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Evidenced-Based Social Design of
Online Communities

            Robert E. Kraut
         Carnegie Mellon University


             Paul Resnick
           University of Michigan


 http://slidesha.re/ResnickICWSM12
Agenda

•   Our approach & nature of design claims (10 minutes)
•   The challenge of contribution (90 min)
    –   Requests, goals & motivation (55 minutes)
    –   Design challenge (15 minutes)
    –   Break
    –   Debrief (20 minutes)
•   Starting a community (80 minutes)
    – Network externalities & getting to critical mass (45 minutes)
    – Design challenge (15 minutes)
    – Debrief (20 minutes)
Today’s goals

•   Introduction to view of social design based on social
    science theory and empirical results
•   Application to
    – Challenges of encouraging contribution to online groups
    – Challenges of starting a community from scratch
•   Format: Lecture combined with break-out groups for
    design exercises
Instructors
•   Paul Resnick
    – Professor, School of Information,
      University of Michigan
    – Computer scientist by training
       • Economics orientation
    – 2 years in industry at AT&T
•   Robert Kraut
    – Herbert A. Simon Professor of HCI
      at Carnegie Mellon
    – Social psychologist by training
    – 12 years in industry at Bell Labs
      and Bellcore
    – Emphasis on social computing
Online communities face challenges
typical of off-line groups

  •   Community start-up
  •   Recruit, select and socialize members
  •   Encourage commitment
  •   Elicit contribution
  •   Regulate behavior
  •   Coordinate activity

But anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of
institutionalization make challenges more daunting online
Evidence-based Social Design
•   Mine the rich empirical and theoretical literatures in
    psychology and economics
•   Develop design claims
    – Hypotheses about the effects of social design decisions
•   Sometimes directly tested in the online context and
    sometimes only extensions of empirically tested
    theories developed in offline settings
Inspiration

―There is nothing so
practical as a good theory‖


―If you want to understand     Kurt Lewin
something, try to change it‖
The Roles of Theory and Evidence

•   Identify Challenges
•   Generate Solution Ideas
•   Predict Consequences
Design Claims

•   Our approach is to translate relevant social science
    theory and empirical research to design claims

•   Alternative X helps/hinders achievement of goal Y
    under conditions Z



•   E.g.,
    – Coupling goals with specific deadlines leads to increases in
      contributions as the deadlines approach
    – Group goals elicit contribution most among people who
      identify with the group
Design Claims Differ from Pattern
    Languages
•   Design pattern: a formal way of documenting a
    solution to a design problem in a particular field of
    expertise.




•   May or may not document the reasons why a problem
    exists and why the solution is a good one
•   Captures the common solutions, but not necessarily
    the effective ones
Design Levers

•   Community structure
•   Content, tasks & activities
•   Selection, sorting & highlighting
•   External communication
•   Feedback & rewards
•   Roles, rules, policies and procedures
•   Access controls
•   Presentation and framing
Encouraging Contributions
Online Communities Face Challenges
Typical of Off-line Groups

    •   Community start-up
    •   Recruit, select and socialize members
    •   Encourage commitment
    •   Elicit contribution
    •   Regulate behavior
    •   Coordinate activity
But anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of institutionalization make
challenges more daunting online
Reasons To Care
•   Overall goal. Creating sufficient volume of contribution of the
    resources the group values to provide benefits to group members
    and others who rely upon the online community

•   Different communities require different types of contribution
      –   Social support forums: Conversational acts, empathy, offers of help
      –   Recommender systems: Votes, opinions, comments
      –   Facebook: Invites, accepts, wall posts, pictures
      –   WoW guild: Time, particular skills
      –   Threadless: T-shirt designs
      –   OSS: Patches, code, translations, documentation
      –   Wikipedia: New articles, facts, copy-editing, administration work,
          cash (& recently, letters to congressmen)
Under Contribution Is Rampant
•   Across many Internet domains, a small fraction of
    participants contribute the majority of material
    –   Code in open source projects
    –   Edits in Wikipedia
    –   Illegal music in Gnutella
    –   Answers in technical support groups
•   Often leads to a power-law/Zipf curve distribution

•   In many cases uneven contribution leads to an under
    supply of needed content. E.g.,
    – Assessments and content in Wikipedia
    – Reviews of art movies in MovieLens
Wikipedia Stubs & Unassessed Articles
•   Many Wikipedia articles haven‘t been assessed for
    quality or importance
•   58% of important ones are of low quality
Association for Psychological
Science Wikipedia Initiative
APS/WI Reviewing Goal

•   Subgoal: Get psychologists & grad students to review
    Wikipedia articles by adding comments to article talk
    pages describing problems with an article
•   ~300 have signed up for the APSWPI, improving >
    700 articles
•   But fewer than 15 have reviewed
•   How you can apply any of the design claims
    presented here to increase these reviews from APS
    members?
First attempt – Directed messages
Second attempt

•   Simplifying the task
    – Direct link to where the action is needed
•   Highlighting ―social identity‖ in the invitation message
•   Personalizing the message
    – Specifying users‘ expertise
•   Phrasing the task as ―rating‖ instead of ―reviewing‖
Current Interface
Naïve Task Analysis of Online
Contribution

To get people to contribute
   needed content :
1. They need to understand
   what is wanted
2. They have to be
   competent to provide it
3. They have to be
   motivated to provide it
Naïve Task Analysis of Online
Contribution

To get people to contribute
   needed content :
1. They need to understand
   what is wanted             Requests, matching,
2. They have to be            and goal setting
   competent to provide it
3. They have to be            theories of motivation
   motivated to provide it       • Extrinsic
                                 • Intrinsic
                                 • Effects of
                                    social
                                    situations
Requests, Matching, and Goal Setting
Requests Focus Attention on Needed
Contributions
•   Make the list of needed contributions easily visible to
    increase the likelihood that the community will provide
    them
Identify Who Should Make The Contribution
  •   Request help in a chat room
  •   ―Can you tell me how to see someone‘s profile‖

       –   400 Chat rooms
       –   DV=Time to response


  •   People are slower to respond when others are present
  •   Diffusion of responsibility is reduced when people are called by name

                                         80                               80
                                                                                               No name        Name
                                         70                               70
                                              Time to respond (seconds)
             Time to respond (seconds)




                                                                          60                             No name
                                         60

                                         50                               50

                                         40                               40

                                         30                               30

                                         20                               20

                                                                          10
                                         10
                                                                              0
                                         0
                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                                                          1       2    3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                                                                                   Others present
                                                                                                Others present
                                                                                                                                     Markey(2000)
Email Request to Contribute to Movielens
Quadruples Ratings




 •   In week after email reminder, contributes quadrupled, to ~ 20 ratings/person from
     ~5.4
 •   Is this sustainable?
Ask: Explicitly Asking for Needed Contributions
    Increases Likelihood of Getting Them
•   News site with a ―Leave a
    comment‖ form at the end of
    each article
•   Fewer than 0.1% leave                Comments by Type of Request
    comments
                                        No ask
•   Experiment to estimate the       Immediate
    value of explicit requests        Delayed

     – No ask: ―Leave a comment‖                 0   20    40     60     80
                                                          Number of comments
                                                                                 100   120


       form at end of article
                                                          (Wash & Lampe, 2012)
     – Immediate: Pop-up ―Leave
       a comment‖ when user
       opens article
     – Delayed: Pop-up ―Leave a
       comment‖ on closing article
Ask Someone Who Is Willing & Able to
Help: Intelligent Task Routing (Cosley, 2007)
SuggestBot
Suggestions
Suggestions Quadruple Editing Rates
Goal Setting Theory
•    Goals motivate effort, perseverance & performance
     – Trigger for both self-reward (e.g., self-efficacy) & external reward
       (e.g., money, reputation, promotion)
•    Goals are more effective if
     – Specific & challenging rather than easy goals or vague ‗do your
       best‘
     – Immediate, with feedback
     – People commit selves to the goals – because of
       importance, incentives, self-esteem, …
     – People envision the specific circumstance & method they will
       use to achieve them


•    Design claim: Providing members with specific and
     highly challenging goals, whether self-set or system-
     suggested, increases contribution.
Experiment Showing that Goals
    Work:




•   Send email to ~900 MovieLens subscribers
    – Gave non-specific, do your best goal or specific, numerical
      contribution goals
    – Assigned goal to individual subscribers or a nominal group
      of 10 subscribers (the ―Explorers‖)
Goal Experiment Results




•    Results
     – Specific, challenging goals increased contribution
     – Group assignment increased contributions
In-game Goals in WoW
      Weekly minutes playing World of Warcraft, by level




•   In WoW players receive extra powers each 10-
    levels implicit goals setting
•   Ducheneaut, N., et al.(2007). The life and death of online gaming communities: A look
    at guilds in world of warcraft. in SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing
    systems. San Jose, California, USA.
Featured Status in Wikipedia as a
Challenge




     Wikipedia edits before and after reaching featured status
WikiProjects Use Collaborations of the Week
(COTW) as Time-Delimited Goals
  Get designated to good status in a defined
  period (e.g., a week or a month)
   A COTW announcement in a project page




   An example template identifying an article as a COTW


                                                          39
Goal doubles contribution
Edits per person on the
collaboration articles                        Self-identified group members


                                              Non self-identified members




         Pre-Collaboration   Collaboration   Post-Collaboration
                                                                            40
Goal has much larger effect on group
members
Edits per person on the
collaboration articles                        Self-identified group members


                                              Non self-identified members




         Pre-Collaboration   Collaboration   Post-Collaboration
                                                                            41
Goals and Identity

•   Design claim: Goals have a more powerful effects
    when achieving them benefits a group the target
    identifies with

•   Association for Psychological Science Wikipedia
    Initiative appeals to PhD psychologists with this
    technique
Design Claims Re: Goals
•   Providing members with specific and highly
    challenging goals will increase their contributions.
•   Goals have larger effects when people receive
    frequent feedback about their performance with
    respect to the goals.
•   Externally imposed goals can be as effective as self-
    imposed ones, as long as the goals are important to
    community members
•   Time-delimited challenges enhance the effects of
    goals
•   Combining goals with appeals to social identity
    enhances their effects
Motivations for Contributing
What Motivates Contributors?
   •    Intrinsic value of task
        (e.g., fun, curiosity, challenge)
   •    External personal value
         – Reinforcement
         – Pay
         – Privilege
         …
   •    Social utility
         – Reputation
         – Identification with the group
         – Reciprocity
         – Altruism
         …

