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  1. 1. Stem-cell and cloning<br />
  2. 2. What is cloning?<br />Cloning is the process by which identical copies are get from an organism, a cell or a molecule, already developed in an asexual way.<br />You can say that cloning is the production of a new being practically the same as the mother cell, through nonsexual genetic techniques.<br />
  3. 3. What is cloning?<br />In our body are cells with embryonic characteristics that have the ability to become any specialized cell of our body, these are called stem cell and can be found in the umbilical cord, bone marrow and some organs like the liver.<br />Now for an identical individual can take the DNA of any cell of the body and subject it to a replication process of creating another individual's genetic information in all its characteristics identical to the original without the use of gametes for reproduction<br />
  4. 4. Cloning must take into account some characteristics:<br />First, you need to clone the molecules because you can't make an organism or part of it if you don’t take in account the molecules that forms the being.<br />Cloning tries to create the organism asexually. The sexual reproduction doesn't let us get copies with all the same characteristics, because this type of reproduction generates diversity.<br />
  5. 5. ¿Why is possible cloning?<br />The possibility of cloning was posed with the discovery of DNA and the knowledge of how its transmitted and express the genetic information in living beings.<br />A determined being is made of millions of cells. This cells have different functions and characteristics, but in their nucleus they have long chains which have all the information, the DNA. Every single cell contains all the information about its own characteristics.<br />
  6. 6. Types of cloning<br />There are 2 types of techniques:<br /> Cloning by embryo excision: Is a similar process when twins are born, and they are identical. The process is natural.<br />Cloning by nuclear transplantation: It occurs when the nucleus is taken of an unicellular embryo.<br />
  7. 7. Cloning according to ethic<br /><ul><li>¿Is it correct to do all that science allows?</li></ul>It isn’t correct because science mustn’t manipulate human, which is unique and unrepeatable, and have its own dignity and characteristics, and no one can make a being but God.<br /><ul><li>What ethical problems pose the human cloning?</li></ul>Cloning damage human dignities because:<br /><ul><li>A scientist decides what genetic characteristic is going to have a human being.
  8. 8. Cloning would be an original copy, but its dignity is lower.
  9. 9. Cloning is not a result of human love, just something modified by men.
  10. 10. this manipulation can result in a limitation of human development for the free personality and may limit your ability to decide</li></li></ul><li>Cloning according to ethic<br /><ul><li>More ethic difficulties of currently cloning: </li></ul> These days, the cloning technique is not improve, and have lots of serious consequences.<br />
  11. 11. Pros<br />The cloning of animals in extinction<br />The cloning of animals that people eat<br />Improve the genetic and philological knowledge<br />Provide copies of humans diseases to study them better and create a cure<br />Produce in a low price proteins for it’s possible therapeutic use<br />We can clone antibodies for not using vaccines<br />
  12. 12. Cons<br />Possibility of sickness. <br />Defects in fetuses: Some people have data that ensure the death of 271 babies for the first cloning at the Roslyn Institute, in these 271 cases of deformities is spoken in many of them mentioned that a very peculiar name called as the monsters. They do not believe that a normal human being like this come to pass to humans and is a disgusting act be killing animals, it is even more negligible with humans.<br />Catholic church. The Catholic religion has opposed human cloning experiment with the theory that already have the embryo that has a soul and if something were to happen we would be talking about murder but is a topic that's up to the ethical part.<br />Before carrying out the process, there is a great experimentation, killing large numbers of animals in this process.<br />Risk of physical damage to the clone.<br />Risk of psychology damage to the clone.<br />The experiments of cloning of Americans are not ethics, and they put the human life in a horrible undervalue.<br />
  13. 13. My point of view<br />I am against the cloning. I don’t think that cloning is a good idea because, first of all, the dignity of the clone and the dignity of the original being is undervalued.<br />The Dignity of the original being, is low because he can’t choose if he wants or not to be cloned. <br />The dignity of the clone is low too because he would probably have physical and psychological problems in his future.<br />