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How to improve the Governance Model for the Public Sector - United States - September 2023.pptx

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HOW TO FIX
THE
GOVERNANCE
MODEL FOR
GOVERNMENT
– UNITED
STATES –
SEPTEMBER
2023
Paul Young CPA CGA
Senior Customer Success
Manager and Business
Strategist
September 13, 2023
PAUL YOUNG CGA
CPA
SR CSM AND
BUSINESS
STRATEGIST
• CPA, CGA (1996)
• Academia (PF1, FA4, FN2, MU1. and MS2)
• SME – Customer Success Management
• SME – Risk Management
• SME – ESG and Sustainability Reporting and
Policy Development
• SME – Close, Consolidate and Reporting
• SME – Public Policy
• SME – Emerging Technology
• SME – Business Process Change
• SME – Financial Solutions
• SME – Macro/Micro Indicators
• SME – Supply Chain Management
• SME – Data, AI, Security, and Platform
• SME – Internal Controls and Auditing
Contact information email:
paul_young_cga@outlook.com
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/paul-
young-055632b/
AGENDA
What is the Fiscal Management Cycle
What is governance?
What factors impact governance?
How can performance audits help with governance?
How to improve data ethics?
How to improve data literacy?
How to mitigate risk from geopolitical events?
Public sector is no island
Infused AI and Audit Management
Reporting Challenges
ESG reporting
AI Governance
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/201 3
WHAT IS THE FISCAL MANAGEMENT
CYCLE
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 4
What is financial management cycle process?
The Financial Management Cycle includes four phases that are essential for the overall
evaluation of the financial management of any firm. The four phases are Planning,
Budgeting, Managing Operations, and Annual Reporting.
THE UNITED STATES FISCAL CYCLE
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 5
WHAT IS
GOVERNANCE
Source: https://www.caaf-fcar.ca/en/oversight-concepts-and-context/what-is-oversight-and-how-
does-it-relate-to-governance/what-is-governance
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 6
While governance includes oversight, it is a broader concept. Governance refers to the structures,
systems, and practices an organization has in place to:
• assign decision-making authorities, define how decisions are to be made, and establish the
organization’s strategic direction;
• oversee the delivery of its services; the implementation of its policies, plans, programs, and
projects; and the monitoring and mitigation of its key risks; and
• report on its performance in achieving intended results and use performance information to drive
ongoing improvements and corrective actions.
FACTORS THAT IMPACT GOVERNANCE
• Ability of ombudsman, commissioner, auditor-general, and other key members of government to work
free of partisan appointment
• Government ability to provide open, transparent, and accountable reporting through financial statements,
fiscal management cycle, and performance and operational audits
• Ability of committees to work free of partisan politics as part of reviewing laws or spending bills or other
areas of government.
• Ability of government to make key appointments without partisan politics
• Ability of government to digitalize its government through use of technology as part of focusing on the tax
fairness and the delivery of program spending with value for money.
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 7
HOW CAN PERFORMANCE AUDITS HELP
IMPROVE THE GOVERNANCE MODEL
• All levels of government provide key performance reporting in areas like accounting standards -
https://www.bdo.ca/en-ca/services/assurance-and-accounting/a-a-knowledge-centre/psas/
• All levels of government providing key performance measurements through SORP Reporting -
https://www.frascanada.ca/en/psab/about/due-process/what-are-sorps
• Mandatory emergency and crisis management reporting including annual audit review by external and
internal auditors – https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/how-to-better-management-future-variants-
and-diseases-through-better-crisis-and-risk-manatgement
• Use of data and AI as part of automation of various audit programs -
https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/business-analytics-and-audit-analyticspptx
• Various ombudsman, commissioner, and other groups reporting into committee and the house.
• Monthly updates of the fiscal management results including key areas like taxation and program
spending. This should include key targets, i.e., outcomes and results (Planned vs Actual)
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 8
HOW TO IMPROVE DATA ETHICS
Data ethics
Data ethics is a branch of ethics that evaluates data practices—collecting, generating, analyzing and disseminating data,
both structured and unstructured—that have the potential to adversely impact people and society. It includes
addressing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct, with transparency in and defensibility of actions
and decisions driven by automated/artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to data in general and personal data in particular.
