Redistricting, Reapportionment andReformMorgan CullenNational Conference of State Legislatures
Redistricting Overview What? Why? When? Who? Where? How? So What?
Redistricting 2010-What?RedistrictingorReapportionment
Redistricting 2010-Why?Baker v. Carr, 1962• Congress: as equal as possible• State legislature: up to 10% “deviation,”if fo...
Redistricting 2010-When? All Census Data was delivered by April 1st Final Deadline--2012 elections (except Maine &Montan...
2013 RedistrictingProgress Report—April 10thRedistricting Plans IncompleteRedistricting Plans CompleteRedistricting Plans ...
Reapportionment 2010-Where?4
Redistricting 2010-Who? Board or commission-- 13 States for Legislative Lines 7 States for U.S. House Advisory Back-u...
Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013BackupPrimaryAdvisory
Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013Party Appointed CommissionBackupAdvisoryIndependentPolitician/Politician Appointe...
California Citizens RedistrictingCommission 14 member commission (5 Dem, 5 GOP, 4other) State Auditors Office selects 60...
Iowa Model Three maps drawn by nonpartisanlegislative staff No political data can be used Legislature must approve--noa...
Party Control of RedistrictingU.S. House Districts1990 2000 2010 2011Democrats 168 135 110 47Republicans 5 98 90 202Split ...
Redistricting 2010-How? Population equality Comply with Voting Rights Act and 14thAmendment Traditional Districting Pri...
The Voting Rights ActSection 2 • Do minorities represent most ofthe voters in a concentratedarea?• Do other voters tend to...
Illinois Congressional District - 2001
Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbsburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbssuburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
The Voting Rights ActSection 5• “Preclearance” for certainjurisdictions• Is the new map intended to dilute minority votes?...
After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interestState leg. ...
State Mandates On PartisanCompetitiveness/FairnessFair DistrictsCompetitive Districts
Florida State Legislature Party Composition23Representatives 120 120Republicans 81 76Democrats 39 44Senators 40 40Republic...
Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws--not all about Gerrymandering Changes i...
Thank You!Morgan CullenMorgan.Cullen@ncsl.orgNational Conference of State Legislatures
"Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
"Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
"Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
“The once-in-a-decaderedrawing of politicalboundaries is exceedinglyimportant and excruciatinglyarcane.”--Los Angeles Times
After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interest• Partisans...
Court Sent Map Back To LegislatureCourt Approved Legislative MapCourt Drew Map (Not Legislature)Court Approved Commission ...
CD 7CD 6CD 1
Redistricting 2010-How? Legal--Population equality &Compliance with Voting Rights Act and14th Amendment and not subvertin...
Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws 2010 Redistricting Cycle: 3 states req...
"Redistricting may be the single leastinteresting word in the Englishlanguage."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento Bee“The once-in-a-...
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
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Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform

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Morgan Cullen National Conference of State Legislatures

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Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform

  1. 1. Redistricting, Reapportionment andReformMorgan CullenNational Conference of State Legislatures
  2. 2. Redistricting Overview What? Why? When? Who? Where? How? So What?
  3. 3. Redistricting 2010-What?RedistrictingorReapportionment
  4. 4. Redistricting 2010-Why?Baker v. Carr, 1962• Congress: as equal as possible• State legislature: up to 10% “deviation,”if for good reason
  5. 5. Redistricting 2010-When? All Census Data was delivered by April 1st Final Deadline--2012 elections (except Maine &Montana) Filing deadline for candidates for primary Time for local officials to re-precinct Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act Preclearance--add60 (or 120) + days Four states had 2011 legislative elections Two states don’t have legislative elections until2014
  6. 6. 2013 RedistrictingProgress Report—April 10thRedistricting Plans IncompleteRedistricting Plans CompleteRedistricting Plans CompleteLawsuit Pending
  7. 7. Reapportionment 2010-Where?4
  8. 8. Redistricting 2010-Who? Board or commission-- 13 States for Legislative Lines 7 States for U.S. House Advisory Back-up Iowa model Courts (Mandatory Review Process KS, CO, FL) Legislature 37 States for Legislative Lines
  9. 9. Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013BackupPrimaryAdvisory
  10. 10. Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013Party Appointed CommissionBackupAdvisoryIndependentPolitician/Politician AppointedTotal Legislative ControlLegislature
  11. 11. California Citizens RedistrictingCommission 14 member commission (5 Dem, 5 GOP, 4other) State Auditors Office selects 60 registeredvoters Legislative Leaders can reduce the pool Auditors office then selects 8 memberthrough a lottery Those eight members pick rest of themembers Plans must be approved by a supermajority
  12. 12. Iowa Model Three maps drawn by nonpartisanlegislative staff No political data can be used Legislature must approve--noamendments Legislature can re-take control of thirdset of proposed maps
  13. 13. Party Control of RedistrictingU.S. House Districts1990 2000 2010 2011Democrats 168 135 110 47Republicans 5 98 90 202Split 240 157 189 87Commission& Iowa15 38 39 92At-Large 7 7 7 7
  14. 14. Redistricting 2010-How? Population equality Comply with Voting Rights Act and 14thAmendment Traditional Districting Principles Technology--software and data
  15. 15. The Voting Rights ActSection 2 • Do minorities represent most ofthe voters in a concentratedarea?• Do other voters tend to vote fordifferent candidates thanminorities?• Is the minority populationotherwise protected given the“totality of the circumstances”?Do Not Dilute
  16. 16. Illinois Congressional District - 2001
  17. 17. Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbsburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
  18. 18. Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbssuburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
  19. 19. The Voting Rights ActSection 5• “Preclearance” for certainjurisdictions• Is the new map intended to dilute minority votes?• Does the new map leave minority voters worseoff?(“retrogression”)
  20. 20. After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interestState leg. Congress48 2346 2038 1922 13
  21. 21. State Mandates On PartisanCompetitiveness/FairnessFair DistrictsCompetitive Districts
  22. 22. Florida State Legislature Party Composition23Representatives 120 120Republicans 81 76Democrats 39 44Senators 40 40Republicans 28 26Democrats 12 142011-2012 2013-2014
  23. 23. Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws--not all about Gerrymandering Changes in 2010: Prisoners California Public Access/Participation ACS
  24. 24. Thank You!Morgan CullenMorgan.Cullen@ncsl.orgNational Conference of State Legislatures
  25. 25. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  26. 26. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  27. 27. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  28. 28. “The once-in-a-decaderedrawing of politicalboundaries is exceedinglyimportant and excruciatinglyarcane.”--Los Angeles Times
  29. 29. After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interest• Partisanship/competitionState leg. Congress48 2243 1837 1724 1310 7
  30. 30. Court Sent Map Back To LegislatureCourt Approved Legislative MapCourt Drew Map (Not Legislature)Court Approved Commission MapCourt Sent Map Back to CommissionCourt Drew Map (Not Commission)
  31. 31. CD 7CD 6CD 1
  32. 32. Redistricting 2010-How? Legal--Population equality &Compliance with Voting Rights Act and14th Amendment and not subvertingtraditional districting principles andmaking race the predominant factor indrawing a plan Technology--software and data
  33. 33. Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws 2010 Redistricting Cycle: 3 states require adjusted data for prisons Public involvement ACS/CVAP California commission Dramatic Hispanic growth and ruralpopulation loss
  34. 34. "Redistricting may be the single leastinteresting word in the Englishlanguage."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento Bee“The once-in-a-decade redrawing ofpolitical boundaries is exceedinglyimportant and excruciatingly arcane.”-- Mark Z. Barabak, Los Angeles Times

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