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Education policy 18 03-2011


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Education Policy Kerala

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Education policy 18 03-2011

  1. 1. 2011 Kerala – An Education Destination New Education Policy MAR ATHANASIUS COLLEGE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES(MACFAST) THIRUVALLA CONCEPT Rev. Dr. Abraham Mulamoottil COMPILED BY PAUL V MATHEW
  2. 2. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 2 Contents 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 2. SWOT Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 3. A new education Policy – Rationale ……………………………………………………………………9 4. Compendium of New Education Policy ……………………………………………………………….10 5. An approach for qualitative education…………………………………………………………………12 6. Towards knowledge economy………………………………………………………………………………14 7. Kerala an education destination……………………………………………………………………………18 8. Education hubs……………………………………………………………………………………………………..23 9. Participatory approach for development………………………………………………………………29 10. Reforms………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35 11. Voucher system…………………………………………………………………………………………………….39 12. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………41 13. References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………42 14. Appendix Recap – Kerala education ……………………………………………………………………………………43
  3. 3. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 3 ACRONYMS AIIM……………………………………All India Institute of Medical Science APU…………………………………….Azim Premji University CUSAT…………………………………Cochin University of Science and Technology Dr………………………………………..Doctor E & Y……………………………………Earnest and Young FICCI……………………………………Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry FDI………………………………………Foreign Direct Investment HSS……………………………………..Higher Secondary School HRD…………………………………….Human Resource Development IUC……………………………………..Inter University Centre IIE……………………………………….Indian Institute of Engineering IIM……………………………………..Indian Institute of Management ISRO……………………………………Indian Space Research Organization ISSER………………………………….Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research IIT……………………………………….Indian Institute of Technology IT………………………………………..Information Technology KCHER………………………………..Kerala Council for Higher Education and Research LP……………………………………….Lower Primary MACFAST…………………………..Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies MG…………………………………….Mahatma Gandhi NCHER……………………………….National Council for Higher Education and Research NLSUF………….. NRI…………………………………....Non Resident Indian NRK……………………………………Non Resident Keralites
  4. 4. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 4 PhD…………………………………..Doctor of Philosophy PPP…………………………………..Public Private Partnership R&D………………………………….Research and Development RGCB………………………………..Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Bio Technology RRL…………………………………..Regional Research Laboratory RTE……………………….………….Right to Education SSA………………………………….Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Std………………………..………..Standard SWOT……………………………..Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat USP…………………………………Unique Selling Proposition UGC…………………………………University Grant Commission UP……………………………………Upper Primary
  5. 5. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 5 1. Introduction While considering the achievements of Kerala in the field of education and societal development viz. near total literacy, free and universal primary education, low dropout rate at the school level, easy access to educational institutions, gender equality in access etc. Kerala is expecting to show excel in education sector in par with developed countries. In Kerala, societal demand for education supported by social reform movements, missionary activities and different organized and unorganized movements were helped to establish large number of education institutes which helped to meet these increasing demands for education partially. In addition to the social reforms and activities of Christian missionaries, the influence of caste and community organizations were the impetus behind development and modernization of education in Kerala. Followed by this trend, the degree of competition among education institute in starting educational institutions was increased. Despite the government also responded to the societal demand by starting institutions of their own, the impulsion of private involvement has made a noticeable change in the education scenario. While continuing the process of education expansion, our focus was on quantity and profit rather than quality. Lack of potential courses for employment is one of the issues we are facing these days. Compare to other states, shortage of National institutes like IIT’S seems as a major missing. Another major lacuna in our education system is the total lack of accountability, not only in elementary education but also in higher education. The existences of multiple layers of authorities and over politicization have made it impossible to ensure accountability. This scenario made education a teacher oriented rather than student oriented. Another important fact which disturbs us is the obsolete curriculum and syllabi more than ever in higher education. Insufficient infrastructure, low quality and the irrelevance of the research and development are the matters of serious concern. At the same time, specializations, multiple options, education innovations better infrastructure, reformed curriculums and emerging areas has led to migration of students to other states. The negation in quality and most disturbing interests and interventions of politicians gradually
  6. 6. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 6 made Kerala an unfavorable place for quality education. This scenario in education forced the parents and students to migrate for higher education. Now our neighboring states and countries are the hot spot of education. Albeit Kerala's education system has emerged as the single largest economic activity of the state, it didn’t show a parallel development in quality, Education accounts for more than one third of the total revenue expenditure of the state. Nearly one fifth of the population is students. Education sector is also one of the biggest employers in the state. The number of teachers forms more than 50 per cent of the total number of workers in registered factories. The teachers constitute nearly 18 per cent of the total employment in the organized sector. In the ratio of teachers to total workers, Kerala's position is at the top. While considering the above mentioned facts, importance of a vibrant, modern and reformed educational system to our economy is more in the state than elsewhere. After the up and downs of capitalism and socialism, the present era thinking of a knowledge revolution that lead to the creation of Knowledge Society and Knowledge economy. As a destination with minimal possibility of industrial development, scarcity of resources, constraints on investment in business, high density of population and divided lands, it is better to expose Kerala as an education destination with knowledge intensive society. The purpose of this paper is to outline a proposal to develop a world class education sector that is capable of attracting investment in the development of Kerala as an ‘education destination’ for students in India and from overseas.
  7. 7. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 7 2. Kerala Education – SWOT Analysis A SWOT Analysis on Kerala education system and scenario which intends to identify the existing circumstances here in Kerala by breaking down different components like strength, weakness, opportunity and threat that gives light to the unexplored potentials, areas of improvement and development, key areas of interventions etc. While analyzing the situation in Kerala the real paradox exposes is that, even though Kerala is for front in different social indicators but it finds back seat in development aspects. Additionally Kerala clinched an acclaimed glory in tourism and appreciable developments in information technology; it vehemently persuades Kerala to an education destination. Fig 1: SWOT Analysis – Kerala Education Cultural Integrity Developed Community Diversity High literacy rate Harmonious religious relations Communication infrastructure Educated Manpower Natural Resources IT Awareness Knowledge State. Developed country Experience Over Political Consciousness Lack of land availability Lack Investor friendliness Lack of professional competency of Government Poor standards of Government Infrastructure Lack of political will Lack of accountability Cumbersome procedures Knowledge Technology Acclaimed Tourism hot spots Knowledge Industry emerges Diversified cultures and communities Educated Human Resource IT Infrastructure High Per head spending rate on education Potential investors Over political interventions Over restrictions and regulations Trade Unions Fast developing neighboring countries/states Increased migration for education Neighboring competitors SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH WEAKNESS OPPORTUNITY THREAT
  8. 8. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 8 Other factors influencing the development of the education sector in Kerala are the high population density and shortage of land (education institutions can be developed in high rise buildings); its cultural diversity, information communications technology infrastructure, its geography and climate, its bio-diversity, tourism infrastructure, and it’s very significant international diaspora. The Kerala diaspora potentially has an important influence on the development of Kerala as an education destination. Their remittances make a significant contribution to the economy and are a potential source of investment funds. Their education aspirations for their children create a demand for high quality education, and their international outlook provides an impetus for a curriculum that is highly relevant for participation in the global economy.
