I'm going to talk about RIOXX, and more particularly the approach we have taken to developing it
open access policies in UK relating to public-grant funded research
RIOXX addresses these concerns
these are the organisations which have been involved in its development
the decision to require an HTTP URI gives us two advantages:
we don’t need to specify the schema beyond this requirement - we can identify the schema from the URI - e.g. DOI
acceptance date represents a more clearly identifiable ‘business event’
encouraging the use of globally unique identifiers such as ORCID and ISNI
links the publication to a project, and therefore to a funder
encouraging the use of globally unique identifiers such as ISNI
unambiguous licensing is the goal
with the start date property, this gives us a strategy to indicate embargoes
working closely with the OpenAIRE team, we have provided a mapping between RIOXX 2.0 and OpenAIRE 3.0
thanks to Jochen and Paolo from OpenAIRE!
now to talk about the more interesting part....
Who is that? Frank Underwood.
We have resisted anything that gets in the way of our primary (and only!) use case. However....
implementation is key. Previous efforts in this space have not been implemented...
‘Agile’ has become an overloaded term, but it’s important to remember that it started somewhere with some principles:
Agile Manifesto couches itself in a series of ‘preferences’ - the phrases in bold towards the left
worth noting this is now 14 years old!
be Agile. Agile development is not a good fit necessarily for standards development, but it has something to offer the development of application profiles, especially if they are very focussed and tightly coupled to a specific problem
A mailing list tends to attract a community - and communities can be exclusive.
RIOXX does not have a community as such - it has been developed with the collaboration of people with vested interests and comments to make
an important aspect of working openly is explaining the rationale behind decisions - here we described all the options for the representation of a particular property, and explained why we chose the one we did.
This allows us to get real engagement with users as well as developers
If users have already started to go in a certain direction, recognise this and adapt accordingly.
Implementation - 'running code' is really important.
should be mechanistic, or semi-automated, wherever possible, so that it actually gets done!
should deliver immediate and useful feedback
not just the usual XML schema validation - this is often important, but it is not enough
this is testing sample data from all known RIOXX implementations on a regular basis - and it’s completely automated
doing this openly on the web creates incentives for people to fix things!!
a detailed report is generated for each of the systems tested
this shows both the system developers and the end-users exactly which aspects of the AP have been invalidated
even shows them the raw metadata where these issues have occurred
can be used to inform future development of the profile as well as the application profile itself.
almost all implementations are ePrints systems so far - expecting DSpace repos using a patch developed by Atmire to come on stream soon
experimenting with 2 flavours of RIOXX - a relaxed basic (non RCUK) version for more general use
more general cases, such as describing research data sets? international aggregations
RIOXX: a Modern Metadata Application Profile
Head of Technology Strategy and Planning,
RIOXX: a Modern Metadata Application
why build RIOXX?
• new policies from RCUK and HEFCE mandate that any journal article
funded by research grants be made publicly accessible in a repository
• these policies require that universities make metadata about such papers
• the available metadata formats were inadequate
• OAI-DC was not rich enough
• OpenAIRE was better but demanded project IDs be encoded in particular
syntax not compatible with project IDs from UK Research Councils
• OpenAIRE syntax
• RCUK syntax:
• how to represent the funder
• how to represent the project/grant
• how to represent unambiguous licenses
• how to represent the persistent identifier of the item described
• provisions of identifier(s) pointing to related dataset(s)
• how to represent the rights of use of the item described
• an application profile using properties from 4 namespaces:
• 11 properties from Dublin Core (dc and dcterms)
• 2 properties from NISO Open Access Metadata and Indicators
• 8 from a new namespace - ‘rioxxterms’
• constraints imposed through several controlled vocabularies
• it has one purpose: to provide a mechanism to help institutional repositories
in the UK comply with the RCUK policy on open access.
• it is not designed to provide general interoperability!!
• Version 2.0 released in January 2015
• identifies the open access item being described by the RIOXX metadata
• regardless of where it is located
• recommended to identify the resource itself, not a ‘splash page’
• this will not always be possible or desirable
• whatever it identifies, it MUST be an HTTP URI
• this MUST be provided
• is more precise than other possible dated events - such as ‘published’
rioxxterms:author & rioxxterms:contributor
• both of these accept an optional ‘ID’ attribute
• this MUST be an HTTP URI
• use of ORCID is strongly recommended
• all authors should be represented as individual rioxxterms:author properties
• the ‘first named author’ can be indicated with another optional attribute called,
• rioxxterms:contributor is for other parties that are not authors but are credited
with contributing in some way to the publication
• this expresses funder and project_id in one, slightly more complex, property
• the use of global IDs, e.g. International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) for
funding organisations is recommended
funder_name="Engineering and Physical Sciences
• adopted from NISO’s Open Access Metadata and Indicators
• takes an HTTP URI and a start date
• the URI should identify a license
• there is a need for a ‘white list’ of acceptable licenses
• embargoes can be expressed this way, with a license identified to ‘take effect’
at some (possibly) future date
answer: with ruthless pragmatism...
principles (with an emphasis on pragmatism)
• purpose driven
• designed to meet a singe, focussed use-case
• solve one problem well, avoid ‘feature creep’
• focussed on implementation
• has to be relatively easy to implement
• ‘shallow’ structure
• the simplest thing that can possibly work
• open development
• public consultation
• tested openly
• rapid development
• (relatively) short iterations
Manifesto for Agile Software Development
We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on
the right, we value the items on the left more.
applying these principles to RIOXX development
• Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
• we concentrated on what worked - & what made sense to the user/sponsor
• Working software over comprehensive documentation
• an application profile is fundamentally a set of documentation!
• however, RIOXX is implemented in software
• Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
• we worked as closely with users as possible, and worked very openly
• Responding to change over following a plan
• iterative - we developed RIOXX in short development cycles punctuated by
open, community support
• engagement from software
• community feedback
• good practice starting to be
identified and discussed
• RIOXX has been created to help universities address open-access reporting
requirements from the UK Research & Funding Councils
• it has been developed using agile approaches and techniques borrowed from
• it has been implemented in 56 known repositories since January 2015
• now also being harvested by CORE
• adoption of RIOXX is growing steadily :-)
• RIOXX Basic has been used (partially) in two international aggregation
Head of Technology Strategy and Planning,
thanks for listening!
the RIOXX metadata application profile is maintained &
supported by EDINA: