Music and Arts of japan


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Music and Arts of japan

  1. 1. There are several types of traditional,Japanese music (hogaku). Some of the mostimportant ones are listed below: Gagaku:ancient imperial court music and, lit. "elegantmusic") is a type of Japanese classical music that hasbeen performed at the Imperial Court in Kyoto forseveral centuries Biwagaku:Music played with the Biwa, a kind of guitar withfour strings Japan Traditional music
  2. 2. Nohgaku:Music played during Noh performances. It basicallyconsists of a chorus, the Hayashi flute, theTsuzumidrum, and other instruments. Minyo: Japanese folk songsSokyoku:Music played with the Koto, a type of zither with 13strings. Later also accompaniedbyShamisen and Shakuhachi. Japan Traditional music
  3. 3. Shamisenongaku:Music played with the Shamisen, a kind of guitar withonly three strings. Kabuki and Bunraku performancesare accompanied by the shamisen.Shakuhachi:Music played with the Shakuhachi, a bamboo flutethat is about 55 cm long. The name of the flute is itslength expressed in shaku an old Japanese unit oflength. Japan Traditional music
  4. 4. Japan Traditional music
  5. 5. The koto is probably the most familiar Japanese instrument in the world. In ancient tradition, a kind of koto is used as the symbol of music, one of the attributes of a scholar in the Chinese Confucian tradition. Although the koto is used in Gagaku and some of the pieces for solo koto are very old, most of its development was in the Edo period and there is also a broad range of modern music for the kotoJapan Folk Instruments
  6. 6. The biwa is used in Gagaku and in the period of the imperial court, also was aBiwa solo instrument, as can be seen in the pictures illustrating the Tale of Genji. But this solo repertory, elegant pieces transmitted from China, has vanished, leaving only legends behind. In the medieval period, simple biwas were used by blind priests telling stories from the Tales of the Heike about the battles between the Genji and Heike clans.Japan Folk Instruments
  7. 7. The shamisen is a remodeled version of the snake-skin covered sanshin or jabisen which came to Japan from the Ryukyu islands in the Muromachi period. In ancient Egypt there was a three-string skin-covered instrument called the "nefer" or "nofer." This developed into the three-string setaru in Persia (present day Iran). In the language of Iran, "se" means "three" and "taru" means "strings," making the meaning the same as the word "sanshin." In Yuan dynasty China, a snake-skin covered three-string instrument was developed and around 1390, this instrument was introduced into the Ryukyu kingdom from China. This was during the Ming dynasty.Japan Folk Instruments
  8. 8. There are two basic kinds of flutes, the transverse flute where the instrument is held to the side and the player blows into the side of the flute. The gakubue, komabue, ryuteki, Noh kan and shinobue are all examples of transverse flute. The other kind of flute is held vertically and the player blows into the end. The shakuhachi and hichiriki are examples of this type of flute (although the hichiriku is actually more of a reed instrument than a flute).Japan Folk Instruments
  9. 9. The shakuhachi is made from a length of bamboo 3.5 to 4.0 cm. in diameter cut close to the root with seven nodes. The first node is close to the root and is the bottom of the instrument, while the instrument is blown from the upper end at the seventh node. The standard length is "isshaku hassun (one shaku, eight sun)" or 54.5 cm., which gives the instrument the name of "shakuhachi." However, just like the shinobue, often the shakuhachi has to play at the pitch of singing or the shamisen and so, now there are several different lengths of shakuhachi ranging from 75.8 cm. to 36.8 cm.Japan Folk Instruments
  10. 10. Another very distinctive sound of Gagaku is the harmonica-like sho, which provides a kind of cloud of sound. The shape of the instrument is supposed to suggest the mythical bird, the phoenix. The sound is said to express the feeling of light shining from the heavens. The sho is used in instrumental music and dances of the left and usually plays chords to provide harmony, a technique called "aitake (combined bamboo).Japan Folk Instruments
