 in three year. The funds are used for making village roads, toilets, school repairing, and water recharge in village and sanitation works in the villages. Total 1392 toilet constructed in the villages. 4.4 Good governance and communication The supportive role played by governance program and community radio-Alfaz-e- Mewat. The program related to soil and water conservation, environmental sustainability, education and health are broadcast at regular interval. The community radio covering 184 villages with over 400 programs on agriculture where as governance program covering 432 villages including Krishi Jyoti villages. Conclusion The adoption of green productivity concept has substantially contributed in increasing agricultural productivity by using new practices, technology and information which is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. The various GP option applied in individual village depending on the community needs and economic feasibility. The successful outcomes of the project interventions reveal that use of GP processes increase the agriculture productivity and should be the part of all developmental projects. Considering the growing demand for food will have a static pressure on food production and continue to exploit natural resource globally. Apart from the environment friendly tools, techniques and technology of green productivity, the training, mobilization, use of ICT tools and effective communication are equally important to increase awareness, knowledge and participation and increasing understanding of GP processes. The involvement of government line department in the project intervention is the key for long term sustainability and wide replication. The involvement of the village level institutions in baseline survey, planning and monitoring of the interventions are proved very successful and leaving a knowledgeable community behind after the project. A successful PPPP (public private people’s participation) model -government funds, community contribution and corporate funds is highly replicable and scalable model globally to promote GP in agriculture and for village integrated development. The financial support provided by the Mosaic (India) Ltd is a good example of NGO- corporate partnerships for rural development prove potential and need of such partnerships for applying GP in agriculture as well as in other industries and organization.
  10. 10. The Best Practices in Green Productivity in Agriculture- India case study 10 The Best practicesinGreenProductivityinAgriculture –Indiacase study2013 References 1. Deutsche Gesellshaft fur Technische Zuusammenarbeit, Esch born. Sustainable Agriculture: A pathway out of poverty for India’s rural poor GTZ Sustainet ; 2006. 2. Green Productivity and Integrated Community Development: The Vietnam Experience APO DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS IN VIETNAM 1998-2003 .http://www.apo- tokyo.org/publications/ebooks.html. Last accessed on 28th November 2013. 3. Ministry of Agriculture. Agriculture statistics at a Glance: Department of agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India; 2009. 4. South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP): ‘Dams Rivers and People ‘ SANDRP, 2004, PP. 7-8 & 32. 5. Sud, S., The changing profile of Indian agriculture. Business Standard Publishers; 2009, pp. 2-6. 6. Ministry of Finance. Economic survey, 2009-10, Government of India; 2009-10, PP- 186. 7. Sud, S., The changing profile of Indian agriculture. Business Standard Publishers; 2009, pp.4-5. 8. Institute for Human Development (IHD); Baseline survey of some minorities’ concentrated districts of India - Mewat District. Government of India. February 2008. 9. Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Ministry of Agriculture and cooperation; Ministry of Agriculture: Agricultural statistics at a glance 2010. Government of India.2010 http://eands.dacnet.nic.in/Advance_Estimate-2010.htm. Last accessed on Nov 6th 2013. 10. NIIR project Consultancy services. NIIR webpage http://www.niir.org/information/content.phtml?content=162. Last accessed on Nov 12th 2013. 11.Department of Agriculture and cooperation. Ministry of Agriculture. Government of India http://agricoop.nic.in/imagedefault/trade/Rice%20profile.pdf. Last accessed on 12th November 2013.

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