Dr Paul Rhodes Senior LecturerClinical Psychology Unit, University of Sydney Lisa Dawson PhD Candidate
Outline Introduction to Narrative Inquiry What is it and how does it compare with other methods How do you actually do it? Examples of Usyd research projects* Tips for beginners? Critique Exercises
What is Narrative Inquiry(Howie, 2010, Connelly and Clandinin, 1990) Each research method generates data in different forms: effects, mechanisms of change, themes and models, turn- taking processes, etc* Narrative inquiry generates data in the form of stories and typologies of stories Preserves the complexity and temporal context of lived experience Temporal unity is maintained through the use of plot narrative inquiry is not what happened so much as what meaning did people make of what happened.
Plot provides structure allowing for the representation of how people make sense of their lives both in the past and now the present It is also captured in the form of internalized soliloquies (Athens, 1994, Ezzy, 1998).These are the conversations one has with oneself or imagined others. Narrative analysis also focuses on who is mentioned in the telling of events (and who is absent) and the role they have in the telling of events Gergen and Gergen (1984) refer to these people as the supporting cast of a persons narrative.
Predicated on the view that the self is not a ‘thing’ but is storied and multi-storied* Narrative inquiry can be seen as ‘folk research’ in that it mirrors modes of knowledge that are common place Used in history, anthropology, medicine, psychology, nursing, ect. Canagarajah (1996) argues that narratives function in opposition to elitist scholarly discourses providing a way for marginalised groups to participate on knowledge construction 2 examples
Hunter 2010Evolving Narratives About Childhood Sexual Abuse:Challenging the Dominance of the Victim and Survivor ParadigmThis research project explored the ongoing process of constructing a narrative,following childhood sexual abuse.Twenty-two men and women aged 25–70 were interviewed about their childhoodsexual experiences with adults using narrative inquiry methodology. Theseexperiences occurred in different social and historical contexts, when thetheoretical understandings and treatment of the issue of child sexual abuse weresignificantly different from the present.Many factors made disclosure even more difficult then than it is now includingrespect for authority; rigid gender roles; the taboo surrounding sexual issues; lackof supportive adults;and lack of language to describe what was happening.
Participants told four differing narratives about their experiences: narratives of silence;narratives of ongoing suffering; narratives of transformation; and narratives oftranscendence.These narratives were examined in relation to the changing social and historical context andthe current dominance of the victim and survivor paradigm in the child sexual abuseliterature.
Huynh & Rhodes (2011)Why do people choose to become psychologists? A narrativeinquiry Research suggests that mental health professionals have more problematic family backgrounds than other professions, but little is known about the role that early experience has on career choice. This is of particular importance for the education of psychologists, given the current emphasis on skills and research training and the call for a greater focus on personal development. This study aimed to explore connections between distressing events and career choice, using a qualitative narrative inquiry research design. Fifteen students participated, each undertaking junior psychology courses.
For many distressing experiences in childhood, adolescence or earlyadulthood were directly related to career choice, supporting thedevelopment of empathy for others and inspiring them through bothgood and bad encounters with helping professionals. While a majorityof participants followed this route to psychology training others wereinspired by positive experiences, particularly in the satisfaction andthe recognition of personal suitability gained from a variety of helpingroles.More research is required, to assess the personal development ofneeds of students, to map their occupational prognoses and to trialpersonal development initiatives in university settings
MethodSampling Purposive (or non-probability sampling) rather than representative sampling 1.Homogeneous sampling 2.Extreme or Deviant Case Sampling: Sometimes extreme cases are of interest because they represent the purest or most clear cut instance of a phenomenon we are interested in 3.Criterion Sampling: This involves searching for cases or individuals who meet a certain criterion, e.g., that they have a certain disease or have had a particular life experience or scored high on a particular test.
Data collection and analysis1.Develop an interview schedule: eg, a set of questions or guidelines(Journals and diaries can be used too augmented by graphicalrepresentations)The Art of Listening: Maple and Edwards, Qualitative Journeys (2009)One of the distinguishing features of qualitative journeys is that researchers must listencarefully, attentively, and analytically to the experiences that are described. It takes considerabletraining and practice to learn to withhold your own biases, preconceptions,and expectations in order to hear clearly what is being said, rather than “hearing” whatyou anticipate will be expressed. Qualitative interviewing involves opening yourself up toexplore, and being surprised with what you learn. It means taking on a position ofrespectful curiosity, prompting open sharing in such a way that you don’t overstructureand guide the conversation, but instead allow participants to tell their own stories intheir own unique ways. This is remarkably difficult to do since often you must surrendercontrol and a position of authority.
2.Transcribe interview with line numbers and interviewer/side issues removed3.Read it through with research question in mind making notes on another column with ref to line numbers4.Create stories: third person, past tense, chronological order, plot, scenes, character, begin and end: Insert direct refs to transcript as required5.Member check with participants
Personal Challenges Elicited by the Process : Maple and Edwards, QualitativeJourneys (2009)This qualitative journey describes vividly the ways that this kind of research can be soinformative and fulfilling, yet also disturbing and evocative. It takes a lot of emotionalenergy and resilience on the part of the researcher to remain with the participant—andthe data—when it reveals such agonizing stories. Whereas objectivity and rigor aredefined as a form of detachment in quantitative research, the qualitative scholar has tofind attachment in order to gain understanding, yet do so in a way that she doesn’t loseherself in the process. Bracketing means recognizing your own assumptions andbiases, owning them, but keeping them in perspective so they don’t pollute and prejudicewhat you’ve heard and observed.