  11. 11. Properly speaking, this drum is called Sarugaku taiko, and is widely used in Noh, Nagauta and Kagura. This drum entered Japan with Gigaku from the Korean kingdom of Kudara long ago in the Asuka period. Then it was used in Dengaku and Sarugaku and then underwent various changes with the beginning of Noh and became an essential part of the Noh ensemble. In the Edo period, together with the other instruments of the Noh flute and percussion ensemble, it became an important part of Nagauta and other popular music forms. It is only used in some Noh plays, but when it is used, it only is played in the climactic final half of the play to create an exciting effect.Japan Folk Instruments
  12. 12. The kotsuzumi is used in Noh, the flute and percussion ensemble of Nagauta, the background music of Kabuki and a variety of folk entertainments. It is an altered version of the kakko used in Gagaku and at the end of the Heian period was used by the female court dancers called shirabyoshi. It then was used in Sarugaku together with the taiko and then became a standard part of the Noh ensemble in the Muromachi period. The standard Noh ensemble includes kotsuzumi, okawa, shimedaiko and the Noh kan.Japan Folk Instruments
  13. 13. KabukiKabuki (歌舞伎?) is a type of Japanese theatre. The musicof kabuki can be divided into three parts:•Gidayubushi – largely identical to jōruri.•Shimoza ongaku – music is played in kuromisu, thelower seats below the stage.•Debayashi – incidental music, played on the Kabukistage; also known as degatari.Japan Folk mUSIC
  14. 14. GagakuGagaku (雅楽?) is court music, and is the oldest traditionalmusic in Japan. Gagaku music includes songs, dances, and amixture of other Asian music. Gagaku has two styles; theseare instrumental music kigaku (器楽?)and vocal music seigaku (声楽?).Instrumental Music Kangen (管弦?) - basically, a Chinese form of music. Bugaku (舞楽?) - influenced by Tang Dynasty China and Balhae.[1]Vocal Music Kumeuta (久米歌?) Kagurauta (神楽歌?) Azumaasobi (東遊び?) Saibara (催馬楽?) Rōei (朗詠?) Japan Folk mUSIC
  15. 15. Noh ( 能?) or nōgaku (能楽?) is another type of theatrical music. Noh music is played bynoh the hayashi-kata (囃子方 ?). The instruments used are the taiko ( 太 鼓 ?), ōtsuzumi 鼓?), kotsuzumi (小鼓?), and fue (笛?). (大 is kind of Buddhist song which is anShōmyō added melody for a sutra. Shōmyō came from India, and it began in Japan in the Nara period. Shōmyō is sung a capella by one or more Buddhist monks. is music using the shamisen. There are threeNagauta styles of nagauta: one for kabuki dance, one for kabuki dialogue, and one of music unconnected with kabuki. began in the Edo period. Buddhist monksShakuhachi played the shakuhachi as a substitute for a sutra. Sometimes the shakuhachi is played along with other instruments.Japan Folk mUSIC
  16. 16. SōkyokuSōkyoku ( 筝 曲 ?) uses the "Chinese koto"(guzheng), which differs from theJapanese koto (琴?). There are two schools ofsōkyoku.•Ikuta ryu - Originated in Eastern Japan. It isplayed with shamisen.•Yamada ryu - Originated in Western Japan. It isfocused on songs.Japan Folk mUSIC
  17. 17. Buson (1716-1784), Japanese painter and haiku poet of theEdo period (1603-1867), also known as Yosa Buson. He wasborn in a suburb of Ōsaka, Japan, and apparently lostboth parents while he was still young. In 1737 he movedto Edo (now Tokyo) to study painting and haiku poetryin the tradition of Bashō, a Japanese master of haiku.After the death of one of his poetry teachers in 1742, hetoured northern areas associated with Bashō andvisited western Japan, finally settling in Kyōto, Japan, in1751. Particularly active as a painter between 1756 and1765, Buson gradually returned to haiku, leading amovement to return to the purity of Bashōs style andto purge haiku of superficial wit. He married about1760. In 1771 he painted a famous set of ten screens withhis great contemporary Ike no Taiga, demonstrating hisstatus as one of the finest painters of his time. Japan PAINTers
  18. 18. LandscapeEighteenth-century Japanese artist Buson was also a renownedHaiku (a form of Japanese verse) poet. This landscape, completedin 1771, is in the Museum of East Asian Art in Cologne, Germany. Japan PAINTings
