What is Child
✤ Somebody may abuse or neglect a child
by inﬂicting harm, or failing to act to
✤ A child is deﬁned in the Children's act
1989 as anyone under 18.
✤ May suffer more then one category of
✤ Deﬁnitions of child abuse came from the joint government department
document Working Together to Safeguard Children (1999):
✤ Allowing a child to wear
✤ Providing inappropriate food
✤ Lack of supervision
✤ Insufﬁcient safety provision
✤ Exposure to undue cold
✤ Unnecessary risk of injury
✤ Hurting a child in any way
✤ Giving a child alcohol
✤ Giving medication without
✤ Intensity of the training beyond
the capacity of the individual
✤ Forcing a child to take part in
sexual activities; whether or
not they are aware of what's
✤ Inappropriate physical contact
✤ Involving children watching
pornographic material or
watching sexual acts
✤ Threatening or taunting
✤ Constant Criticism
✤ Unrealistic pressure to perform
✤ Smothering a child’s
development through over-
✤ Some level of emotional abuse
is involved in all types of ill
treatment of a child, though it
may occur alone.
✤ Domestic violence, adult
mental health problems and
parental substance misuse may
expose children to emotional
✤ A child who is bullied may be
suffering any of the types of
abuse deﬁned above, It may
take many forms but the main
✤ Physical (e.g.. hitting, kicking,
✤ Verbal (e.g. sectarian / racist
remarks, name calling)
✤ Abusers don’t look like
✤ More likely family member or
within social sphere
✤ Over 80% in a child’s home or
or the perpetrator
✤ Children may suffer abuse
from other children and young
✤ Split into 4 groups and
brainstorm and present to the
rest of the group what could be
signs and symptoms a type
Read Case Study
What might make you worry?
Is the child doing something that is ✤
quiet and withdrawn, a loner
unusual for the child?
never wants to go home
Is the child over-friendly with
Do you recognise any or some of these ✤
frequent bruises (particularly on
behaviours in the child? ﬂeshy parts)
frequent mood changes ✤
gives the impression of being
unloved and unhappy.
unusual eating patterns, i.e. always
change in appearance
If you suspect
✤ Do realise that your concerns
could be signiﬁcant and should
be passed on.
✤ Do contact your organisations
Child Protection Ofﬁcer (if you
have one), Social Services or
If a child tells you something has
✤ Do allow the child to do the ✤ Do record the conversation as
talking. soon as possible afterwards (it
is very important to use the
✤ Do listen - take the child child's own words).
✤ Do share your concerns with a
✤ Do remain calm and caring. Social Worker - you are not
expected to handle it alone.
✤ Do allow the child to ﬁnish.
✤ Do tell the child what you are
going to do.
If a child tells you something has
✤ Don't postpone or delay the ✤ Don't interpret what you have
opportunity to listen. been told, just record it.
✤ Don't ask leading questions. ✤ Don’t discuss the incident with
anybody other then need to
✤ Don't allow your own feelings know
(such as anger, pity or shock) to
surface. ✤ Only the social services, the
police and the NSPCC have the
✤ Don't make false promises (that legal right and responsibility to
you will keep 'the secret', for investigate the case
What happens in an emergency?
✤ Often help can be given to the family without resorting to legal action.
✤ In certain circumstances, it is necessary to protect the child by way of
removal from it's family.
✤ This step cannot be taken without adequate evidence and no social
worker may remove a child from the care of their parents without
obtaining an Order from a court.
✤ In certain circumstances, a police ofﬁcer may remove a child without
recourse to a court or magistrate when acting in the child's best
interests in order to afford protection.
✤ You become aware of the following about a very
talented ten year old boy in your group:
He has been late for practice most times in the last
Other young people in the group do not want to
socialise with him as he is ‘smelly’.
His parent arrives to collect him on a regular basis
under the inﬂuence of
drink or drugs.
✤ Some parents who have a drug/alcohol issues still
provide good parenting.
✤ In itself parental substance abuse is not necessarily
abusive but it does increase the risk of all forms of
abuse and neglect
✤ Professionals working with the child should be aware
of the situation and monitor it.
✤ Make a note, date and securely ﬁle.
✤ Any organisation that comes into ✤ Appoint a Child Protection Ofﬁcer
contact with children should have a
child protection policy ✤ Examine the activities organisation
✤ members, staff and users of the service
should all be involved in writing your ✤ Risk assess
child protection policy and should be
aware of the policy when it is put into
✤ All staff that come into contact with
young people need to be police checked
✤ Develop a Child Protection Policy
(to achieving the objective) (to achieving the objective)
(Attributes to the
(Attributes to the
1. How can we Use each Strength?
2. How can we Stop each Weakness?
3. How can we Exploit each Opportunity?
4. How can we Defend against each Threat?
Useful Information and Contacts
✤ 'Good Practice in Child ✤ NSPCC helpline 0800 800 500 -
Protection' ISBN-10: 0748792066 www.nspcc.org.uk
✤ Children Act 1989 - http:// ✤ The Churches' Child Protection
bit.ly/KqypK Advisory Service (CCPAS) -
✤ Convention on the Rights of the
Child - www.unicef.org/crc/
✤ Childline 0800 1111
✤ Social Services has an Emergency Duty Service which
offers an emergency crisis service for matters which
cannot wait until the local ofﬁce opens.
✤ They operate from:
✤ Monday to Thursday - 5 p.m. to 9 am,
✤ Friday - 4 p.m. to 9 am and also at weekends and
✤ * Tel. 0845 6000388 (low-call rate)
The Safe Network provides advice and guidance about keeping
children safe during club or group activities.
NSPCC inform is the UK’s only free, specialised online child
The Child Protection in Sport Unit safeguards the welfare of
children and young people under 18 in sport.
NSPCC Publications - for anyone working with children, young
people, parents and carers.
NSPCC EduCare child protection awareness programmes - our
http://bit.ly/kfRdI range of interactive, distance learning programmes are designed to
teach everybody about their role in protecting children.
Our Consultancy services can help you to put safeguards in place
to prevent abuse.
Developing a Child Protection Policy
• Front cover, naming the organisation • Outline recognised effects of abuse
and the date the policy was written
• Explain how effects of abuse and
• Identify how the company will avoid disclosure will be responded to
child abuse and who is the designated
person to deal with any concerns • Identify health and safety provisions
put into place by the school
• Make a policy statement - "We in...are
committed to practice which prevents • Identify who will be police checked,
children from harm. Staff and and forms are staff recruitment
volunteers in this organisation accept
• List training and resources available
and recognise our responsibilities to
develop awareness of the issues which • List the companies working guidelines
cause children harm. We will and code of conduct for working with
endeavour to safeguard our children young people, including hygiene, drink
by..." driving etc.
• Highlight and identify forms of abuse
• Avoid 'one-to-one' supervision • Boundaries are blurred between
where the roll of the parent stops
and dance class begins
• The legal deﬁnition of a child is
anyone up to the age of 18 (The
Child Act (1989) • Seek agreement from participants
prior to any physical contact.
Although dance involves touch and
• No inappropriate language
contact, it is the intention of that
contact and how the child interprets
• Identify class structure to it that is important. Use new
colleagues and participants imaginative forms of teaching to
avoid using physical contact.
• Young people who are not informed