6. Create a new document for each story with line numbers7. Analyse each sentence/paragraph by asking “what is this sentence/paragraph about”/write in a running column8. Repeat until the meaning of the story runs along side9. Repeat for all stories10.Change these notes to categories or codes11. Cross code with supervisor or other researcher12.Develop the combination of categories inherent in each individual story into a typology13.Develop across subject analysis of the relationship between codes and typologies with classifications/attributes
Overwhelmed With Data : Maple and Edwards, Qualitative Journeys (2009)It is perfectly normal and to be expected that you will sense that you are drowning in yourown data, and that you will be uncertain how to organize or make sense of everything youhave heard and witnessed. And how could you not feel this way, considering theInnumerable hours you’ve spent with your participants and the thousands of pages of textthat you now must review and analyze? What are you going to focus on and how do youknow that is what is most significant? It takes patience and perseverance to give yourselfpermission to remain bewildered during this transitional period between data review andsynthesis. Most researchers eventually discover meaning in their data, as illustrated in thissection.1 example
de Jager, Rhodes & BlaszczynskiArchiving Insider Knowledge in Hearing Voices Networks Auditory verbal hallucinations or ‘voices’ are defined as percept-like experiences which occur in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, which nonetheless possesses a compelling sense of reality, and which the person experiencing it cannot control (Slade & Bentall, 1988). Hearing voices is highly stigmatised and is associated with poor mental health, distress, and isolation (Ruddle, Mason & Wykes, 2010; Thornicroft, 2006) In contrast to the medical model, where recovery entails an absence of symptoms (Andresen, Oades & Caputi, 2003; Whitwell, 1999), broader notions of recovery hold that it can occur without their resolution (Anthony, 1993).
The Social Psychiatry approach (e.g. Romme, Escher, Dillon, Corstens & Morris, 2009) aligns with patient definitions of recovery and with patients’ needs for a more holistic treatment model, which normalises voices and takes into account contextual factors (Beavan & Read, 2010; Fischer, 2003). Treatment involves making sense of voices, examining their relationship to life history, reinstating the individual’s participation in the community, and developing a positive self-identity (Romme et al., 2009; Fischer, 2003). However, there is a lack of systematic investigation into the process of recovery. It is therefore unclear whether actual experiences of recovery align with the recovery process outlined in the Social Psychiatry approach.
Participants will be 20 voice-hearers who are 1) categorised as being in the stabilization phase of recovery as operationalised in Andresen’s et al.’s (2006) stages of recovery instrument (STORI), 2) have past or current experience of hearing voices. They will be recruited through the Hearing Voices Network.
Procedure: Study 1 1. Recruitment/advertising: Douglas Holmes (Director, Hearing Voices Network) will advertise the study to Hearing Voices Network members, and email the advertisement and participant information sheet to associated organisations, potentially including Matthew Talbot, Mission Australia, Wayside Chapel. People interested in participating will contact the researchers.
2. Questionnaires posted to potential participants with pre-paid return envelope: The Stages of Recovery Instrument (STORI; Andresen, Oades & Caputi, 2006), the Manchester Short Assessment Quality of Life (Priebe et al., 1999) and K10 measure of global psychological distress (Kessler et al., 2002), as well as brief demographic and treatment information (e.g. current treatment and medication) will be posted to participants for them to complete. Participants who do not respond within a week will be contacted by phone and questionnaires may be completed via telephone (anticipated duration: 15 to 20 minutes). Potential participants whose scores on the STORI indicate that they are in the rebuilding or growth phases of recovery will be invited to participate.
Study 2: Procedure: 1. A minimum of 8 participants from study 1 will be invited to participate in study 2 based on analysis. 2. Participant briefing: A face-to-face or telephone meeting will be conducted to explain the study in more detail and provide an opportunity for participants to ask questions. A diary will be provided. Participants will be asked to take 30 minutes of their day to record details of voice-hearing experienced that day. This will include the time, situation they were in, any thoughts or emotions they experienced and anything they did in response to hearing the voice.
3. Interpersonal process recall: A face-to-face meeting will be held with participants individually. Interpersonal process recall (Larson, Flesaker, & Stege, 2008) will be employed to elicit information about how participants make sense of their voices. 4. to 8. As described in relation to Study 1 above, steps 4-8. Data analysis will be conducted using situational analysis (Clarke, 2003). A selection of transcripts will be cross-coded with another researcher to ensure replicability. De-identified data in the form of over-arching themes will be presented to a group of HVN members
Critique of Narrative Inquiry Lack of cohesive methods for analysis? Poor operationalisation of method can effect trustworthiness of results Time commitment for analysis makes it unsuitable for large numbers of participants ? Requires greater participant involvement given the assumption that both are illuminated through the research process ? Stories are inherently ambiguous and open to interpretation so the subjectivity of the researcher has a particular impact in this approach ? (Peshkin, 1988)
Exercise 1: Come up with three questions suited to narrative inquiry. Make an argument for this method compared with others.
Exercise 2 Demonstration Interview your partner for 15minutes about the story of how they came to chose to enrol in this course. Focus on plot and meaning, Write a one page summary as a cohesive narrative Read it to your partner for feedback on changes