  19. 19. Hokusai, full name Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849),Japanese painter and wood engraver, born in Edo (nowTokyo). He is considered one of the outstanding figuresof the Ukiyo-e, or “pictures of the floating world”(everyday life), school of printmaking. Hokusai enteredthe studio of his countryman Katsukawa Shunsho in 1775and there learned the new, popular technique ofwoodcut printmaking. Between 1796 and 1802 heproduced a vast number of book illustrations and colorprints, perhaps as many as 30,000, that drew theirinspiration from the traditions, legends, and lives ofthe Japanese people. Hokusais most typical wood-blockprints, silkscreens, and landscape paintings were donebetween 1830 and 1840. The free curved linescharacteristic of his style gradually developed into aseries of spirals that imparted the utmost freedom andgrace to his work, as in Raiden, the Spirit of Thunder. Japan PAINTers
  20. 20. Hokusais The WaveAmong the thousands of prints made during his prolific career, the Japaneseartist Hokusai created a famous series of prints, entitled Thirty-Six Views ofMount Fuji, from about 1826 to 1833. These prints express a range of moods fromserenity to intense drama. Included in this series, The Breaking Wave OffKanagawa, or, more simply, The Wave, portrays a scene in which a large wavedwarfs Mount Fuji, seen in the background, while it threatens to destroy theboats beneath it. Hokusai’s work includes some of the finest examples of Japaneselandscape printmaking. Japan PAINTings
  21. 21. Kanō Eitoku (1543-1590), influential Japanese artist, the firstgreat master of the Momoyama period (1568-1600) in Japanesehistory (see Japanese Art and Architecture: Momoyama Art).Born into the already well-known Kano dynasty of painters,Eitoku was trained in the familys heritage of techniques. Hisearly style showed mastery of traditional monochrome ink-painting, as in his Pine and Crane (1566) at Daitokuji Temple inKyōto, Japan. At this time he also learned to fill and articulatelarge areas of wall space. For Oda Nobunaga and otherwarlord patrons of the turbulent Momoyama period, Eitokuoriginated a style that typified the brash vigor of the age,using colorful, sharply outlined forms on flat goldbackgrounds. These brilliant, heroically proportioneddesigns served to illuminate the dark interiors of thewarlords vast castles; however, much of Eitokus workperished when these castles were later destroyed. His greatdecorative cycle for Nobunagas Azuchi Castle in Azuchiprovince was destroyed along with the castle soon afterNobunagas death in 1582. Japan PAINTers
  22. 22. Chinese LionsKanō Eitoku was one of the most influential Japanese painters of the late 16thcentury. His work was frequently in demand by the important warlords of theperiod, including Oda Nobunaga, who commissioned Eitoku to do many of theinterior paintings for Azuchi Castle. These paintings were lost after thedestruction of the castle in 1582. Chinese Lions is one of Eitoku’s few survivingworks. Japan PAINTings
  23. 23. Kōrin, full name Ogata Kōrin (1659-1716), Japanese artist, thegreatest painter of the 17th- and 18th-century decorativeschool. Born into a family of painters, he is thought to havestudied with the famous Kano school of art masters. He becameespecially noted for his paintings of flowers, animals, andlandscapes, which attained an elegance and stylized graceunsurpassed in Japanese art. Kōrins best-known works, his twosixfold Irises screens (Nezu Art Museum, Tokyo), shimmer withblue flowers and green leaves against a gold-leaf background.His ink strokes and lines were often daringly spare, but hiscolor was highly complex, achieving infinite gradations ofiridescent shadings; he often mixed ink and gouache directlyon the paper to create spontaneous and unexpected effects.Kōrins masterpiece, the pair of twofold screens, White and RedPrunus in the Spring (National Museum, Tokyo), shows twostylized trees arching over a sinuously drawn stream; theswirling pattern of the stream directly inspired the famous“whiplash” line in late-19th-century art nouveau in Europe. Japan PAINTers
  24. 24. IrisesOgata Kōrin’s Irises, painted on screens in 1701, is probably his mostfamous work. The minimal use of line is combined with sophisticatedcolor on a gold-leaf background to create a style unmatched in otherJapanese art. This screen is in the Nezu Art Museum in Tokyo, Japan. Japan PAINTings
  25. 25. Sesshū (1420-1506), Japanese painter and Buddhist priestof the Zen sect, considered one of the foremostfigures in Japanese art (see Japanese Art andArchitecture: Muromachi Art). He was born in theBitchū region (now part of Okayama Prefecture).Sesshū studied under the great painter and Zen priestShūbun in Kyōto. About 1464 he moved to Yamaguchi,where he worked at the Unkokuan studio. In 1467Sesshū visited China, living at the imperial court inBeijing. He was only slightly influenced by the artstyles of the contemporary Ming dynasty (1368-1644),modeling his work instead on the landscape paintingof the Song dynasty (960-1279). In 1469 he returned toJapan. Several years later he opened his own studio inYamaguchi. Japan PAINTers
