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Gupta and Mughal dynasty


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Gupta and Mughal dynasty

  1. 1. A History of India
  2. 2. A Timeline Taken from:
  3. 3. I. Pre-Gupta1. Late Vedic Period (800 – 500 BC)2. Nanda Dynasty (500 – 321 BC)3. Mauryan Dynasty (321 – 185 BC)4. Sunga Dynasty (185 – 73 BC)5. Rise of the Kushan (73 BC – 320 CE)
  4. 4. II. Gupta Dynasty1. Rise of the Gupta (320 – 415 CE)2. Classical Period of India3. Great Rulers of the Gupta4. Fall of the Gupta (415 – 540 CE)
  5. 5. III. Assimilation of Islam into India1. Harsha (7th century CE)2. Chola Dynasty (850 – 1175)3. Rise of Delhi Sultanate (1175 – 1206)4. Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290)5. Expansion to the South (1299 – 1324)6. Fall of Delhi Sultanate (1324 – 1526)7. Deccani Sultanate (15th century CE)
  6. 6. IV. Mughal Dynasty1. Rise of the Mughals (1527 – 1530)2. Islamic Period of India3. Great Rulers of the Mughal4. Fall of the Mughal (1707 – 1857)
  7. 7. Goals:To be able to enjoy the study of India’s historyTo be able to learn the value of decision-makingHow to win the game:Earn the most number of resource points and become thedominating clan in the region
  8. 8. Preparations: Class divides into five clans. Each clan must have a name. The clan will elect a brahmin and kshatriya. The clan must prepare pieces of paper (1/4 pad) on which their brahmin will write their clan’s decisions. Each clan is given 50 RPs (resource pts.) to start the game.
  9. 9. Decision-Making: For each segment in India’s history, there will be given scenarios and each clan has to make a decision in response to the scenario If, according to history, the decision made by a clan is the correct response to the scenario, they earn 25 RPs. Otherwise, they lose 25 RPs
  10. 10. Decision-Making: After each scenario is shown, their will be choices to guide the clans. The clans will then pick their decision from the given choices The brahmin, having the ability to communicate with the gods, will write their choice on the piece of paper and give it to Garuda, king of the birds Garuda will collect the decisions of the clans and declare which clans received the favor of the gods and thus 10 RPs and which clans did not
  11. 11. Blessings and Curses: The clans that make the right decisions will have to send their kshatriya to try their luck in the Box The Box contains blessings and curses Blessings and curses may affect the clan that picked it or all the clans or none at all Blessings and curses may be picked more than once
  12. 12. Expansion: Expansion can be achieved by upgrading your clan’s defenses 50 RPs is required for every upgrade can only be done if the clan made the right decision there will be a maximum of five upgrades Only one upgrade at a time Expansion makes your clan harder to dominate
  13. 13. Domination: Domination can be achieved by eliminating another clan from the game A clan can only eliminate another if:  The clan has more than a 50 RP lead from its target  The target was unable to make the right decision when the clan decides to eliminate it The clan receives half the RPs of the clan it eliminates Only one clan can be eliminated per scenario
  14. 14. Redemption: A clan that has been eliminated will continue to make decisions (limbo) If the clan makes the right decision, they may return to the game However, the target cannot regain the points lost to the dominating clan after redemption There are blessing and curse cards that also resurrect clans from the dead A clan may be eliminated and redeemed more than once
  15. 15. Victory, etc.: Victory is declared by the clan with the most number of RPs by the end of the game No tiebreakers Upgrades are not converted back to RPs at the end of the game At the end of each scenario, the clans that made the right decision can choose to either Expand, Dominate, or Pass
  16. 16. Taken from:
  17. 17. Taken from:
  18. 18.  Literally means “great (maha) foothold of a tribe (janapada)” Small kingdoms or states that rose to power mostly in northern India Frequently in conflict for resources or territory Mentioned in Buddhist and Jain literature By 500 BC, there were 16 mahajanapadas
  19. 19.  Second major rise in urbanization after IVC A divided, warring India  vulnerability as a whole Shift from tribal democracy to monarchy (with a representative, elderly assembly called a Gana- Parishad) increased prosperity due to increased trade locally and internationally Rulers had coins minted from different metals formation of guilds lead to formation of sub-castes
  20. 20. Foreign Influences: India was invaded by the Persians and the Greeks and influenced each other’s cultures  Persians to Indians – Araminc form of writing and trade  Indians to Persians – Buddha meets Zoroaster  Greeks to Indians – trade, introduced money, guilds, and influenced Mauryan art  Indians to Greeks – Indian history
  21. 21. Magadha: Found in northeastern India (present-day Bihar) By 600 – 400 BC, became the most powerful mahajanapada Ruled by the Haryankas, Sisunagas, and the Nandas Characterized by an efficient adminstration and a strong army In a strategic position in the Ganges valley (linked to ports along Ganges river area and aided the trade routes) Where Buddha was born
  22. 22. Magadha has just risen to become a major power player in India. Rajgiri, the first capital of Magadha Taken from:
  23. 23. a) We will declare war against Magadha and seize control of the trade routes.b) We will not form any concrete relations with the Magadha.c) We will send diplomats to Magadha and establish an alliance.d) We will assassinate the king of Magadha and then blame it on another mahajanapada, causing a war.e) We will raise taxes on exports to Magadha.
  24. 24. Alexander the Great has just invaded Punjab, in the northwest, and is fast approaching the territory of the Nanda Dynasty with his formidable army.Porus and Alexander drawTaken from:
  25. 25. a) We will send our warriors to join Nanda Dynasty’s army.b) We will send our warriors to join Alexander’s army.c) We will sell weapons and elephants to both sides.d) We will make a treaty with Alexander the Great.e) We will maintain a non-belligerent position in this conflict.
  26. 26. Chandragupta Maurya:  toppled the Nanda Dynasty  seized control of Indus Valley from the Seleucus I Nicator  formed an impressive centralized system  agriculture and trade flourished  backed by strong military resources and an effective secret service  Jainism convert
  27. 27. Chandragupta Maurya has just recently made a treaty with Seleucus I Nicator and has united the Indus and the Ganges. He has formed a formidable kingdom.Chandragupta’s Empire Chandragupta MauryaTaken from: Taken from:
  28. 28. a) We will unite all the mahajanapadas and declare war on Chandragupta.b) We will send Chandragupta tributes and build friendly relations with his kingdom.c) We will migrate south into the Deccan.d) We will migrate northwest to the region of the Seleucids.e) We will begin efforts to reinstate the Nanda Dynasty.
  29. 29. Bindusara  little is known of his reign  expanded Mauryan territory into the DeccanAshoka  brought empire to greatest extent after seizing the Kalinga region in the east  promoted the arts and sciences  Buddhism convert and sent missionaries througout Asia  his edicts are inscribed on rocks and pillars throughout South Asia
  30. 30. Fall of the Mauryan Dynasty  subsequent rulers lost territories and prestige  squabbles began over succession  last Mauryan emperor Brihadratha was assassinated by his general and chief aide, Pusyamitra
  31. 31. Ashoka has just come back from the bloody war of Kalinga. After all the bloodshed he has witnessed, he gathers the clans in his kingdom to plan his next move. Battle for Kalinga Taken from:
  32. 32. a) We will support him in his campaign of conquest of India.b) We will advise him to convert to Buddhism.c) We will not give him any advice.d) We will advise him to hand over his throne to a steward while he takes a break.e) We will take this opportunity to seize control of the throne while he is weakened by the war.
  33. 33.  Sunga Dynasty is established by Pusyamitra but doesn’t last for long India revisits its chaotic, divided pre-Mauryan history Small kingdoms rise in northern India led by “Indo-Greek” rulers, like Menander, who becomes somewhat a Buddhist saint They were replaced by the Kushans from Central Asia who ruled northern India with Ayodhya as their capital
  34. 34. Sunga Dynasty falls, and India is once again fragmented. However, the Bactrian leaders have declared independence from their Seleucid overlords and are now seizing control of northern India.
  35. 35. a) We will make a treaty with the Bactrians.b) We will conquer as much territory as possible before the Bactrians do.c) We will rebuild the Mauryan kingdom and challenge the Bactrians.d) We will maintain a non-belligerent stance and allow the Bactrians to invade India.e) We will convince the Seleucids to send their armies to crush the Bactrians.
  36. 36. Rise of the Gupta Dynasty:  Rich family from Magadha that rose to power  Dynasty was founded by Chandra Gupta I  expanded militarily or through marriage  Pataliputra, in Magadha, became the capital  By 380, its territory had taken up much of northern India but could not match the gains of the Mauryan kingdom  marked the beginning of Golden Age of India
  37. 37. Chandra Gupta has plans of annexing your territories into his kingdom. His forces have grown strong and mighty. Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandra Gupta I on a coin Taken from:
  38. 38. a) War it is, then.b) We will send our most beautiful girl for him to marry.c) We will flee and find refuge in the south.d) We will submit ourselves willingly into his domain.e) We will promise to send him tribute in exchange for our freedom.
  39. 39. Classical Period of India:  Golden Age of India  period of cultural development, peace, and economic prosperity  Fa Xian/Hien, a Chinese pilgrim, described “beautiful cities, fine hospital and universities, and a content and prosperous people”  evidences: coins, pillars, and texts throughout the period
  40. 40. Hindu converts are starting to flood your staunch Buddhist clan.
  41. 41. a) It is not necessary to take any action on this matter.b) We will all convert to Hinduism.c) We will massacre all the Hindu converts to discourage any Hindu revival in our clan.d) We will convince the Hindu converts to convert to Buddhism.e) We will adopt a policy of religious tolerance.
  42. 42.  Cultural development ▪ revival of interest in Hinduism; slight decline in Jainism and Buddhism ▪ classic image of Buddha was developed ▪ Peak of Sanskrit language and literature ▪ Artistic temple architecture and sculpture ▪ Magnificent works of art: ▪ sculpted friezes at Udayagiri caves by Jain and Buddhist monks ▪ Painted Ajanta caves ▪ Sarnath Buddha ▪ Deogarh Dashavatara Temple panels
  43. 43. Udayagiri CavesTaken
  44. 44.  Advances in natural sciences ▪ decimal system was devised with zero placeholder ▪ accuracy of Pi to the fourth decimal place ▪ Symbols of 1 to 9 were devised ▪ Proposal that Earth was round not flat ▪ Surgical operations were performed Professional army ▪ Utilized war elephants, chariots, and bows to great effect ▪ Disciplined and heavily armed foot soldiers ▪ Had a naval force
  45. 45.  Social Life ▪ Professions determined by caste, though not strictly ▪ Adoption was looked down upon ▪ Men dominated family and society ▪ Women were respected in society, idealized in literature, and given a certain amount of education ▪ Gambling, animal fighting, wrestling, and athletics were common pastimes ▪ Education was provided by Hindus and Buddhists; universities were sponsored by Gupta kings
  46. 46.  Economic Activities ▪ Textile industry (silk, muslin, calico, linen, wool, and cotton) ▪ Pack animals and ox carts were used to transport goods on land; Indian ships were used on water ▪ Emergence of guilds signified progress in industry and trade ▪ Agriculture remained an important industry ▪ Buddhist Church participated in economic activities ▪ Money was in circulation
  47. 47. Rulers of Gupta Dynasty:  efficient conquerors and administrators 1. Chandra Gupta I ▪ Third ruler of Magadha ▪ First empire-builder; used military tactics and marriage (to Kumaradevi) 2. Samudragupta ▪ Conquered many territories without much effort ▪ Characterized by discoveries in natural sciences ▪ “Indian Napoleon”
  48. 48. 3. Chandra Gupta II / Vikramaditya ▪ “legendary” king of India ▪ conquered the peninsula of Saurashtra ▪ established sea ports to facilitate trade and commerce ▪ most number of coins found from his reign4. Kumaragupta I ▪ united India as a single entity ▪ was able to ward off the Hephthalites from the north
  49. 49. Hephthalites have begun to invade Gupta territory. Clans have been requested to send their best soldiers to the border. Hephthalites invading Gupta Taken from:
  50. 50. a) We will make an alliance with the Hephthalites and betray the Gupta army.b) We will break away from the Gupta empire.c) We will send all our soldiers and put all our resources to stopping the White Huns.d) We will surrender to the Hephthalites.e) We will offer resources but will not send our soldiers to war.