  9. 9. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 9 3. Rationale In the wake of globalization, Kerala needs to move towards the concept of knowledge economy which can be achieved by making effective use of knowledge and developing appropriate policies, institutions, investments, and coordinated initiatives. Albeit Kerala shows perceptible changes in Tourism and IT, corresponding expansion is required in the sector of education. Hence a New education Policy which should ensure the accountability of institutes and staffs, transparency, reformed curriculum and better R&D is required. This policy moots an idea for developing Kerala as an education destination by creating various education hubs through a Public Private Partnership Approach. Similar to the innovations and appreciable development in information technology and tourism, Kerala can certainly develop as an education destination. Ultimately the objective is to develop a world class education sector/atmosphere in Kerala that should attract investment for the development thereby make Kerala as an ‘education destination’ for students in India and from overseas.
  10. 10. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 10 4. A new Education Policy – Compendium Started from traditional styles of education Kerala welcomed modern methods which kept our social system away from obsolescence and ignorance to an extent. Thinkers and reformers were revolutionized the need for education and knowledge that motivated people to learn and gain knowledge. The presence of social reformers and modern education equipped our people to fight against ignorance, inequality, violation of rights and social evils. Styles adapted by British, colonial culture and English education gave a new outlook to the people of India in the midst of hardships. Post independence era has also seen various development and reforms in education sector through multitude of education policies and development initiatives. The rule enacted by state Government in 2000 paved a way for the entrance of private investors and institution in education sector. This emergence of self financing colleges in Kerala has made a tremendous change in the scenario of education with in a limited period of time. But while improving the quantity of education, we failed to look up on some necessary elements which restricted a parallel quality development in education sector. The real lacunae we feel today is the obsolescence of curriculum especially in higher education sector which not because of the lack of policy recommendations or programs of action but due to the failure in their implementation. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), which was passed by the Indian parliament on 4 August 2009, describes the modalities of the provision of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force on 1 April 2010. In the context of the Right Education bill (RTE) which deserves the right for free and compulsory education to all the children and the Foreign University Bill which allows foreign education providers set up campuses in India and offer degrees, the concept put forwarded, Kerala - An Education hub seems special relevance. After unending debates and criticisms on lack of sufficient infrastructure, teachers, software and hardware components; we just
  11. 11. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 11 concluded that RTE fund can use for the quality up gradation here in Kerala and for basic infrastructure development in remaining states. So the bill Right to Education here in Kerala shifted in to a new podium - Right for Quality Education. While considering the high dense and less per head landholding pattern of Kerala, it is better to project Kerala as an education destination rather than industrial state. Widely self acclaimed Kerala model has not came out with any development corresponding to the improvement in different social indicators. The trend of think tank’s migrations to abroad for a much better environment for training/education/job invariably proves that lacunae remains exist. As a knowledge society/economy with exuberant cultural diversity and integrity, Kerala has a great scope for investment in education sector. As suggested, the moving approach PPP can make a noticeable change in this sector if government comes with key policy changes. The curriculum- SSA that we introduced has already grabbed much global attention and the generous interest free loans provided by different banks made education an affordable one. Now let’s think for producing sufficient and quality manpower for our growing economy. As ‘God’s on country’ with incredible attractions and fascinating locations, what inhibits the aspirants to come to Kerala for better higher education, training and exposure? The moment of hour has come to think – Kerala an education which produces sufficient man power for the growing nations. May the whole world looks to Kerala for better man power, may the journey starts for setting international institutions/universities with spectacular infrastructure here in Kerala. An education destination with five hubs can be set up in Kerala which provides an entire gamut on education and training. Skilled manpower, sophisticated technology, high tech infrastructure, better management and institutional mechanism, specific plans and proposals, outstanding marketing strategies, effective private participation, education innovations and better curriculum are the related matters which should be mooted to encapsulate the notion of Kerala – an emerging education hub.
  12. 12. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 12 5. A qualitative approach to education Contemporary world is highly sophisticated and networked with outstanding global technologies which equipped us to go beyond boundaries. It bridges lacunas and reduces geographical divides among countries and people. Now everyone can access resources of world simultaneously without any restrictions. This fast moving technologies and developments tempted us to look education from all angles and forced us to go for a flexible and multidimensional educational approach which focuses on quality rather than quantity. Along with the concept ‘core competency’ a multidisciplinary approach is a need of this hour. While mastering in one field, our education system should be competent to produce human resource with a multidisciplinary approach which abates the inefficiency to link each other. This will preclude the degradation and demarcation of existing pattern and keep our systems away from obsolescence. The revolution in the field of Information Technology has made virtual system as an integral and indispensable part of education. It enhances the opportunities of research and development, accessibility and easiness of education. In the context of these developments, the concept put forward by this paper gives emphasis on quality education rather than simply Right to Education. In order to achieve quality and acquiring knowledge, our key strength should be on high-tech IT infrastructure. It plays a pivotal role in the functioning of all systems and its integration. All the institutes emerging in this knowledge era should highly IT-centered. Research and Development is the another key area which is to ensure quality of education. It strives to encourage scientific thinking among students, providing them an opportunity to understand the nuances of scientific research. Emphasis should be on acquiring knowledge and cultivating the right scientific temperament as well as developing technical skills by providing specialized in house trainings. Incumbent and Students can get sufficient research, industrial and corporate exposure by taking them to industrial visits. This will help to mold a corporate culture among students.
  13. 13. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 13 Undoubtedly let’s state that aim of our education is not to create ‘book eaters’ or ‘techno savvies’ but to achieve the aim ‘perfect person in a perfect society’. The true purpose of education is not only just imparting knowledge but also encouraging personal empowerment of every individual with the desire for self development. Key objective of our education should be not to translate knowledge into economics and lucrative jobs and business but to satisfy every individual thereby achieve the quality of life too. Ultimately transforming manpower in to ethical and competent professionals who would be assets to the society will be our new vision. Right attitude, focused approach and planning have utmost importance in education. Career Management Centers, Counseling Centers, Discussions forums, enhanced Training and Planning table are the necessary elements to achieve sustained growth. This will pave way to encourage growth of the mind, development of character, discipline, and ethical thinking. While thinking about the concept of ‘knowledge society’ where knowledge is shared freely, its basic foundation should be in our mind; knowledge is never lost on sharing - it only multiplies. This emerging concept provides impetus to the betterment of society and the individual. Institute Industry alliance and collaboration/alliances are another important areas. This is essential to update technological developments and create a corporate thinking and mind among individuals. Establishing a link with the industry and research worlds even while acquiring academic knowledge and skill is now fast becoming a necessity to ensure good employability. Innovative efforts and initiatives to bridge the Industry-Academy divide, Entrepreneurship Development, corporate dynamism is the significant components to achieve the target of quality education. In keeping with India’s Vision 2020, “Our future depends not on what will happen to us, but on what we decide to become and on the will to create it”, students are equipped to be the change agent that will revitalize and sustain this revolution. This proposed approach for quality education leads to inculcating a flair for leadership, dynamism, courage of conviction, and unwavering commitment to excellence - all qualities necessary that will take our nation to new heights.
  14. 14. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 14 6. Towards Knowledge economy As mentioned earlier trigger a knowledge revolution is a need of this hour and Kerala towards a knowledge economy should be our tagline to achieve the target of education destination. All states measure its capacity on the basis its knowledge, skill and man power. Strategies to tap these resources have great relevance. A state like Kerala – a rapidly growing economy, demographic advantage and large pool of young people, strongly recommend to triggering a knowledge revolution in the state. Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India said, “The time has come to create a second wave of institution building, and of excellence in the fields of education, research and capability building so that we are better prepared for the 21st century.” To tap the untapped resources and opportunities, it needs a focused approach and a knowledge-oriented paradigm of development. This knowledge revolution will ease the effort towards knowledge economy and fulfill the dream of an education destination. This involves a significant improvement in existing systems of knowledge as well better avenues for knowledge development. It is more vital to make this effort participatory to ensure equitable access to knowledge across all sections of society. A ubiquitous effort for knowledge revolution will augment domestic research, innovation and facilitates in every sectors like education, health, agriculture, industry etc. this efforts will strengthen the education system and reforms the practices/curriculum existing. “The idea of the knowledge driven economy is not just a description of high tech industries. It describes a set of new sources of competitive advantage which can apply to all sectors, all companies and all regions, from agriculture and retailing to software and biotechnology” (New measures for the New Economy, report by Charles Leadbeater, June 1999).
  15. 15. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 15 National Knowledge Commission Terms of Reference Build excellence in the educational system to meet the knowledge challenges of the 21st century and increase India’s competitive advantage in fields of knowledge. Promote creation of knowledge in Science & Technology laboratories. Improve the management of institutions engaged in Intellectual Property Rights. Promote knowledge applications in Agriculture and Industry. Promote the use of knowledge capabilities in making government an effective, transparent and accountable service provider to the citizen and promote widespread sharing of knowledge to maximize public benefit. Kerala is highly networked in a small area with different communities, religions and groups. Additionally vast spread of specialized Keralites all around the globe and lively communication mediums are advantages of Kerala economy. These Non Resident Indians will become our representatives and ambassadors throughout the globe when the knowledge economy emerges. High quality manpower, substantial basic education and professional institutions will play a pivotal role in knowledge revolution. A multidisciplinary approach with core competency training and industrial experience in education are the essential requirement in the step forward. A knowledge society consists of individual as well as institutions that can provide efficient innovation system, research centers, universities, think tanks, consultants, and other organizations. It comprises of educated and skilled man power that can not only tap the growing stock of global knowledge but assimilate and adapt it to local needs, and create new technology. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can facilitate the effective communication, dissemination, and processing of information.
  16. 16. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 16 Fig 2: Towards knowledge economy The concept of knowledge society put forward the notion of – ‘it is not degrading but multiplies while we sharing knowledge’. This 'knowledge revolution' promulgates investment needs in science and technology, research and development and knowledge innovations which lead to the overall development. An increased focus on knowledge will strengthen the economic and social development by providing more efficient ways of producing goods and services and delivering them more effectively and at lower costs to a greater number of people. It will act as a medium to bridge the gap between countries as well as communities. The pace towards knowledge economy will catalyze not only government but also the private players to compete with developed countries in the wake of globalization. Additionally, it will stimulate investment in welfare, human capital, effective institutions, relevant technologies, and innovative and competitive enterprises.
  17. 17. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 17 Fig 3: An approach towards Knowledge Economy - NKC
  18. 18. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 18 7. Education destination Kerala – called as ‘Gods Own Country’ made its mark on tourism that triggered a noticeable change in the economy. While considering different social, geographical and political aspects of Kerala, it has no scope for a revolutionary development in industrial sector. Due to several factors like highly dense/populated state, lack of sufficient land for development, less per head land holding pattern, bad political weather etc. Kerala appeared as lesser investors friendly in industrial segment. However, IT develops in Kerala due to the creation of special economic zones and parks. But compare to the silicon cities like Bangalore and Hyderabad that developed very fast, Kerala is far away from the reality. During these developments we have witnessed a demographic change in the Kerala economy which is due to the increased migration of people to Singapore and Malaysia for working in different knowledge development initiatives, plantation works, supervisions and middle level management. Similar economic migration noticed in the society which was to the emerging and developing cities of India like Bombay, Delhi, Madras for working as stenographer, typist, nursing, para-medical staff, soldiers etc. These migration of people to Gulf as nurses, paramedical staff, skilled workers, enterprise operators; mass migration of nurses to Gulf countries, Germany, USA and other European States and the migration of skilled workers to the different parts of the whole world made Kerala a developed state. Due to the increased migration of educated man power to Gulf, USA and European countries, NRI remittance augments with a fast pace. We may surprised by the fact, NRI remittance in Kumbanad, a rural village in Tiruvalla is Rs. 5300 cr. as per the study 2009 which is highest in a village in India While considering the development in social indicators and education in Kerala our state was expected to expose itself as a developed state in all aspects. Even though some indicators like women’s education, financial dependency, family planning, family budget, low child mortality rates, high quality medical facilities etc. are widening the exceptional nature of Kerala, but she remains a consumer state rather than a producer state. The much acclaimed Kerala model
  19. 19. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 19 development completely failed to achieve a flexible and sustained growth and the above circumstances are proving that it is a folly. Though promulgating Kerala model, the real development keeps back seat. The only thing which pulls back the investors from Kerala is its over political Consciousness which disturbed the whole function and made development becomes a cumbersome process. Whereas accepting these stark facts, Kerala is a much attractive destination for the whole globe because of its cultural and national Integration, religious tolerance, enriched art, music, dance and heritages, development in sports, knowledge capital, natural resources, skilled man power, developed country experiences etc. Even our elder parents are visited in different developed countries. Reasonable growth in science and technology and better scenario in women education are also producing some positive impacts. The prestigious institutions like ISRO, ISSER, RGCB, RRL, Spices board, Rubber board etc. are augmenting it strength as an empowered state. A state with large area of sea coast, high ranges, world biodiversity hot spots, 44 river etc. exposed itself as a most attractive and vibrant destination. In the back ground of these developments in Kerala, the conclusion may be right; the only possible area of development for Kerala seems to be education, environment and climate. Among this tourism has already grabbed much attention and wide market. So the next focus should be on the education sector. In the wake of globalization and in a highly competitive era, parents have no inhibition to invest for educating their children. Recent studies proved that major portion of the income spends by parents is for educating their children and for providing them a better career. They feel that it produces better return – sow and reap is the strategy they adapted in the case of providing education to their children. Data brought out by the 61st round of National Sample Survey (2004-05) shows that, on an average, the per capita expenditure on education by the rural households in Kerala was more than double the national average (Rs.41 for Kerala against Rs.18 for India). Studies proved that the rural-urban difference in educational spending by households was much less in Kerala than in the country as a whole. The most alarming fact it revealed is that the proportion of
  20. 20. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 20 households spending on private tuition/coaching is much higher in rural Kerala than in rural India (17% in rural Kerala and 8% in rural India). A study (Nair 2004) on the household costs of school education in Kerala has shown that the percentage of students receiving private tuition ranged from 6.7% in the pre-primary schools to 34.1% in high schools. These ratios were 11.8% for lower primary schools, 21.5% for upper primary schools and 29.6% for higher secondary. These facts invariably prove that parents and students of Kerala have an urge for quality education. The New Education Policy 2000 triggered a call for change in the education sector of Kerala which favored emergence of Self-Financing education in the state. About an amount of 5000 crore investments from private sector has been estimated so far in the midst of quiet bad political weather and agitations. These outstanding efforts of private sector managed to build some better infrastructure and unleash innovations in education sector. It has not seen any parallel development in curriculum and education approach which was expected from Government. This stories apparently shows that a successful Public Private Partnership model can be developed in education sector in association with NRI,NRK, NGOs, religious institutes, societies and foreign investors. So Education can be considered as the USP (Unique Selling Proposition/Unique Selling Point or USP) of Kerala and should depict as a next immediate brand after tourism. Not only the developed countries but also developing countries are facing a huge crisis of manpower shortage, which are expected to rise to 40 million by 2020 in developed countries. This shortfall is an opportunity for Kerala, if we project our state as an education destination by providing quality education and innovative courses. Manpower shortages are both quantitative and qualitative in nature. While considering India with different countries, Japan has 4,000 universities for its 127 million people and the US has 3,650 universities for its 301 million, India has only 348 universities for its 1.2 billion people. This pathetic and alarming situation can repaired only through a strategic intervention and plans.
  21. 21. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 21 As mentioned earlier 'knowledge revolution' is the next step ahead to achieve the creation of knowledge economy and it will be the emerging economy after the ups and downs of capitalism and communalism. This knowledge revolution can start from south if we move ahead with the concept of education destination and hubs. There are closer links between science and technology; innovation is more important for economic growth and competitiveness; there is increased importance of education and life- long learning; and more investment is undertaken in intangibles (R&D, software and education) which are even greater than investments in fixed capital. And of course there is the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) explosion which brings worldwide interdependency and connectivity. Contrary to the situation of higher education, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the flagship project of the HRD ministry, is geared towards achieving useful and relevant elementary education for all children which would be spent in enhancing retention, a shift from the earlier focus on access and infrastructure. The Foreign University bill put forth by the Government can be instrumented to attract top education brands to Kerala. Mutual alliance and collaboration with foreign universities, investors meets, encouraging private entry and public private participation is required to develop an education destination in Kerala. This trend will create a suitable platform for professionals that will start reverse brain drain.
  22. 22. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 22 The development of the education sector with the objective of becoming an education destination with an international appeal needs firstly, to attract high levels of investment to support the development of a better infrastructure; secondly, to attract high quality faculty and administrators to drive curriculum reforms, and deliver a high quality education experience that is relevant and at the forefront of new knowledge; and thirdly the development of a sound governance structure to ensure accreditation meets global standards. A legislative framework is required to set out an enabling framework.
  23. 23. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 23 8. Education Hubs An Education Hub means a cluster of education intuitions from elementary to higher education which is instituted by the legislature to develop quality education. Hub enjoys special privilege and autonomy. However, it should be regulated by council and authority. The new education policy which aims for affordable and quality education, accountability to authorities/teachers and high tech infrastructure, will be incorporating in the development of different education hubs across the state. Fig 4: Education hubs in Kerala Following are the suggested locations for education hubs. Trivandrum Tiruvalla Thrissur Kochi Kannur Kottayam Kozhikode KOTTAYAM KOZHIKODE EDUCATION HUB
  24. 24. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 24 Tiruvananthapuram - administrative capital of Kerala with well known development in technology and education. Tiruvalla - NRI city in Kerala which flourished with different religious and educational institutes. Kochi - Business hub and capital of Kerala, always known as an IT hub with multitude of industries. Thrissur - Cultural capital of Kerala, a turf to propagate cultural rich and diverse Kerala Kottayam - a pioneering center of modern education in Kerala which grabbed 100% literacy in India first. Centre of journalism in Kerala Kaanur - in northern Kerala with rich untapped resources not only in tourism but also in various other aspects like art, culture and heritage Kozhikode - the most important region of Malabar in yesteryears was the capital of the powerful Zamorins and also a prominent trade and commerce center. Fig 5: Education hubs – Kerala Education hubs are not mean for creating large number of institutions and infrastructure but it should start from the up gradation of existing education facilities and infrastructure. Along with quality up gradation of existing system, the lacunas in education sector can be filled with private investment and participation. All hubs shall ensure education from lower level to higher level or elementary to higher education thereby Kerala became a sustainable model by providing all sorts of education.
  25. 25. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 25 Fig 6: Kerala education hub model An education destination which comprises of different education hubs with state of art facilities and high tech IT infrastructure will ensure quality education with a 360 degree flexible Auditorium/Hostel/Refreshment/ Home stays/Gurukulams Digital Library/conference Hall/ /Centre for Art and Culture Indoor and outdoor sports stadiums/Gyms/ Spa/Recreation Centers Research and development centre/Emporiums Training Centre/Counseling/Placement Cell/centre for Excellence Business Complex/ Banks/ATMS/ corners/Language Training International/National/state Institutes and Universities Education Hub KERALA – CENTRE FOR EXCELLENCE AN ALL ROUND EXCELLENCE IN EDUCATION
  26. 26. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 26 approach. These hubs consist of private/public schools, national and international institutes, research and development centers, private universities, communication centers and training and development facilities. Fig 7: Education destination Model These hubs comprise of high tech campuses of private universities, research and development centers, training campus, language training centers, skill enhancement centers, indoor and outdoor auditoriums, conference halls, sports and gyms, recreation centers, digital libraries, business complexes, spas and hotels etc. Additionally it includes some unique initiatives like cultural museums, craft centers, art emporiums and traditional theatres to propagate the culture and value systems of Kerala..
  27. 27. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 27 Education hubs shall be the centre for affordable education. Existing policies liberally support students and parents for higher education. Now higher education is an affordable one to the people irrespective of cast, creed, religion and community. Facilities like sponsorship, scholarship, subsidies and loans can make a positive and convincing trend in education hubs. Additionally opportunities for paid internship, training, apprenticeship and industrial interface programs will ensure education self sustainable and that will attract the global audience. The importance of clusters of networked organizations, institutions and firms in a defined geographical area to support high levels of innovative development in particular technologies, industries, arts and cultural activities is well established in the innovation literature. High quality educational institutions are an essential component in the development of these regional economies. This cluster concept underlies the establishment of techno-parks, and is here applied to the development of education hubs. Entry to the hubs shall be restricted or limited by certain criteria that should ensure accountability of institutes. This criterion can be designed by incorporating various criteria like quality education, accountability, better infrastructure, affordable education, reformed curriculum, industrial interface programs etc. This shall be monitored by the apex council for education hubs. During this pace towards education destination some matters that should take consideration are, Quality Education Better infrastructure Affordable Education International Facilities with socio-cultural flavor Indian Value System Environmental consciousness Branding
  28. 28. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 28 Fig 7: Education destination approach An adept and overt effort for branding and marketing of Kerala is much required. Various venues like international conferences, investors meet, education fairs, experts talk, exhibitions etc. can conduct to lift Kerala in to the top most position in education. Similar to the branding exercises of Kerala Tourism – God’s own country, a prudent endeavor is required to escalate Kerala as an education destination. A dynamic and dedicated attempt to marketize Kerala as an education, undoubtedly create Kerala as a hot spot for quality education.
  29. 29. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 29 9. Public Private Participation – a strategy for development The education system of Kerala provides equal access to education irrespective of gender, social class and income. In fact, various community groups and organizations were competed with each other in starting educational institutions and gave emphasis on the education of lower castes, downtrodden and women. This easy access, sufficient loan facilities, subsidies and grants together with the increased proximity of institutions have certainly enhanced the physical access to educational institutions in Kerala. When times goes it has find an extreme degradation in quality because of lack of necessary up gradations and reforms. This decline in quality especially in the public system of education, promoted the mushrooming of private coaching centers and parallel colleges. In the same instance importance of higher education further increases in the era of international competition and globalization. So parents and students started to opt education which provides international exposure and industrial experience. Additionally, the constraints in market tempted them to go for job oriented courses. But Kerala was lacking the same in exposure and innovative courses. While comparing the demands and requirements of society with existing education conditions, yet it is grossly inadequate. This has lead to a mass migration of students to neighboring states and foreign countries for better education. Present scenario invariably proves that private initiatives are much better than government initiatives. Quality up gradation, effective manpower and innovative marketing strategies make unaided institutes much attractive to parents and students rather than aided institutions. The efforts of Government to modernize schools are not yet survived and not get any attention by the society. These efforts may take years to upgrade and build quality infrastructure in aided schools. In Kerala, we don’t have any world-class institutions of higher education such as IITs and IITMs and on the other hand, institutions/universities which function more as ordinary centers, rather than as centers of achieving innovative excellence.
  30. 30. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 30 Whilst considering the above circumstances, our current education sector is not fit to cope with growing market demand and global competition. At the same time our state is blessed with large number of private investors. Various studies show that NRKs have remitted more than US$42 billion to Kerala in the last 35 years. Weekly newsmagazine India Today reports that non- resident external deposits with Kerala banks, which were US$6.73 billion in June 2008, are expected to cross US$7.39 billion by June this year. As a major exporter of manpower to Gulf countries, this can be considered as a hidden opportunity for Kerala. The additional vantages of Kerala like best social infrastructure, highest physical quality of life and better manpower may sharpen the competitive edge of Kerala. So the strategy should give focus on build multi structural infrastructure, develop human resources and focused marketing of state. Fig 8: Public private partnership model Thus an increased private investment is imperative to expand infrastructure and provide greater access to quality higher education in India. Different reports like E&Y - FICCI emphasize that PPPs is an effective mechanism for attracting much needed private sector investment in the Indian Higher education system without diluting the Government norms and other GOVERNMENT INVESTORS TEACHERS STUDENTS PARENTS STUDENT ORIENTED EDUCATION STATE OF ART INFRASTRUCTURE UPDATED CURRICULUM AFFORDABLE EDUCATION PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
  31. 31. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 31 education restrictions and regulators. In order to achieve the dream of Kerala – an Education hub, a strong Public Private Partnership initiative is required and it is a need of this hour. As a literate state with convincing standards, we should give emphasis on Right to Quality Education rather than Right to education. Education institutes with high tech facilities, gorgeous infrastructure, reformed curriculums, better facilities for research and development, exceptional manpower and transparent system shall be developed. And this is not possible alone by Government; part of the solution lays in forging strong partnerships between the private sector and the academia. Thus a Public Private Partnership in education can bring an apparent change in the education sector. In the wake of foreign University Bill, Government can make some key collaboration with universities abroad to set up campus in the state instead of off shore practice. This will help to attract students from abroad as well as retain students here. By encouraging public-private partnerships, attract foreign direct investment (FDI), provide independent accreditation rating systems and grant autonomy in governance the education scenario in Kerala will give way for outstanding developments . As mentioned as well as the core concept it should be guided by a comprehensive master plans and curriculum, continuous reforms and assessments, effective recruitment and training strategies, leadership development, integration of collaborative technologies so that it will increase our competitive edge. This PPP will enable us to identify and rectify the existing gaps in knowledge, skill and attitude. The principle behind encouraging public private partnerships (PPP's) in education is to improve educational facilities and for expanding equitable access to schooling. The benefit multiplies while in higher education. Different success stories like the initiatives of Infosys Global Training centre at Mysore, Wipro’s Trivandrum Training campus, Cisco and Reddy’s lab efforts for industrial training etc. have been leading the way in building sustained programs to impart the desired skills at a college level. It equips the students to cope with the competitive job market and helps them acquire different social as well as professional skills in an environment of learning and mentoring. These partnership modes convincingly support the personal and emotional development of students.
  32. 32. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 32 Thus PPP's, when implement rightly we can augment efficiency, choice and quality as well as expand access to education services. The budget presented in Parliament this year envisages to spend Rs.52,057 crore on education in the year 2011-12 to ensure "inclusive growth" for all. Calling education as the tool of empowerment to reap the benefit of India's demographic dividend of a young population, Finance minister announced a hike of 24 percent in the budget spending for education. While addressing, he remarked that "Our demographic dividend, a relatively younger population compared to developed countries, is as much of an opportunity as it is a challenge. Over 70 percent of India will be of working age by 2025. In this context universalizing access to secondary education, increasing percentage of our scholars in higher education and providing skills training is necessary.” The allocation under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has hiked by 40 percent. Additionally, describing education as a means of empowerment, the finance minister also announced a scheme for scholarship for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe students in Class 9 and 10. Azim Premji University (APU) Azim Premji University (APU) is one of the private universities set up by the corporate giant Azim Premji Foundation. This has been emerged as a model for quality education with focused approach. The approach, methodology and strategies of APU are attractive as well as viable. A brief idea about APU as per the Azim Premji Foundation is summarized below. The APU will be an institution of excellence in the area of education to develop outstanding education thinkers & leaders, and also serve as a think tank for long-term education change and sustainable development. Akin to the IITs, AIIMS, IIMs and the NLSUI respectively focused on Science & Technology, Medicine, Management and Law, the APU will in effect be an IIE focused on Education. The APU's vision is to promote, conceptualize and create a paradigm shift through development of outstanding leadership, research, knowledge and ideas for education and allied development sectors. The objectives of the APU include
  33. 33. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 33 o Creating Intellectual Capital: through research based theory and outstanding, creative and socially committed leaders and thinkers. Expand the frontiers of knowledge in education and allied disciplines o Practice informed by sound theory: Serve as a national education resource center and present an alternative authentic voice for educational and social change o Demonstrating models for effective development of teachers and education leaders The APU has been set up through a section 25 company and will be autonomous and self-funded with no dependency on funds from the Karnataka Government. The Azim Premji University Ordinance 2009, was passed by the Karnataka Government in November 2009. The APU is being set up on 50 acres of land in Sarjapur, near Bangalore. The land is being provided by the section 25 company, which is acquiring it directly from the owners. It will be a fully residential university. The APU will not be aiming to recover all its expenditure from tuition fees. Any budgetary gap between income and expenditure will be bridged by funds provided by Section 25 Company being established by Azim Premji. The first students will join the university in 2011. The APU will start by offering masters level courses and eventually also run a Ph.D. program. Apart from the classroom lectures, the students at the APU will be required to do field work in schools as an integral part of their learning. The APU, in addition to developing education professionals and contributing to research will work towards strengthening the educational space by: o Increasing the public debate on alternative approaches towards educational excellence o Creating possibilities and opportunities to promote innovation and piloting of new ideas/approaches
  34. 34. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 34 o Supporting state and central governments to move towards a quality education revolution o Serving as a resource centre for the country in the areas of education and development o Emerging as a centre of excellence in education policy and implementation
  35. 35. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 35 10. Reformation for education systems Reformed curriculum and courses can equip students with the relevant skills, so that they can make significant contribution for the growth of emerging knowledge economy. Instead of increased focus on theoretical learning students should get more practical experience and exposure that make them employable. A curriculum which focuses on job-specific skills, soft skills, communication skills and aptitude development can contribute and mold students for the world of knowledge economy. As part of the study students shall get much industrial exposure and this can be possible only by building key collaborations and alliance with industrial partners. The industrial interface programs and training/apprenticeships shall pave way to ensure this in practice. By providing industrial experience with practical oriented curriculum, students can come out with employable skills that will take away the need of skill enhancement training and value added courses. The existing lacuna can be filled by introducing this policy in coming courses. In addition to this, these companies can also keep universities/institutions by up-to-dating technology changes, customer preferences and requirement changes, so that they can plug gaps in expertise or facilities. Thus institutions can upgrade their quality and keep themselves away from obsolescence. Report of ‘The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education’ by Yespal Committee suggested that “Curricular reform in this regard would include compulsory exposure and engagement with different kinds of work, in the form of summer jobs or internships, according to the circumstances and surroundings of the particular university, and should include both manual and other kinds of work/occupations, with a certain minimum set of occupational exposure compulsory for all students, irrespective of discipline. Evaluating students on these fronts would necessarily have to analyze how well they have understood, and are as a result capable of applying themselves to work and be problem-solving in these situations.” The report also suggested a National level Accreditation system so that all private
  36. 36. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 36 institutions, which seek the status of a university, can submit their applications to this national accreditation system. India needs ‘curricular reforms'. In today's world, where technological knowhow is evolving with each day, educational institutions need to be granted the freedom to engage with the industry and change the curricula as and when required. Educational institutions must teach what the industry needs. Industry-academia collaboration may include companies and institutes conducting joint R&D, industry internships, and corporate training and certifying students of affiliated institutes. Lastly, foreign university collaborations can offer access to world class faculty and international students, curriculum based on global standards and sharing of culture. These may take the shape of exchange programs, joint research projects or sharing of infrastructure facilities.” Prof. Yespal recommended that in order to enrich our higher education we might invite from abroad a substantial number of potentially great academics and scientists to work with our students and teachers. Summer jobs or internships, according to the circumstances and surroundings of the particular university are also important. The current environment favors those criteria which can generate enumerative data, such as the number of research papers published by the faculty in journals, the number of patents acquired, and so on. Lacks of training given to the teachers at the entry point and inadequate training during their service have also led to deterioration in quality. The distant and disconnect of existing education systems which focuses more on theory rather than practical, quantity rather than quality. Most of the higher education curriculums are keeping this aloof. Modern higher education system requires extension facilities, sophisticated equipment, highly specialized knowledge and competent teachers. It would not be possible for every university to possess the best of these infrastructures. Hence, one of the primary tasks of the NCHER to create several inter-university centres (IUCs) in diverse fields to create the best of these possibilities and attract the participation of several institutions of higher learning to avail them.
  37. 37. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 37 Another important factor which needs to consider is environmental consciousness and Indian moral system which is not only in curriculum but also in development strategies for the creation of education destination. Curriculums shall be incorporated with green concepts which should persuade students to keep our environment clean, green and filth free. By encapsulating, the notion is for the achievement of sustainable development through awaking the importance of nature, environment and values. The values system which comprises of culture, art, life style, traditions etc. should preserve and promote through the developing systems. Additionally infrastructure and designs should follow the green concepts like green building, eco office and green certification. Ultimately the new education policy aims for the creation of knowledge society which will lead to economic growth, creation of better man power, reverse brain drain, promotion and preservation of indigenous values systems and a society with good environmental consciousness. The reform from the side of Government - Interest Free Education Loan was a most welcoming one. It is announced by the Indian Government for Indian students who are pursuing the studies in India. It is one of the great reforms in the education sector to help the poor students. The qualification to avail this scheme is that family income below Rs.4.5 lakhs per annum. Additionally if we pay the interest on these periods of education, it will be returned to the bank account. Such reforms from Government side as well as from private enterprises are helpful to ensure higher education an affordable dream. Creation of an education council is also having an utmost importance. Upgrading or instead of Kerala Council for Higher Education (KCHE), an apex committee for higher education is mooted. This council will be the sole authority for quality, training and capacity building, accreditations, curriculum reforms and continuous monitoring and improvement. Thus an overall flexible development in education both in elementary and higher become possible. The figure below depicts the key components in the governance structure of the education institutions in the education hubs. The education council and authority instituted by the legislature regulates the institutions in the education hubs
  38. 38. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 38 Fig 9: Education council for Kerala This council can design and suggest effective mechanism to avoid quality degradation and exploitation in education sector. Strategies to ensure education an affordable subject by providing sufficient subsidies, reservations, bank loans and scholarships can be come under this council. While promulgating the entry of private players in education sector, key interventions to regulate and restrict unfair practices and exploitations shall be framed. The institutional structure of an education destination needs to satisfy a wide range of educational needs, to provide a rich choice of educational paths, and to develop a critical mass to attract quality faculty and students, and potential employers of graduates. Above figure depicts such an institutional structure which includes primary and secondary schools, tertiary education colleges and universities, national and international tertiary level institutes, research and development centres, training and development centres offering short courses for industry, and a variety of institutes/centres offering specialist training certificates/diplomas to meet the highly specific needs of various occupations and industries such as in agriculture, tourism, port development and transport, health services, the finance and IT industries, and new developments in biotechnologies and environmental sciences.
  39. 39. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 39 11. Voucher System – a tool to enhance accountability It is being noticed that education is essential not only for the development of individuals but also for the betterment of society. But at the same time, the present system of education is not at all competent to provide quality education to the aspirants. This is strongly compelled for the complete restructuring of education policies and redefining roles of education stakeholders (government, schools, and families) in the delivery of education. The main factor behind the degradation of present education system is the lack of competition and accountability of authorities and teachers. So the best solution to end this practice will be the implementation of Voucher system. The increased choice and competition can only improve the quality of our basic education as well as its financial viability. Choice and competition are as crucial in elementary as in higher education. Thereby voucher system increase choice and competition, making schools student- centered and linking schools’ revenues with performance which will improve the quantity and quality of education. While encapsulating, an education voucher is a certificate issued by the government to parents rather than to the school chosen by the parents of the child being educated. It is also called an education voucher. Even private suppliers like foundations, trusts or philanthropists can distribute vouchers by sponsoring it. The main purpose of vouchers is to increase parents’ freedom to choose the school they prefer for their children. One of the desirable consequences is the initiation of competition among public schools as well as between public and private schools. The greatest advantages of voucher system is that, this free market for education services lowers costs and improves accountability of school authorities and teachers at the same time. By getting maximum degree of choice for students, they will seek for quality education and high tech institutes. Vouchers are the determinant factor for the revenue of teachers and institute so that it will force these stake holders to enhance the quality of education.
  40. 40. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 40 EDUCATION INSTITUTE/TEACHERS Fig 10: Voucher Mechanism VOUCHER P E R F O R M A N C E A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y VOUCHER SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE MAN POWER QUALITY
  41. 41. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 41 12. Conclusion Kerala an education destination – the suggested education policy look forward towards the creation of knowledge society here in Kerala. It aims to ensure quality education to all instead of Right for education. The idea of creating education destination through various education hubs will enhance the venues for better education and that will attract global brands to the ‘God’s own country’. In addition to the creation of education destination and education hubs the core ideas mooted are the reformation of curriculum, student centered education system, towards to knowledge economy, affordable education, education council and voucher system- a tool to enhance accountability. In nucleus, whole notions aim for the development of a knowledge economy through knowledge revolution which is possible only by ensuring quality and affordable education to all.