       These are leverage points for interventions to
                     increase motivation
Value-Expectancy Model Provides Leverage
Points for Reducing Social Loafing



                                                            3
                   individual           individual
                   performance          outcome

                                                     5
                                 3, 4
  individual   4                                         individual   individual
  effort                                                 utility      motivation

        6                                            6
                   group                group
                   performance          outcome
Value-Expectancy Model Provides Leverage
   Points for Reducing Social Loafing
                                                                            Frame request consistent with user’s
                                                                             values
                                                                            Create incentives user values
                                                                 3           Extrinsic
                        individual           individual                      Intrinsic
                        performance          outcome

                                                          5
                                      3, 4
     individual     4                                         individual        individual
     effort                                                   utility           motivation

           6                                              6
                        group                group
                        performance          outcome             Liking for group members
                                                                 Identification with group
                                                                 History of interaction with group


Number of others
Own competence
Own unique skills
Group’s
incompetence
Imagine you wanted labels for web
images. How can you motivate people?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivations
• Individual motivation influences behavior through external
  motivators (e.g., rewards, incentives, reputation) and intrinsic
  motivators (e.g., fun & curiosity)
Increase contributions by manipulating extrinsic incentives & intrinsic
  motivations

    – Extrinsic motivators: Offer rewards as incentive
      (e.g., money, reputation, perks, grades)
        •   Larger rewards induce more contribution than smaller rewards.
        •   Luxury goods create better incentives than money as rewards for
            more difficult tasks.
        •   Rewards of status, privileges, money, or prizes that are task-
            contingent but not performance-contingent will lead to gaming by
            performing the tasks with low effort.
        •   People won't game the system for private verbal reward
    – Intrinsic motivators: Make the task fun or intrinsically interesting
Amazon’s Mechanical Turk
Typical Task: $.03
Financial Incentives on Threadless
Incentives vs. Reinforcements

•   Incentives are promises given before the behavior
    to cause people to produce it
•   Reinforcements are rewards given after a
    behavior that make it persist
Social Incentives on Amazon
Reinforcement: Barnstars
Design Claims Re: Incentives &
    Reinforcement
•   Incentive Effects
    – People do more of the behaviors that they anticipate will be
      rewarded.
    – Task non-contingent rewards will not create incentive to do more of
      a task or exert more effort in doing it
    – Larger rewards induce more contribution than smaller rewards
    – Small gifts create more effective incentives than small payments
•   Reinforcement effects
    – Rewards delivered in response to behaviors cause people to do
      more of those behaviors
    – Rewards work better as reinforces if they are delivered right after
      the desired behavior
    – Rewards generate more consistent performance over time if they
      are unpredictable
Intrinsic Motivators

•   Intrinsic motivation is the process of working to
    achieve the rewards that that come from carrying out
    an activity rather from as a result of the activity.
•   Comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself
    or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or
    working on a task.

Redesign the task to make it more fun or interesting
ESP Game To Label Images
                                       Truck
    Red school bus

                                       Red



                                   Red school bus
•    Example of playing the game
•    Taboo words
How would you make a contribution
task more fun?
What Makes a Contribution Fun?
              Lessons from game design
Flow Criteria        Principles of game design

Concentration        Games should require concentration and the player should be able to concentrate
                     on the game

Challenge            Be sufficiently challenging and match the player’s skill level

Skills               Support player skill development and mastery

Control              Support players sense of control over their actions

Clear Goals          Provide the player with clear goals at appropriate time

Feedback             Provide appropriate feedback at appropriate times

Immersion            Players should experience deep but effortless involvement in the game

Social Interaction   Games should support and create opportunities for social interaction



 Mapping flow to principles of game design (from Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005)
Support Opportunities for Social
Interaction




    Make tedious tasks fun via social interaction
Gamification
•   Applying game-design thinking to non-game
    applications
•   Is the effect via fun (internal motivation) or
    incentives (external motivations)?
Design Claims Re: Trade-offs Btw Intrinsic
    & Extrinsic Motivation
•   Adding a reward to an already interesting task will
    cause people to be less interested in the task and to
    perform it less often.
•   While tangible rewards reduce intrinsic motivations for
    interesting activities, verbal rewards enhance intrinsic
    motivation.
•   Verbal rewards will not enhance intrinsic motivation
    and may undermine it while they are judged as
    controlling.
•   Verbal rewards enhance intrinsic motivations most
    when they enhance the target‘s perceptions of
    competence
Design Jam
•   Groups of 4
•   Task
    – Redesign of one thing of
        • request for review,
        • reviewing page on APS/WI site
    – Sample Interface for reviewing page:
      http://hciresearch2.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/~rfarzan/wikipedia/tool/re
      view/review.php?&cond=1 (also on next slide)
    – Say which slides justify your proposal.
    – Mockup your proposal.
    – 15 minutes for Jam
    – Readout
        • Show your mockup and narrate it: 1 minute!
Current Interface
Community Startup
A Startup Challenge
Externalities
•   Alice's adoption or production decisions have direct
    or indirect effects on Bob's adoption or production
    decisions
    • Alice's decisions create costs and benefits external to her
       • e.g., Size of telephone, email, and fax networks
       • e.g., Complementary products—hardware & software
       • e.g., Second hand smoke & other pollution
Positive Externalities in Napster




•   Probability of a song appearing on Napster increased
    with the number of users, at a declining rate
Negative Externalities in Napster




•   Measures of congestion in Napster increased with the
    number of users, at an increasing rate
Network Externalities in OLCs

•   Negative externalities
    – Server congestion; competition for attention
•   Positive externalities
    – People to interact with
    – Content they produce
    – Identity value
Implications of Positive Network
Externalities

•   Winner-take-all competition between networks
•   Need for critical mass
    – minimum number of users that makes others want to join (or
      not quit)
Startup Phase Challenges

•   Identifying a Niche
•   Defending the Niche
•   Getting to Critical Mass
Startup Phase Challenges

•   Identifying a Niche
•   Defending the Niche
•   Getting to Critical Mass
Getting to Critical Mass

•   Leveraging Early Members
•   Attracting Early Members
Getting to Critical Mass

•   Leveraging Early Members
•   Attracting Early Members
Join Now or Wait?

•     Early members especially important
•     Model provides insights into how to attract
    utility (join now) =
      participation_benefitstage1
     - startup_cost
     + success_probability * (participation_benefitstage2 + early_adopter_benefit)

    utility(wait) =
      success_probability * (participation_benefitstage2 - startup_cost)


•     Join now if utility(join_now) > utility(wait)
utility(join now) - utility(wait) =
  participation_benefitstage1
  – startup_cost * (1 – success_probability)
  + early_adopter_benefit * success_probability
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits

                                  util(join now) - util(wait) =
                                             participation_benefitstage1
                                             – startup_cost
                                             * (1 – success_probability)
                                             + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                             success_probability)
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
                                  util(join now) - util(wait) =
                                             participation_benefitstage1
                                            – startup_cost
                                            * (1 – success_probability)
                                            + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                            success_probability)
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
•   Promise future benefits to    util(join now) - util(wait) =
    early adopters                           participation_benefitstage1
                                             – startup_cost
                                             * (1 – success_probability)
                                             + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                             success_probability)
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
•   Promise future benefits to      util(join now) - util(wait) =
    early adopters                             participation_benefitstage1
                                               – startup_cost
•   Set expectations: probability              * (1 – success_probability)
    of success                                 + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                               success_probability)
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
•   Promise future benefits to      util(join now) - util(wait) =
    early adopters                             participation_benefitstage1
                                               – startup_cost
•   Set expectations: probability             * (1 – success_probability)
    of success                                + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                              success_probability)
•   Conditional commitments
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
•   Promise future benefits to        util(join now) - util(wait) =
    early adopters                               participation_benefitstage1
                                                 – startup_cost
•   Set expectations: probability                * (1 – success_probability)
    of success                                   + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                                 success_probability)
•   Conditional commitments
•   What's not worth focusing
    on
     – Expectation setting: stage 2
       value if successful
Implications: Where to Look for Solutions

•   Increase immediate
    benefits
•   Reduce effort to join             util(join now) - util(wait) =
•   Promise future benefits to                   participation_benefitstage1
                                                 – startup_cost
    early adopters                               * (1 – success_probability)
•   Set expectations:                            + (early_adopter_benefit *
                                                 success_probability)
    probability of success
•   Conditional commitments
•   What's not worth focusing
    on
     – Expectation setting: stage 2
       value if successful
Increase Immediate Benefits

•   DC25: Productivity, Entertainment or Commerce
    – E.g., Flickr offers picture storage and
      management, services that are useful to the user even
      if nobody else is using Flickr.
•   DC26: Professionaly generated content
•   DC27: Syndicated content
•   DC28: Professional staff contributions
45                                                                                                                                              300
                                                                                                                          Staff posts
                  40
                                                                                                                          Member posts
                                                                                                                                                                  250
                  35                                                                                                      Active members




                                                                                                                                           Current member count
                  30                                                                                                      Key Dates                               200
Messages posted




                  25
                                                                                                                                                                  150
                  20

                  15                                                                                                                                              100

                  10
                                                                                                                                                                  50
                   5

                   0                                                                                                                                              0
                                  Contest 1




                                              Contest 2




                                                                                      Contest 5



                                                                                                  Fishtanks
                                                                                                              Contest 6
                        Feb 15




                                                             Thread 1




                                                                           Thread 2
                                                          Contests 3, 4




                        Resnick, Paul, Janney, Adrienne, Buis, Lorriane R, and Caroline R Richardson, ―Adding
                       an online community to an Internet-mediated walking program. Part 2: Strategies for
                       encouraging community participation‖. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2010.
                       12(4):e72.
Increase Immediate Benefits

•   DC25: Productivity, Entertainment or Commerce
•   DC26: Professionally generated content
•   DC27: Syndicated content
•   DC28: Professional Staff contributions
•   DC30: (as a last resort)
•   DC31: Bots
Promise future benefits to early adopters

•   DC 32: Future discounts to the early adopters
    – E.g., lower rates for life
•   DC 35: Limited resources that tempt users to join early
    – E.g., status & recognition with being an early adopter
    – E.g., users sign up first to claim their username
•   DC 36: Privileges
    – E.g., administrator status
•   Identity rewards
    – "Won't you be proud that you helped this get off the ground?"
Expectation Setting:
Presenting Success at Different Stages

•   DC43: Small and slow growing
    – Display new members and content
•   DC44: Small and fast growing
    – Display percentage growth
•   DC45: Big
    – Display absolute numbers
Conditional Commitments
Summary