  51. 51. Fall of the Gupta Dynasty: 5. Skandagupta ▪ repulsed attacks from the Hephthalites ▪ Drained his kingdom’s resources and contributed to its decline  Guptas pulled back to their homeland after the attacks of the Hephthalites (White Huns)  India returned to being a patchwork of small kingdoms
  52. 52. The Hephthalites have defeated the army of the Gupta empire. India is once again fragmented into small kingdoms.
  53. 53. a) We will seize the opportunity to start our own dynasty.b) We will reinstate the Gupta Dynasty.c) We will hunt down the Hephthalites and massacre them.d) We will not pursue any acts of aggression.e) We will start a war between the kingdoms that will ensure profit, no matter the outcome.
  54. 54.  Harsha (7th century CE) built a vast kingdom but after his death it fragmented Chola Dynasty (850 – 1200) ruled all of southern India and was a crucial staging post for Chinese and Arabic merchant ships Arab traders slowly introduce Islam to the region by the 8th century Muslim armies from Persia and Ghazni (Afghanistan) attacked the region from 8th – 11th centuries
  55. 55. Arab traders start preaching Islam to your clan.
  56. 56. a) Send the Arab traders back home.b) Let them be.c) Kill the Arab traders.d) Declare a trade embargo against the Arabs.e) Punish all those who convert to Islam.
  57. 57. Muhammad of Ghur, a Muslim nomad, has come with an army to invade India. The other kingdoms are requesting an alliance against Muhammad. Muhammad of Ghur Taken from:
  58. 58. a) Join the alliance.b) Make an alliance with Muhammad.c) Be a non-belligerent.d) All convert to Islam.e) Flee to the south.
  59. 59. Muhammad of Ghur  Nomad who invaded India from present-day Afghanistan  His centralized army, mostly horsemen, defeated the bigger and richer Indian armies  His armies sacked Delhi in 1193 and swept through most of South Asia
  60. 60. Qutb-ud-din Aibek builds the Qutb Minar – the tallest minaret – to symbolize India’s assimilation into the Muslim world. Qutb Minar Taken from:
  61. 61. a) So what?b) Build a taller minaret.c) Build a monument beside the minaret dedicated to our sultanate’s power.d) Destroy the Qutb Minar.e) Aibek should be assassinated – he’s only the chief aide Muhammad. Plus, he was an ex- slave.
  62. 62. Qutb-ud-din Aibek  One of Muhammad’s generals and ex-slave  Established Delhi Sultanate  Qutb Minar – tallest minaret built – to symbolize assimilation of India into Muslim world  Sultans built grand monuments around the Qutb Minar to demonstrate power
  63. 63. Slave Dynasty  Military slaves and women became sultans (Iltutmish in 1211 and Razia Sultana in 1236)  Succession to Sultanate was violent, at least 5 of 11 sultans assassinated  Imperial authority grew stronger as “divine right of kings” was propagated by refugees from Baghdad fleeing from Mongols  Sultans based law on pragmatism (practicality) rather than Shariah law  Religious tolerance
  64. 64. Your clan’s leader has become Sultan of Delhi. He has become the target of other sultans who think he doesn’t deserve his position.
  65. 65. a) Assassinate all the other sultans before they assassinate our leader.b) Replace the sultans with loyal governors.c) Send gifts to the other sultans to appease them.d) Tell our leader to flee from Delhi.e) Intimidate the sultans with a display of power by expanding our territory.
  66. 66. Southern kingdoms of the Deccan plains have stopped paying tribute to your sultanate.