Source - https://www.turing.ac.uk/research/publications/what-data-ethics or
https://www.cognizant.com/glossary/data-ethics
Global Standard / Data Ethics:
EUGDPR - https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/subjects/general-data-protection-regulation_en
Data Governance - https://www.datanami.com/2021/01/21/governance-privacy-and-ethics-at-the-forefront-of-data-in-
2021/
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 9
HOW TO IMPROVE DATA LITERACY
Blog – How improve data literacy for both the public and private sector?
What is data literacy?
That’s essentially how a data-driven business functions when there is no data literacy. If no one outside the department
understands what is being said, it does not matter if data and analytics offers immense business value and is a required
component of digital business.
By 2020, 50% of organizations will lack sufficient AI and data literacy skills to achieve business value.
“The prevalence of data and analytics capabilities, including artificial intelligence, requires creators and consumers to
‘speak data’ as a common language,” says Valerie Logan, Senior Director Analyst, Gartner. “Data and analytics leaders
must champion workforce data literacy as an enabler of digital business and treat information as a second language.”
As data and analytics becomes a core part of digital business and data becomes an organizational asset, employees must
have at least a basic ability to communicate and understand conversations about data. In short, the ability to “speak data”
will become an integral aspect of most day-to-day jobs.
https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/a-data-and-analytics-leaders-guide-to-data-literacy/
I have done a lot of work on blogs and presentation related to how best to managed data: Top Reporting Challenges -
https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/top-reporting-challenges-facing-both-the-private-and-public-sectorpptx
PRESENTATION TITLE
5/30/2021 10
HOW TO MITIGATE RISKS FROM GEOPOLITICAL
EVENTS
The world needs a coordinated effort as part of mitigation geopolitical risks - https://globalriskinsights.com/
Global risks need to be assessed by both the private and public sectors - https://www.govtech.com/em/emergency-
blogs/disaster-zone/the-global-risks-report-2021.html. It is very important for both the private and public sectors to have
audited risk and crisis management reports. - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-there-needs-to-be-audited-
reports-of-crisis-emergency-management-policies-and-procedures
World is moving more to a digital cloud base model. More needs to be done to mitigate security risks -
https://www.splunk.com/en_us/form/top-50-security-
threats.html?utm_campaign=google_amer_en_search_generic_dynamic&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_con
tent=dynamic_search&utm_term=&_bk=&_bt=427536315752&_bm=b&_bn=g&_bg=107944675828&device=c&gclid=Cj
wKCAiAm-2BBhANEiwAe7eyFNHAbY5qDr2iRWGLWWQn1UfJ6Y-
kMfs7TSfPotXlM7htbW5l2cv2PhoC5NwQAvD_BwE
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 11
PUBLIC SECTOR IS NO ISLAND
• Goal of government has always been to deliver program spending with value for money -
https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/designing-social-programs-and-tax-fairness-policies
• Government ability to manage their taxation policies as part of protecting the environment while growing the
economy is a sustainable way will also lead to a stronger governance model. More oversight into planned vs
actual results related to key environmental targets and economic targets. This means all levels of
government need to adopt ESG reporting including setting standards for ESG reporting -
https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/introductory-to-esg-and-sustainability-reportingpptx-257524640
• Elected officials need to held accountable including enforcing balance budget acts or recall elections or
other areas that will provide people with a better governance model from their elected officials.
• Government needs to revisit its operational model as part of better management and oversight into taxation
and program spending - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/the-importance-of-value-for-money-and-
perfomance-based-audits
PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/202 12
VALUE FOR MONEY AND PERFORMANCE
AUDITING
• All levels of government need to re-look at the internal controls and testing including development AI and Data
models that get better safeguard assets.
• All levels of government need to invest in internal audit and risk base solutions.
• All levels of government need to work with auditors and departments as part of implementing changes
recommended in the audit reports. There should be status reports on each and every audit to ensure changes
have been implemented.