  42. 42. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 42 13. Reference  Defining the knowledge economy - Ian Brinkley  Reverse Exodus: Gulf Workers Return to India, Bringing New Travails – Indian Knowledge Wharton  Public-private Partnership in Education Needed in India – Article base  Need for Greater Role of Industry in Higher Education in India – Naresh Wadhwa  What Is Wrong With Kerala’s Education System? - K.K. George and N.Ajith Kumar  Higher Education and Development in Kerala - Jandhyala B G Tilak  Developments In Higher Education In India – A Critique - K.K.George And Reji Raman  Kerala’s Education System: From Inclusion to Exclusion? - N. Ajith Kumar, K.K. George  Report of ‘The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education’ – Yespal Committee  Higher Education in India - Reforms needed – India Notes  New Education Policy: Choice and Competition - Parth J. Shah  Education Vouchers: Is there a Model for India? - Eva Weidrich  Knowledge Economy and Strategies to Harness Potentialities of Kerala - Saji T D  National Knowledge Commission Report to Nation 2006
  43. 43. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 43 14. APPENDIX Education in Kerala – A Recap The pre-eminent position of Kerala in educational development dates back to the second half of the 19th century itself. During the period of British as well as the post-independence period, the literacy levels in Kerala remained much higher than that at the national level. It was the non-governmental agencies that had championed the cause of education and had taken initiatives in starting educational institutions of different kinds. Western missionaries, local churches, community organizations and social reformers were in the forefront of educational endeavors in the State. They received ample support from the rulers both during the pre- independence period and in the post independence period through grants and aids. Thereafter effective public private partnerships have led to the present position of Kerala in school education. An existing scenario of education in Kerala is summarized below. Schooling has been conducted in three different stages - Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary. In Kerala, there were 12,310 schools in 1999-2000 having 6726 lower primary (LP) schools, 2968 upper primary (UP) schools and 2580 high schools. Kerala schools posses better physical and basic facilities compared to those in other parts of India. 83% of schools are housed in proper buildings, 84% of Government schools have drinking water facilities and 85% have urinals / latrine facilities. Primary Education It consists of 2 levels, lower primary (Std I - IV) and Upper Primary (Std V to VII). This comprises the biggest segment of the state’s education system. Almost every village has more than five primary schools. There are 6,726 lower primary and 2,968 upper primary schools. Of the primary schools 61.07% are private aided, 2.98% are private unaided and 35.95% are government schools.
  44. 44. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 44 Secondary Education A substantial increase of secondary schools was found in Kerala, i.e.., during 1996-97 there were 2,580 secondary schools as against 895 in 1960-61. These include 975 Government schools (37.67%), 1,400 private aided schools (54.1%) and 213 private unaided schools (8.23%). Higher Secondary Education There are 931 higher secondary schools (HSS) of which 417 are in government sector, 506 in aided sector and 8 in unaided sector. The H.S.S intake increased from 20,092 in 1997 to 1,65,600 in 2000. Girl students constitute 58%. In 1997-98 pre-degree courses in 26 Government colleges have been de linked and higher secondary courses have been sanctioned in 103 government schools. Vocational Higher Secondary Education It was formally introduced in Kerala at the higher secondary level (+2 stage) in 1983-84. There are 322 VHS School (231 Govt. & 91 Private) handling 814 schools of Vocational courses in 45 subjects. Subjects are related to agriculture (livestock management and fisheries), health and paramedical service, business and commerce, home science and humanities and service sectors in engineering and technology. Clothing and embroidery, cosmetology and management of beauty parlours, crèche-pre-school management are courses exclusively for girls. Education of the disabled There are 23 recognized special schools for the disabled and about 3,000 children study in them. They are managed mostly by charity agencies like the Kerala Federation of the Blind There are Seven Universities in Kerala and 592Collegesproviding a whole bunch of education all together. “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the Father, the Mother and the Teacher. ” – Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  45. 45. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 45 CATEGORY State Universities Central Institutes 1. University of Kerala, Trivandrum (174) 2. University of Calicut, Kozhikode (306) 3. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur (53) 4. Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (24) 5. Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam (183)) 6. Kannur University, Kannur (102) 7. Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam 8. Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University 9. Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies 1. Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode 2. Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram 3. Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 4. Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Kochi (proposed in CUSAT) 5. Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 6. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 7. National Institute of Technology, Calicut 8. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi 9. Central University of Kerala, Kasargod 10. Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET) 11. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) 12. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) 13. Library and Bio informatics Centre, CPCRI NB: Number of colleges in brackets (As per the details in University Website) Fig 11: Number of higher education Institutes in Kerala (A) Kerala Higher Education aims to par excel students in specialized fields of their interest and it categorized in to Graduation (Bachelor's degree) and Post-Graduation (Master's degree). Many professional and self-financing colleges have offered number of professional courses throughout the state. All colleges in Kerala are affiliated to one of the Universities in the state.
  46. 46. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 46 There are seven State Universities which consists of different colleges and nine institutes established by central government are in Kerala. List of the state universities and central Institutes are as follows. No Type of Institute Total Govt /Aided Self financing 1 Engineering 89 12 77 2 MBA 29 (1995) 21 8 3 Pharmacy 31 3 29 4 MCA 35 11 24 5 Hotel Mgt. 4 4 6 Medical Colleges 21 5 17 8 PGDBM 6 6 9 ARCHITECTURE 5 4 1 10 Ayurveda 7 11 Dental 24 5 19 12 Homeo 5 2 3 13 BSc Nursing 104 9 95 14 General nursing 229 13 216 15 Arts and Science 36 16 Poly technique 56 Fig 12. Education Institutes in Kerala
  47. 47. New Education Policy – Kerala 2011 M A R A T H A N A S I O S C O L L E G E F O R A D V A N C E D S T U D I E S , T I R U V A L L A ( M A C F A S T ) Page 47 Fig 13: Education institutes in Kerala Studies show that Nursing, Engineering, Poly technique (51) and Arts and Science (36) are the major type of education institutes exist in Kerala. Even though nursing institutes are major among courses, migration for nursing courses is very high in the state. Additionally, professional courses like Engineering, medical and job oriented courses like poly technique are much attractive to students and parents rather than traditional courses. It undoubtedly proves that our demands are not met by the existing supply and need to invest more in higher education sector particularly in professional education. **********************