•   The Challenges
    – Identifying a Niche
    – Defending the Niche
    – Getting to Critical Mass
        • Leveraging Early Members
        • Attracting Early Members
Attracting Early Members
•   Increase immediate
    benefits
•   Reduce effort to join
•   Promise future benefits          util(join now) - util(wait) =
    to early adopters                           participation_benefitstage1
                                                – startup_cost *
•   Set expectations:                           (1 – success_probability)
    probability of success                      + (early_adopter_benefit *
•   Conditional                                 success_probability)

    commitments
•   What's not worth focusing
    on
    – Expectation setting: stage 2
      value if successful
Challenge: Make Design Suggestions for
Getting a Specific Community to Critical
Mass
•   SuccessfulOnlineCom   •   Increase immediate
    munities.com              benefits
•   Or a community that   •   Promise future
    someone in your           benefits to early
    group is trying to        adopters
    launch                •   Set expectations:
                              probability of
                              success
                          •   Conditional
                              commitments
A Startup Challenge
More information




    Robert Kraut               Paul Resnick
robert.kraut@cmu.edu       presnick@umich.edu
 www.cs.cmu.edu/~kraut   presnick.people.si.umich.edu

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ICWSM Resnick tutorial2012

  • 1. Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online Communities Robert E. Kraut Carnegie Mellon University Paul Resnick University of Michigan http://slidesha.re/ResnickICWSM12
  • 2. Agenda • Our approach & nature of design claims (10 minutes) • The challenge of contribution (90 min) – Requests, goals & motivation (55 minutes) – Design challenge (15 minutes) – Break – Debrief (20 minutes) • Starting a community (80 minutes) – Network externalities & getting to critical mass (45 minutes) – Design challenge (15 minutes) – Debrief (20 minutes)
  • 3. Today’s goals • Introduction to view of social design based on social science theory and empirical results • Application to – Challenges of encouraging contribution to online groups – Challenges of starting a community from scratch • Format: Lecture combined with break-out groups for design exercises
  • 4. Instructors • Paul Resnick – Professor, School of Information, University of Michigan – Computer scientist by training • Economics orientation – 2 years in industry at AT&T • Robert Kraut – Herbert A. Simon Professor of HCI at Carnegie Mellon – Social psychologist by training – 12 years in industry at Bell Labs and Bellcore – Emphasis on social computing
  • 5.
  • 6. Online communities face challenges typical of off-line groups • Community start-up • Recruit, select and socialize members • Encourage commitment • Elicit contribution • Regulate behavior • Coordinate activity But anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of institutionalization make challenges more daunting online
  • 7. Evidence-based Social Design • Mine the rich empirical and theoretical literatures in psychology and economics • Develop design claims – Hypotheses about the effects of social design decisions • Sometimes directly tested in the online context and sometimes only extensions of empirically tested theories developed in offline settings
  • 8. Inspiration ―There is nothing so practical as a good theory‖ ―If you want to understand Kurt Lewin something, try to change it‖
  • 9. The Roles of Theory and Evidence • Identify Challenges • Generate Solution Ideas • Predict Consequences
  • 10. Design Claims • Our approach is to translate relevant social science theory and empirical research to design claims • Alternative X helps/hinders achievement of goal Y under conditions Z • E.g., – Coupling goals with specific deadlines leads to increases in contributions as the deadlines approach – Group goals elicit contribution most among people who identify with the group
  • 11. Design Claims Differ from Pattern Languages • Design pattern: a formal way of documenting a solution to a design problem in a particular field of expertise. • May or may not document the reasons why a problem exists and why the solution is a good one • Captures the common solutions, but not necessarily the effective ones
  • 12. Design Levers • Community structure • Content, tasks & activities • Selection, sorting & highlighting • External communication • Feedback & rewards • Roles, rules, policies and procedures • Access controls • Presentation and framing
  • 14. Online Communities Face Challenges Typical of Off-line Groups • Community start-up • Recruit, select and socialize members • Encourage commitment • Elicit contribution • Regulate behavior • Coordinate activity But anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of institutionalization make challenges more daunting online
  • 15. Reasons To Care • Overall goal. Creating sufficient volume of contribution of the resources the group values to provide benefits to group members and others who rely upon the online community • Different communities require different types of contribution – Social support forums: Conversational acts, empathy, offers of help – Recommender systems: Votes, opinions, comments – Facebook: Invites, accepts, wall posts, pictures – WoW guild: Time, particular skills – Threadless: T-shirt designs – OSS: Patches, code, translations, documentation – Wikipedia: New articles, facts, copy-editing, administration work, cash (& recently, letters to congressmen)
  • 16. Under Contribution Is Rampant • Across many Internet domains, a small fraction of participants contribute the majority of material – Code in open source projects – Edits in Wikipedia – Illegal music in Gnutella – Answers in technical support groups • Often leads to a power-law/Zipf curve distribution • In many cases uneven contribution leads to an under supply of needed content. E.g., – Assessments and content in Wikipedia – Reviews of art movies in MovieLens
  • 17. Wikipedia Stubs & Unassessed Articles • Many Wikipedia articles haven‘t been assessed for quality or importance • 58% of important ones are of low quality
  • 19. APS/WI Reviewing Goal • Subgoal: Get psychologists & grad students to review Wikipedia articles by adding comments to article talk pages describing problems with an article • ~300 have signed up for the APSWPI, improving > 700 articles • But fewer than 15 have reviewed • How you can apply any of the design claims presented here to increase these reviews from APS members?
  • 20. First attempt – Directed messages
  • 21. Second attempt • Simplifying the task – Direct link to where the action is needed • Highlighting ―social identity‖ in the invitation message • Personalizing the message – Specifying users‘ expertise • Phrasing the task as ―rating‖ instead of ―reviewing‖
  • 23. Naïve Task Analysis of Online Contribution To get people to contribute needed content : 1. They need to understand what is wanted 2. They have to be competent to provide it 3. They have to be motivated to provide it
  • 24. Naïve Task Analysis of Online Contribution To get people to contribute needed content : 1. They need to understand what is wanted Requests, matching, 2. They have to be and goal setting competent to provide it 3. They have to be theories of motivation motivated to provide it • Extrinsic • Intrinsic • Effects of social situations
  • 25. Requests, Matching, and Goal Setting
  • 26. Requests Focus Attention on Needed Contributions • Make the list of needed contributions easily visible to increase the likelihood that the community will provide them
  • 27. Identify Who Should Make The Contribution • Request help in a chat room • ―Can you tell me how to see someone‘s profile‖ – 400 Chat rooms – DV=Time to response • People are slower to respond when others are present • Diffusion of responsibility is reduced when people are called by name 80 80 No name Name 70 70 Time to respond (seconds) Time to respond (seconds) 60 No name 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Others present Others present Markey(2000)