Here is a brief look at why value for money and performance audits are very important for all levels of
government - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-are-value-for-money-and-performance-audits-
important-for-government-public-sector
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 13
AUDIT ANALYTICS
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 14
AI GOVERNANCE
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 15
DEVELOPING A DATA STRATEGY
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 16
Blog – Driving Data Strategy as part of driving better Business Analytics to Improve Business Outcomes -
https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_unlock-the-full-value-of-your-data-activity-
7023960172133838848-6AyT?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
ASSET MONITORING
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 17
Blog - Safeguarding Assets through use of Weather Analytics and Vegetation Management Solutions - ESG and
Climate Change - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_vegetation-
TQfV?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
https://www.ibm.com/products/environmental-intelligence-suite/vegetation-management
This is a great opportunity for the utility sector to re-look at their asset management through using vegetation
and weather management solutions. Mitigation of risk from climate is becoming a key focus area for the utility
sector.
https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/electricity-analysis-canada-and-the-oecd-february-2023pptx
CRISIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 18
https://www.linkedin.com/posts/rwlord_river-flood-highest-since-2001-in-miss-valley-activity-7062395985708085249-
YI2M?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
Leverage data and AI as part mitigating geopolitical risks and threats is becoming increasing important for both private
and public sectors. The ability to leverage geospatial data with business analytical tools like Cognos Analytics and
Planning Analtyics can lead to better risk mitigation as part of safeguarding assets.
Blog – Geospatial data with Planning Analytics - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_geospatial-data-
with-planning-analytics-activity-7062420172178915328-l43Y?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
Crisis and Risk Management - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-both-the-private-and-public-sectors-
need-mandatory-audits-of-crisis-and-risk-management-reports
SUMMARY
PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 19
• More needs to be done transform all levels of government
Blog – How to address issues with the Public Sector Governance model for the United States –
September 2023
All levels of government are facing many challenges including delivery program spending with value for
money.
Tax policies including fairness continues to plague all levels of government.
Many states, local, and the federal government are developing AI policies related to generative AI.
Balance climate change policies with economic growth is still a challenge for all levels of government.
Crumbling infrastructure and need for more investment is leading to capital management challenges by
all levels of government.
Key links and sources:
a) Medicaid and the USA - https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-
briefs/2023/sep/impact-medicaid-coverage-gap-comparing-states-have-and-have-not
b) Tax fairness - https://publicintegrity.org/inequality-poverty-opportunity/taxes/unequal-
burden/state-tax-systems-contribute-to-inequality-these-states-are-doubling-down/
c) Fiscal gap - https://www.epi.org/blog/could-tax-increases-alone-close-the-long-run-fiscal-gap/
d) Biodiversity gap - https://www.state.gov/highlighting-u-s-efforts-to-combat-the-biodiversity-
crisis/
e) Affordable housing - https://www.noradarealestate.com/blog/cheapest-housing-markets-in-us/
f) Water - https://theconversation.com/what-arizona-and-other-drought-ridden-states-can-learn-
from-israels-pioneering-water-strategy-212816
g) GDP by state - https://www.bea.gov/news/2023/gross-domestic-product-state-and-personal-
income-state-1st-quarter-2023
h) Generative AI - https://www.wired.com/story/local-governments-generative-ai/
i) IT gaps - https://www.governing.com/work/how-can-state-and-local-government-overcome-it-
staffing-gaps
j) Lessons from Lahaina Fire - https://localnewsmatters.org/2023/09/08/sf-supervisor-says-city-
must-heed-lessons-of-maui-fire-seeks-better-disaster-preparedness/
k) Blog – Sector – Public – Asset Management – City of Atlanta – Crisis and Risk
Management - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_city-of-atlanta-ibm-
activity-7097973020715077632-
dcvs?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
l) Infrastructure - https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/the-importance-of-investing-in-infrastructure
m) Transit - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/how-is-public-transit-doing-around-the-
world-august-2023pptx