  67. 67. a) Send an army to crush them all.b) Loot their kingdoms.c) Replace their kings with loyal governors.d) Lower the amount of tribute to be paid.e) Increase the amount of tribute to be paid by the other provinces under our rule.
  68. 68. Expansion to the South  Sultan Alauddin Khilji launched successful military campaigns against southern kingdoms  Malik Kafur, Alauddin’s favorite slave, was sent on raids to Deccan plateau in 1311  In 1321, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq sent his son Muhammad to annex southern kingdoms ▪ Southern kingdoms had stopped paying tribute ▪ Kings were replaced with loyal governors
  69. 69. The southern kingdoms have recently successfully seceded from the Sultanate. The formidable Mongol army, led by Timur, also threatens to invade your Sultanate.
  70. 70. a) Launch a campaign to regain the Southern provinces.b) Concentrate all forces at Delhi to prepare for a Mongol invasion.c) Halt the advance of the Mongol forces.d) Move the capital away from Delhi.e) Make a treaty with the Mongol forces to spare Delhi.
  71. 71. Fall of Delhi Sultanate  Capital was moved to Devagiri but returned to Delhi because of inadequate water supply  Victory of governors of Deccan provinces in 1347  Establishment of Bahmani kingdom  Mongol warrior Timur (descendant of Genghis Khan) sacks Delhi, ending its dominance in the region  Ibrahim Lodi’s defeat at Panipat marked the end of the Delhi Sultanate
  72. 72.  Bahmani kingdom in the south fragmented into five sultanates In 1565, united to defeat the Vijayanagar Empire, a common rival in Southern India
  73. 73. You were recently exiled from your home. You have supporters willing to die for you and know that India has fragmented into weak kingdoms.
  74. 74. a) Relax in exile.b) Take revenge on those who exiled me.c) Migrate to another kingdom where I can find refuge.d) Start a campaign to conquer India.e) Build my own kingdom in exile.
  75. 75. Rise of the Mughal Dynasty:  Babur, descendant of Timur, was exiled from his home by Uzbek Shaibani Khan  Babur seized Kabul in 1504 and moved to India  He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in Panipat and Rajput King at Kanua in 1527  He consolidated Mughal rule over most of northern India from his capital at Agra by 1530
  76. 76. Islamic Age of India  Mughal (Persian for Mongol)  Imperial power in the subcontinent  Continued the assimilation of Islam into the region  India enjoyed relative cultural and economic progress
  77. 77.  Mughal influences in Indian culture ▪ Characterized by unique architecture of Mughals (Taj Mahal, Hamayun’s Tomb, Agra and Lahore Fort) ▪ Centralised, imperialistic government ▪ Persian art and culture + Indian art and culture ▪ Trade routes opened to Arab and Turkish lands ▪ Mughlai cuisine ▪ Landscape gardening ▪ Development of Urdu language (national language of Pakistan)
  78. 78. Taj MahalTaken
  79. 79.  Advances in natural science: ▪ Mughal astronomers continued to make advances in observational astronomy ▪ Hamayun built a personal observatory in Delhi ▪ Instruments and techniques derived from Muslim tradition ▪ Invention of seamless celestial globe ▪ Sake Dean Mahomed used Mughal alchemy to understand how shampoo was made and served as shampooing surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV
  80. 80.  Mughal society ▪ Creation of road systems and uniform currency ▪ Key industry: shipbuilding for trade and maintaining their small fleet ▪ Maktabs (elementary schools) were built in every province ▪ Influence of caste system slowly diminished ▪ Social ladder mainly consisted of the nobility at the top, merchants and professionals at the middle, and peasants at the bottom
  81. 81. Foreigners arrive in large ships bearing the flag of an East India Trading Company. East India Trading Company Flag Taken from:
  82. 82. a) Blockade their ships on port and have them all imprisoned.b) Kill the strange men and burn their strange ships.c) It’s a normal day for trading.d) Trade with them but report their presence to the Mughal emperor.e) Trade with them but blast their ships as they leave.