  • 28. Email Request to Contribute to Movielens Quadruples Ratings • In week after email reminder, contributes quadrupled, to ~ 20 ratings/person from ~5.4 • Is this sustainable?
  • 29. Ask: Explicitly Asking for Needed Contributions Increases Likelihood of Getting Them • News site with a ―Leave a comment‖ form at the end of each article • Fewer than 0.1% leave Comments by Type of Request comments No ask • Experiment to estimate the Immediate value of explicit requests Delayed – No ask: ―Leave a comment‖ 0 20 40 60 80 Number of comments 100 120 form at end of article (Wash & Lampe, 2012) – Immediate: Pop-up ―Leave a comment‖ when user opens article – Delayed: Pop-up ―Leave a comment‖ on closing article
  • 30. Ask Someone Who Is Willing & Able to Help: Intelligent Task Routing (Cosley, 2007)
  • 33. Goal Setting Theory • Goals motivate effort, perseverance & performance – Trigger for both self-reward (e.g., self-efficacy) & external reward (e.g., money, reputation, promotion) • Goals are more effective if – Specific & challenging rather than easy goals or vague ‗do your best‘ – Immediate, with feedback – People commit selves to the goals – because of importance, incentives, self-esteem, … – People envision the specific circumstance & method they will use to achieve them • Design claim: Providing members with specific and highly challenging goals, whether self-set or system- suggested, increases contribution.
  • 34. Experiment Showing that Goals Work: • Send email to ~900 MovieLens subscribers – Gave non-specific, do your best goal or specific, numerical contribution goals – Assigned goal to individual subscribers or a nominal group of 10 subscribers (the ―Explorers‖)
  • 35. Goal Experiment Results • Results – Specific, challenging goals increased contribution – Group assignment increased contributions
  • 36. In-game Goals in WoW Weekly minutes playing World of Warcraft, by level • In WoW players receive extra powers each 10- levels implicit goals setting • Ducheneaut, N., et al.(2007). The life and death of online gaming communities: A look at guilds in world of warcraft. in SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. San Jose, California, USA.
  • 37. Featured Status in Wikipedia as a Challenge Wikipedia edits before and after reaching featured status
  • 38. WikiProjects Use Collaborations of the Week (COTW) as Time-Delimited Goals Get designated to good status in a defined period (e.g., a week or a month) A COTW announcement in a project page An example template identifying an article as a COTW 39
  • 39. Goal doubles contribution Edits per person on the collaboration articles Self-identified group members Non self-identified members Pre-Collaboration Collaboration Post-Collaboration 40
  • 40. Goal has much larger effect on group members Edits per person on the collaboration articles Self-identified group members Non self-identified members Pre-Collaboration Collaboration Post-Collaboration 41
  • 41. Goals and Identity • Design claim: Goals have a more powerful effects when achieving them benefits a group the target identifies with • Association for Psychological Science Wikipedia Initiative appeals to PhD psychologists with this technique
  • 42. Design Claims Re: Goals • Providing members with specific and highly challenging goals will increase their contributions. • Goals have larger effects when people receive frequent feedback about their performance with respect to the goals. • Externally imposed goals can be as effective as self- imposed ones, as long as the goals are important to community members • Time-delimited challenges enhance the effects of goals • Combining goals with appeals to social identity enhances their effects
  • 44. What Motivates Contributors? • Intrinsic value of task (e.g., fun, curiosity, challenge) • External personal value – Reinforcement – Pay – Privilege … • Social utility – Reputation – Identification with the group – Reciprocity – Altruism … These are leverage points for interventions to increase motivation
  • 45. Value-Expectancy Model Provides Leverage Points for Reducing Social Loafing 3 individual individual performance outcome 5 3, 4 individual 4 individual individual effort utility motivation 6 6 group group performance outcome
  • 46. Value-Expectancy Model Provides Leverage Points for Reducing Social Loafing Frame request consistent with user’s values Create incentives user values 3 Extrinsic individual individual Intrinsic performance outcome 5 3, 4 individual 4 individual individual effort utility motivation 6 6 group group performance outcome Liking for group members Identification with group History of interaction with group Number of others Own competence Own unique skills Group’s incompetence
  • 47. Imagine you wanted labels for web images. How can you motivate people?
  • 48. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivations • Individual motivation influences behavior through external motivators (e.g., rewards, incentives, reputation) and intrinsic motivators (e.g., fun & curiosity) Increase contributions by manipulating extrinsic incentives & intrinsic motivations – Extrinsic motivators: Offer rewards as incentive (e.g., money, reputation, perks, grades) • Larger rewards induce more contribution than smaller rewards. • Luxury goods create better incentives than money as rewards for more difficult tasks. • Rewards of status, privileges, money, or prizes that are task- contingent but not performance-contingent will lead to gaming by performing the tasks with low effort. • People won't game the system for private verbal reward – Intrinsic motivators: Make the task fun or intrinsically interesting
  • 52. Incentives vs. Reinforcements • Incentives are promises given before the behavior to cause people to produce it • Reinforcements are rewards given after a behavior that make it persist
  • 55. Design Claims Re: Incentives & Reinforcement • Incentive Effects – People do more of the behaviors that they anticipate will be rewarded. – Task non-contingent rewards will not create incentive to do more of a task or exert more effort in doing it – Larger rewards induce more contribution than smaller rewards – Small gifts create more effective incentives than small payments • Reinforcement effects – Rewards delivered in response to behaviors cause people to do more of those behaviors – Rewards work better as reinforces if they are delivered right after the desired behavior – Rewards generate more consistent performance over time if they are unpredictable
  • 56. Intrinsic Motivators • Intrinsic motivation is the process of working to achieve the rewards that that come from carrying out an activity rather from as a result of the activity. • Comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or working on a task. Redesign the task to make it more fun or interesting
  • 57. ESP Game To Label Images Truck Red school bus Red Red school bus • Example of playing the game • Taboo words
  • 58. How would you make a contribution task more fun?
  • 59. What Makes a Contribution Fun? Lessons from game design Flow Criteria Principles of game design Concentration Games should require concentration and the player should be able to concentrate on the game Challenge Be sufficiently challenging and match the player’s skill level Skills Support player skill development and mastery Control Support players sense of control over their actions Clear Goals Provide the player with clear goals at appropriate time Feedback Provide appropriate feedback at appropriate times Immersion Players should experience deep but effortless involvement in the game Social Interaction Games should support and create opportunities for social interaction Mapping flow to principles of game design (from Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005)
  • 60. Support Opportunities for Social Interaction Make tedious tasks fun via social interaction
  • 61. Gamification • Applying game-design thinking to non-game applications • Is the effect via fun (internal motivation) or incentives (external motivations)?