n) Crisis and emergency management - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-both-the-
private-and-public-sectors-need-mandatory-audits-of-crisis-and-risk-management-reports

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How to improve the Governance Model for the Public Sector - United States - September 2023.pptx

  • 1. HOW TO FIX THE GOVERNANCE MODEL FOR GOVERNMENT – UNITED STATES – SEPTEMBER 2023 Paul Young CPA CGA Senior Customer Success Manager and Business Strategist September 13, 2023
  • 2. PAUL YOUNG CGA CPA SR CSM AND BUSINESS STRATEGIST • CPA, CGA (1996) • Academia (PF1, FA4, FN2, MU1. and MS2) • SME – Customer Success Management • SME – Risk Management • SME – ESG and Sustainability Reporting and Policy Development • SME – Close, Consolidate and Reporting • SME – Public Policy • SME – Emerging Technology • SME – Business Process Change • SME – Financial Solutions • SME – Macro/Micro Indicators • SME – Supply Chain Management • SME – Data, AI, Security, and Platform • SME – Internal Controls and Auditing Contact information email: paul_young_cga@outlook.com LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/paul- young-055632b/
  • 3. AGENDA What is the Fiscal Management Cycle What is governance? What factors impact governance? How can performance audits help with governance? How to improve data ethics? How to improve data literacy? How to mitigate risk from geopolitical events? Public sector is no island Infused AI and Audit Management Reporting Challenges ESG reporting AI Governance PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/201 3
  • 4. WHAT IS THE FISCAL MANAGEMENT CYCLE PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 4 What is financial management cycle process? The Financial Management Cycle includes four phases that are essential for the overall evaluation of the financial management of any firm. The four phases are Planning, Budgeting, Managing Operations, and Annual Reporting.
  • 5. THE UNITED STATES FISCAL CYCLE PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 5
  • 6. WHAT IS GOVERNANCE Source: https://www.caaf-fcar.ca/en/oversight-concepts-and-context/what-is-oversight-and-how- does-it-relate-to-governance/what-is-governance PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 6 While governance includes oversight, it is a broader concept. Governance refers to the structures, systems, and practices an organization has in place to: • assign decision-making authorities, define how decisions are to be made, and establish the organization’s strategic direction; • oversee the delivery of its services; the implementation of its policies, plans, programs, and projects; and the monitoring and mitigation of its key risks; and • report on its performance in achieving intended results and use performance information to drive ongoing improvements and corrective actions.
  • 7. FACTORS THAT IMPACT GOVERNANCE • Ability of ombudsman, commissioner, auditor-general, and other key members of government to work free of partisan appointment • Government ability to provide open, transparent, and accountable reporting through financial statements, fiscal management cycle, and performance and operational audits • Ability of committees to work free of partisan politics as part of reviewing laws or spending bills or other areas of government. • Ability of government to make key appointments without partisan politics • Ability of government to digitalize its government through use of technology as part of focusing on the tax fairness and the delivery of program spending with value for money. PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 7
  • 8. HOW CAN PERFORMANCE AUDITS HELP IMPROVE THE GOVERNANCE MODEL • All levels of government provide key performance reporting in areas like accounting standards - https://www.bdo.ca/en-ca/services/assurance-and-accounting/a-a-knowledge-centre/psas/ • All levels of government providing key performance measurements through SORP Reporting - https://www.frascanada.ca/en/psab/about/due-process/what-are-sorps • Mandatory emergency and crisis management reporting including annual audit review by external and internal auditors – https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/how-to-better-management-future-variants- and-diseases-through-better-crisis-and-risk-manatgement • Use of data and AI as part of automation of various audit programs - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/business-analytics-and-audit-analyticspptx • Various ombudsman, commissioner, and other groups reporting into committee and the house. • Monthly updates of the fiscal management results including key areas like taxation and program spending. This should include key targets, i.e., outcomes and results (Planned vs Actual) PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 8