  83. 83.  Economic activities ▪ Mainly agriculture, trade, and shipbuilding ▪ Millets, oilseeds, cereals, hemp, chili, sugarcane, cotton, indigo, betel, and others ▪ Textile industry flourished ▪ Transport and communication systems improved ▪ Influx of European Traders (EIC) improved economy ▪ Monetized economy
  84. 84. Hamayun, son of Babur, loses his father’s Mughal acquisitions in India to the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Sur and is exiled to the Safavid court at Persia.
  85. 85. a) Declare war on Sher Shah Sur.b) Advise Sher Shah Sur to build up his defenses in case Hamayun returns.c) Offer our help to Hamayun for his return in secret.d) Have Hamayun killed before he reaches the Safavid court.e) Have Sher Shah Sur killed before he reaches Agra.
  86. 86. Rulers of Mughal Dynasty: 1. Babur ▪ founded the Mughal Dynasty after his exile ▪ ruled most of northern India from his capital at Agra by 1530 2. Hamayun ▪ 1540, he loses his father’s gains to Afghan ruler Sher Shah Sur ▪ Exiled to the Safavid court at Persia ▪ 1555, with Persian support, he restores Mughal rule by defeating Sher Shah Sur’s weaker descendants
  87. 87. 3. Akbar ▪ ruled with Bairam Khan because he was too young (12 yrs. Old) when he came to power ▪ built fortresses all over northern India ▪ established centralised government administered by warrior – aristocrats (mansabdars) ▪ Adopted religious tolerance and married women of different faiths ▪ Reduced influence of Muslim scholars ▪ Patronized north Indian classical music and invited famed singer and musician, Tansen, to his court ▪ established a school of Mughal painting ▪ By 1605, his acquisitions reached from Kasmir to the north, Deccan to the south, Afghanistan to the west, and Bengal to the east
  88. 88. 4. Jahangir ▪ Resented being overshadowed by father’s achievements ▪ Married Nur Jahan, who became the real ruler of the empire until the death of her husband5. Shah Jahan ▪ Known for enormous cultural projects that became symbols of Mughal wealth ▪ Projects were dependent on flourishing agriculture and trade ▪ Had Taj Mahal built in Agra for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, and moved the capital from Agra to Delhi
  89. 89. You are away on an important campaign against the Marathas, but you hear news that the imperial treasury is running low. If you stop the campaign now, all your efforts will be put to waste.
  90. 90. a) Stop the campaign. Not worth it.b) Continue the campaign. Victory will fill up the coffers again.c) Raise taxes on all exports and all provinces of the empire.d) The news is a lie. Kill the messenger.e) Make a deal with the Marathas – in exchange for the end of the hostilities, enough money to refill the treasury.
  91. 91. 6. Aurangzeb ▪ Oversaw expansion of the empire to its largest extent ▪ Often away from capital for military campaigns ▪ Depleted treasury trying to defeat the Marathas in the south ▪ Strict implementation of Islam offended Rajput and Hindu subjects
  92. 92. The East India Trading Company is becoming a formidable threat to the weakening empire.
  93. 93. a) Stop all trade with the East India Trading Company.b) All hope is lost.c) Declare war on the East India Trading Company.d) Secretly plan an open rebellion to restore Mughal rule.e) Go into exile to rebuild our forces and return to restore Mughal rule.
  94. 94. Fall of Mughal Dynasty  By 18th century, Mughal sovereignty was limited to Delhi and its hinterlands  1739, Nadir Shah sacked Delhi and seized the Mughal treasury  By early 19th century, East Indian Company expanded and eroded Mughal authority over India  1857, a final attempt to restore Mughal rule, the Indian Mutiny, failed ▪ led to the deposition of last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah, II
  95. 95. - Bahadur Shah II, last Mughal emperor, in his exile in Burma, 1857 Sepoy Rebellion Taken from:
  96. 96. 1. History by Adam Hart Davis (2007)2. ml6. bin/stories.cgi?article=economy&section=history/guptas&fram e=parent8. _Indian_subcontinent10. m
  97. 97. 1. C 11. C2. E 12. E3. B 13. C4. D 14. B5. B 15. D6. E 16. D7. E 17. C8. A 18. B9. B 19. D10. D