  • 62. Design Claims Re: Trade-offs Btw Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation • Adding a reward to an already interesting task will cause people to be less interested in the task and to perform it less often. • While tangible rewards reduce intrinsic motivations for interesting activities, verbal rewards enhance intrinsic motivation. • Verbal rewards will not enhance intrinsic motivation and may undermine it while they are judged as controlling. • Verbal rewards enhance intrinsic motivations most when they enhance the target‘s perceptions of competence
  • 63. Design Jam • Groups of 4 • Task – Redesign of one thing of • request for review, • reviewing page on APS/WI site – Sample Interface for reviewing page: http://hciresearch2.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/~rfarzan/wikipedia/tool/re view/review.php?&cond=1 (also on next slide) – Say which slides justify your proposal. – Mockup your proposal. – 15 minutes for Jam – Readout • Show your mockup and narrate it: 1 minute!
  • 67. Externalities • Alice's adoption or production decisions have direct or indirect effects on Bob's adoption or production decisions • Alice's decisions create costs and benefits external to her • e.g., Size of telephone, email, and fax networks • e.g., Complementary products—hardware & software • e.g., Second hand smoke & other pollution
  • 68. Positive Externalities in Napster • Probability of a song appearing on Napster increased with the number of users, at a declining rate
  • 69. Negative Externalities in Napster • Measures of congestion in Napster increased with the number of users, at an increasing rate
  • 70. Network Externalities in OLCs • Negative externalities – Server congestion; competition for attention • Positive externalities – People to interact with – Content they produce – Identity value
  • 71. Implications of Positive Network Externalities • Winner-take-all competition between networks • Need for critical mass – minimum number of users that makes others want to join (or not quit)
  • 72. Startup Phase Challenges • Identifying a Niche • Defending the Niche • Getting to Critical Mass
  • 73. Startup Phase Challenges • Identifying a Niche • Defending the Niche • Getting to Critical Mass
  • 74. Getting to Critical Mass • Leveraging Early Members • Attracting Early Members
  • 75. Getting to Critical Mass • Leveraging Early Members • Attracting Early Members
  • 76. Join Now or Wait? • Early members especially important • Model provides insights into how to attract utility (join now) = participation_benefitstage1 - startup_cost + success_probability * (participation_benefitstage2 + early_adopter_benefit) utility(wait) = success_probability * (participation_benefitstage2 - startup_cost) • Join now if utility(join_now) > utility(wait) utility(join now) - utility(wait) = participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost * (1 – success_probability) + early_adopter_benefit * success_probability
  • 77. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits util(join now) - util(wait) = participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost * (1 – success_probability) + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability)
  • 78. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join util(join now) - util(wait) = participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost * (1 – success_probability) + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability)
  • 79. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join • Promise future benefits to util(join now) - util(wait) = early adopters participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost * (1 – success_probability) + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability)
  • 80. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join • Promise future benefits to util(join now) - util(wait) = early adopters participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost • Set expectations: probability * (1 – success_probability) of success + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability)
  • 81. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join • Promise future benefits to util(join now) - util(wait) = early adopters participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost • Set expectations: probability * (1 – success_probability) of success + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability) • Conditional commitments
  • 82. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join • Promise future benefits to util(join now) - util(wait) = early adopters participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost • Set expectations: probability * (1 – success_probability) of success + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability) • Conditional commitments • What's not worth focusing on – Expectation setting: stage 2 value if successful
  • 83. Implications: Where to Look for Solutions • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join util(join now) - util(wait) = • Promise future benefits to participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost early adopters * (1 – success_probability) • Set expectations: + (early_adopter_benefit * success_probability) probability of success • Conditional commitments • What's not worth focusing on – Expectation setting: stage 2 value if successful
  • 84. Increase Immediate Benefits • DC25: Productivity, Entertainment or Commerce – E.g., Flickr offers picture storage and management, services that are useful to the user even if nobody else is using Flickr. • DC26: Professionaly generated content • DC27: Syndicated content • DC28: Professional staff contributions
  • 85. 45 300 Staff posts 40 Member posts 250 35 Active members Current member count 30 Key Dates 200 Messages posted 25 150 20 15 100 10 50 5 0 0 Contest 1 Contest 2 Contest 5 Fishtanks Contest 6 Feb 15 Thread 1 Thread 2 Contests 3, 4 Resnick, Paul, Janney, Adrienne, Buis, Lorriane R, and Caroline R Richardson, ―Adding an online community to an Internet-mediated walking program. Part 2: Strategies for encouraging community participation‖. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2010. 12(4):e72.
  • 86. Increase Immediate Benefits • DC25: Productivity, Entertainment or Commerce • DC26: Professionally generated content • DC27: Syndicated content • DC28: Professional Staff contributions • DC30: (as a last resort) • DC31: Bots
  • 87. Promise future benefits to early adopters • DC 32: Future discounts to the early adopters – E.g., lower rates for life • DC 35: Limited resources that tempt users to join early – E.g., status & recognition with being an early adopter – E.g., users sign up first to claim their username • DC 36: Privileges – E.g., administrator status • Identity rewards – "Won't you be proud that you helped this get off the ground?"
  • 88. Expectation Setting: Presenting Success at Different Stages • DC43: Small and slow growing – Display new members and content • DC44: Small and fast growing – Display percentage growth • DC45: Big – Display absolute numbers
  • 90.
  • 91. Summary • The Challenges – Identifying a Niche – Defending the Niche – Getting to Critical Mass • Leveraging Early Members • Attracting Early Members
  • 92. Attracting Early Members • Increase immediate benefits • Reduce effort to join • Promise future benefits util(join now) - util(wait) = to early adopters participation_benefitstage1 – startup_cost * • Set expectations: (1 – success_probability) probability of success + (early_adopter_benefit * • Conditional success_probability) commitments • What's not worth focusing on – Expectation setting: stage 2 value if successful
  • 93. Challenge: Make Design Suggestions for Getting a Specific Community to Critical Mass • SuccessfulOnlineCom • Increase immediate munities.com benefits • Or a community that • Promise future someone in your benefits to early group is trying to adopters launch • Set expectations: probability of success • Conditional commitments
  • 95. More information Robert Kraut Paul Resnick robert.kraut@cmu.edu presnick@umich.edu www.cs.cmu.edu/~kraut presnick.people.si.umich.edu