  • 9. HOW TO IMPROVE DATA ETHICS Data ethics Data ethics is a branch of ethics that evaluates data practices—collecting, generating, analyzing and disseminating data, both structured and unstructured—that have the potential to adversely impact people and society. It includes addressing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct, with transparency in and defensibility of actions and decisions driven by automated/artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to data in general and personal data in particular. Source - https://www.turing.ac.uk/research/publications/what-data-ethics or https://www.cognizant.com/glossary/data-ethics Global Standard / Data Ethics: EUGDPR - https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/subjects/general-data-protection-regulation_en Data Governance - https://www.datanami.com/2021/01/21/governance-privacy-and-ethics-at-the-forefront-of-data-in- 2021/ PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 9
  • 10. HOW TO IMPROVE DATA LITERACY Blog – How improve data literacy for both the public and private sector? What is data literacy? That’s essentially how a data-driven business functions when there is no data literacy. If no one outside the department understands what is being said, it does not matter if data and analytics offers immense business value and is a required component of digital business. By 2020, 50% of organizations will lack sufficient AI and data literacy skills to achieve business value. “The prevalence of data and analytics capabilities, including artificial intelligence, requires creators and consumers to ‘speak data’ as a common language,” says Valerie Logan, Senior Director Analyst, Gartner. “Data and analytics leaders must champion workforce data literacy as an enabler of digital business and treat information as a second language.” As data and analytics becomes a core part of digital business and data becomes an organizational asset, employees must have at least a basic ability to communicate and understand conversations about data. In short, the ability to “speak data” will become an integral aspect of most day-to-day jobs. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/a-data-and-analytics-leaders-guide-to-data-literacy/ I have done a lot of work on blogs and presentation related to how best to managed data: Top Reporting Challenges - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/top-reporting-challenges-facing-both-the-private-and-public-sectorpptx PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 10
  • 11. HOW TO MITIGATE RISKS FROM GEOPOLITICAL EVENTS The world needs a coordinated effort as part of mitigation geopolitical risks - https://globalriskinsights.com/ Global risks need to be assessed by both the private and public sectors - https://www.govtech.com/em/emergency- blogs/disaster-zone/the-global-risks-report-2021.html. It is very important for both the private and public sectors to have audited risk and crisis management reports. - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-there-needs-to-be-audited- reports-of-crisis-emergency-management-policies-and-procedures World is moving more to a digital cloud base model. More needs to be done to mitigate security risks - https://www.splunk.com/en_us/form/top-50-security- threats.html?utm_campaign=google_amer_en_search_generic_dynamic&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_con tent=dynamic_search&utm_term=&_bk=&_bt=427536315752&_bm=b&_bn=g&_bg=107944675828&device=c&gclid=Cj wKCAiAm-2BBhANEiwAe7eyFNHAbY5qDr2iRWGLWWQn1UfJ6Y- kMfs7TSfPotXlM7htbW5l2cv2PhoC5NwQAvD_BwE PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/2021 11
  • 12. PUBLIC SECTOR IS NO ISLAND • Goal of government has always been to deliver program spending with value for money - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/designing-social-programs-and-tax-fairness-policies • Government ability to manage their taxation policies as part of protecting the environment while growing the economy is a sustainable way will also lead to a stronger governance model. More oversight into planned vs actual results related to key environmental targets and economic targets. This means all levels of government need to adopt ESG reporting including setting standards for ESG reporting - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/introductory-to-esg-and-sustainability-reportingpptx-257524640 • Elected officials need to held accountable including enforcing balance budget acts or recall elections or other areas that will provide people with a better governance model from their elected officials. • Government needs to revisit its operational model as part of better management and oversight into taxation and program spending - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/the-importance-of-value-for-money-and- perfomance-based-audits PRESENTATION TITLE 5/30/202 12
  • 13. VALUE FOR MONEY AND PERFORMANCE AUDITING • All levels of government need to re-look at the internal controls and testing including development AI and Data models that get better safeguard assets. • All levels of government need to invest in internal audit and risk base solutions. • All levels of government need to work with auditors and departments as part of implementing changes recommended in the audit reports. There should be status reports on each and every audit to ensure changes have been implemented. Here is a brief look at why value for money and performance audits are very important for all levels of government - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-are-value-for-money-and-performance-audits- important-for-government-public-sector PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 13