  26. 26. SesshusFalconsandHeronsJapanese artist Sesshū, also a Zen Buddhist priest, painted Falcons and Herons inthe 15th century. He is one of the most important artists of the Muromachiperiod of Japanese art (1338–1573). While studying in China, Sesshū was influencedby the use of monochromatic coloring, a technique demonstrated in Falcons andHerons. An adept of the Chinese Ma-Xia (Ma-Hsia) style of landscape painting, hiswork emphasized delicate landscape compositions and spontaneous brushwork. Japan PAINTings
  27. 27. Tori Busshi late 6th to early 7th centuries. He was from the Kuratsukuri (鞍作, "saddle-maker") clan, and hisfull title was Shiba no Kuratsukuri-be no Obito Tori Busshi (司馬鞍作部首止利仏師)Enkūhe wandered all over Japan, helping the poor along the way.During his travels, he carved some 120,000 wooden statues ofthe Buddha. No two were alike.Jōchō d. 1057He popularized the yosegi technique of sculpting a single figureout of many pieces of wood, and he redefined the canon used tocreate Buddhist imagery. His style spread across Japan anddefined Japanese sculpture for the next 150 years. Japan sculptors
  28. 28. Kaikei mid-to-late 12th centuryhis style is called Anna-miyō (Anna style) and is known to beintelligent, pictorial and delicate. Most of his works have aheight of about three shaku, and there are many of his works inexistence.Yoshitaka Amano late 12th centuryis a Japanese artist, character designer, illustrator and atheatre and film scenic designer and costume designer. He firstcame into prominence in the late 1960s working on the animeadaptation of Speed Racer.Unkei 1151–1223He specialized in statues of the Buddha and other importantBuddhist figures. Unkeis early works are fairly traditional,similar in style to pieces by his father, Kōkei. Japan sculptors
  29. 29. he sculpture of Japan started from theclay figure. Japanese sculpture receivedthe influence of the Silk Road culture inthe 5th century, and received a stronginfluence from Chinesesculpture afterwards. The influence ofthe Western world was received sincethe Meiji era. The sculptures were madeat local shops, used for sculpting andpainting. Most sculptures were found atareas in front of houses and along wallsof important buildings.Japan Sculptures
  30. 30. is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. Its Great Buddha Hall ( 大仏殿Daibutsuden), houses the worlds largest bronze statue of the Buddha Vairocana, known in Japanese simply as Daibutsu . The temple also serves as the Japanese headquarters of the Kegon school of Buddhism. The temple is a listed UNESCO World Heritage Site as "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara", together with seven other sites including temples, shrines and places in the city of Nara.Japan Sculptures
  31. 31. are two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples all across Asia including China, Japan and Korea in the form of frightening wrestler-like statues. They are manifestations of the Bodhisattva Vajrapāṇi protector deity and the oldest and most powerful of the Mahayana pantheon. is a Buddhist temple in the city of Uji in Kyoto Prefecture,Japan. It is jointly a temple of the Jōdo- shū (Pure Land) and Tendai- shū sects.Japan Sculptures
  32. 32. TRADITIONAL JAPANESE EMBROIDERY is taken from theKimono and from costumes of Kabuki and No drama. Thework itself is a discipline and most likely will be differentfrom any you have experienced before. The method offraming up, the procedure, and working order in the classwill all be a new embroidery experience. The 46 techniqueslearnt over 9 phases will give the Embroiderer afoundation for working with the beautiful Silk Fabrics,Flat Silks & Metal Threads . TRADITIONA L JAPANE SEEMBROIDERY is taken from the Kimono and from costumes ofKabuki and No drama. The work itself is a discipline andmost likely will be different from any you haveexperienced before. The method of framing up, theprocedure, and working order in the class will all be anew embroidery experience. The 46 techniques learnt over9 phases will give the Embroiderer a foundation forworking with the beautiful Silk Fabrics & Metal Threads. Japan Embroidery
  33. 33. Japan Embroidery
  34. 34. Japan Embroidery