Editor's Notes

  1. In the first attempt, the link in the email was to the “Find Article” page and they had to first search for an article that would interest them with no pre-selection of relevant articles and then they had to click on “Review Now” button to view the review form and submit their reviews. Here is an example message we sent:Dear Hetz3486,The APS Wikipedia initiative has attracted a lot of enthusiasm so far, with more than 300 psychologists editing over 1000 Wikipedia articles. Psychology articles on Wikipedia are important, the typical article was visited more than 10,000 times over last six months. To ensure that the public will see high quality information, it is important for expert psychologists to evaluate the degree to which Wikipedia articles are comprehensive, accurate, well-written, and unbiased. You can help by assessing an article in your area of expertise and answering the following questions about it:Is the article accurate?Does this article provide enough detail about its topic?Does this article represent recent research in this area?Does this article provide adequate references to key research in the field?Is this article well-written and well structured?To submit your assessment of the article:Use the Find Articles section to browse articles in your area of interest or search for articles by keyword.Click on an article title to see its preview and information about its current status.Click on Review now button on the right side of the page to open the reviewing or form and enter the responses to the above questions in the comment box.
  2. This is an example template on article’s talk page, identifying this particular article as the COTW target
  3. During collaboration periods, non-self-identifiededitors increased their contributions.
  4. The interaction effect is highly significant. p < 0.001Support our hypothesis that self-identified group members will voluntarily follow group directions and perform goal-related tasks.