  • 16. DEVELOPING A DATA STRATEGY PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 16 Blog – Driving Data Strategy as part of driving better Business Analytics to Improve Business Outcomes - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_unlock-the-full-value-of-your-data-activity- 7023960172133838848-6AyT?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop
  • 17. ASSET MONITORING PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 17 Blog - Safeguarding Assets through use of Weather Analytics and Vegetation Management Solutions - ESG and Climate Change - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_vegetation- TQfV?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop https://www.ibm.com/products/environmental-intelligence-suite/vegetation-management This is a great opportunity for the utility sector to re-look at their asset management through using vegetation and weather management solutions. Mitigation of risk from climate is becoming a key focus area for the utility sector. https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/electricity-analysis-canada-and-the-oecd-february-2023pptx
  • 18. CRISIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 18 https://www.linkedin.com/posts/rwlord_river-flood-highest-since-2001-in-miss-valley-activity-7062395985708085249- YI2M?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop Leverage data and AI as part mitigating geopolitical risks and threats is becoming increasing important for both private and public sectors. The ability to leverage geospatial data with business analytical tools like Cognos Analytics and Planning Analtyics can lead to better risk mitigation as part of safeguarding assets. Blog – Geospatial data with Planning Analytics - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_geospatial-data- with-planning-analytics-activity-7062420172178915328-l43Y?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop Crisis and Risk Management - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-both-the-private-and-public-sectors- need-mandatory-audits-of-crisis-and-risk-management-reports
  • 19. SUMMARY PRESENTATION TITLE 2/11/20XX 19 • More needs to be done transform all levels of government Blog – How to address issues with the Public Sector Governance model for the United States – September 2023 All levels of government are facing many challenges including delivery program spending with value for money. Tax policies including fairness continues to plague all levels of government. Many states, local, and the federal government are developing AI policies related to generative AI. Balance climate change policies with economic growth is still a challenge for all levels of government. Crumbling infrastructure and need for more investment is leading to capital management challenges by all levels of government. Key links and sources: a) Medicaid and the USA - https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue- briefs/2023/sep/impact-medicaid-coverage-gap-comparing-states-have-and-have-not b) Tax fairness - https://publicintegrity.org/inequality-poverty-opportunity/taxes/unequal- burden/state-tax-systems-contribute-to-inequality-these-states-are-doubling-down/ c) Fiscal gap - https://www.epi.org/blog/could-tax-increases-alone-close-the-long-run-fiscal-gap/ d) Biodiversity gap - https://www.state.gov/highlighting-u-s-efforts-to-combat-the-biodiversity- crisis/ e) Affordable housing - https://www.noradarealestate.com/blog/cheapest-housing-markets-in-us/ f) Water - https://theconversation.com/what-arizona-and-other-drought-ridden-states-can-learn- from-israels-pioneering-water-strategy-212816 g) GDP by state - https://www.bea.gov/news/2023/gross-domestic-product-state-and-personal- income-state-1st-quarter-2023 h) Generative AI - https://www.wired.com/story/local-governments-generative-ai/ i) IT gaps - https://www.governing.com/work/how-can-state-and-local-government-overcome-it- staffing-gaps j) Lessons from Lahaina Fire - https://localnewsmatters.org/2023/09/08/sf-supervisor-says-city- must-heed-lessons-of-maui-fire-seeks-better-disaster-preparedness/ k) Blog – Sector – Public – Asset Management – City of Atlanta – Crisis and Risk Management - https://www.linkedin.com/posts/paul-young-055632b_city-of-atlanta-ibm- activity-7097973020715077632- dcvs?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_desktop l) Infrastructure - https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/the-importance-of-investing-in-infrastructure m) Transit - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/how-is-public-transit-doing-around-the- world-august-2023pptx n) Crisis and emergency management - https://www.slideshare.net/paulyoungcga/why-both-the- private-and-public-sectors-need-mandatory-audits-of-crisis-and-risk-management-reports