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Does Music Make Us Smarter?

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Music & Other Abilities

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Does Music Make Us Smarter?

  1. 1. MUSIC & OTHER ABILITIESBy Paul M. Cohen | Thompson Chapter 10
  2. 2. WHY DO WE MAKE MUSIC?Questions from another planet If an alien came toYale, he/she/it would ask, “What is the purpose of music?”
  3. 3. WHY DO WE MAKE MUSIC?Questions from another planet If an alien came toYale, he/she/it would ask, “What is the purpose of music?”
  4. 4. WHY DO WE MAKE MUSIC?Questions from another planet1. Does not communicate specific ideas2. It does not attract prey, deter predators, or heal wounds3. Bears little resemblance to other sounds in our lives (with the notable exception of “Concret PH”)
  5. 5. IS MUSIC UNIQUE?Questions from another planet
  6. 6. WHY DO WE MAKE MUSIC?Questions from another planet It makes us smarter
  7. 7. WHY DO WE MAKE MUSIC?Questions from another planet It makes us smarter? Or not?
  8. 8. HISTORICAL PRECEDENT
  9. 9. HISTORICAL PRECEDENTPythagoras
  10. 10. HISTORICAL PRECEDENT ?Pythagoras Paul Bloom
  11. 11. HISTORICAL PRECEDENTPythagoras
  12. 12. HISTORICAL PRECEDENT Harmonic ratios • 2:1 = octave • 3:2 = perfect fifthPythagoras
  13. 13. HISTORICAL PRECEDENTMiddle ages • Music taught as a science • Oxford quadrivium: music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy • Music studied as physical sound
  14. 14. HISTORICAL PRECEDENT “If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music.”
  15. 15. CLAIMS ABOUT MUSICImproves…• Grades• Self-esteem• Mathematical ability• Reading (verbal) skills• Emotional intelligence• Overall intelligence (IQ)
  16. 16. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Question: Does music influence nonmusical aspects of “us”?
  17. 17. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Little agreement from researchers
  18. 18. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Most prominent research: marketingability to influence mood states & actions
  19. 19. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS1. Classical music  more wine sales (Areni & Kim, 1993)
  20. 20. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS1. Classical music  more wine sales (Areni & Kim, 1993)2. Classical music  prevents teens from congregating outside of stores
  21. 21. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS1. Classical music  more wine sales (Areni & Kim, 1993)2. Classical music  prevents teens from congregating outside of stores3. Add music  more persuasive (Schwarz, Bless, & Bohner, 1991; Thompson & Russo, 2004)
  22. 22. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS1. Classical music  more wine sales (Areni & Kim, 1993)2. Classical music  prevents teens from congregating outside of stores3. Add music  more persuasive (Schwarz, Bless, & Bohner, 1991; Thompson & Russo, 2004)4. Slow tempo music  walk slowly (Milliman, 1982)
  23. 23. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS(Basic findings that we expect)
  24. 24. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS(Basic findings that we expect)Anything more exciting?
  25. 25. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect
  26. 26. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in Nature Finding: College students who listened to 10 minutes of a Mozart sonata had increased spatial abilities for 15-20 minutes than those who sat in silence or listened to relaxing music
  27. 27. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureProblems:1. Not consistently replicated (Steele, Bass, & Crook, 1999; Steele, Dalla Bella, et al., 1999)
  28. 28. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureProblems:1. Not consistently replicated (Steele, Bass, & Crook, 1999; Steele, Dalla Bella, et al., 1999)2. When replicated, benefits accounted for just by arousal and mood influences (Husain,Thompson, & Schellenberg, 2002; Thompson, Schellenberg, & Husain, 2001)
  29. 29. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureTake Away: Listening to music doesn’t prime us  it just manipulates our mood and arousal (Nantais & Schellenberg, 1999)
  30. 30. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureTake Away: Listening to music doesn’t prime us  it just manipulates our mood and arousal (Nantais & Schellenberg, 1999)Problem: Yerkes-Dodson law says we shouldn’t have too much arousal before difficult tasks
  31. 31. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureTake Away: Listening to music doesn’t prime us  it just manipulates our mood and arousal
  32. 32. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS Mozart Effect? Concret PH Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) in NatureTake Away: Listening to music doesn’t prime us  it just manipulates our mood and arousal
  33. 33. LONG-TERM EFFECTS
  34. 34. LONG-TERM EFFECTSProblem: most research uses correlations, which makes it impossible to draw causal inferences
  35. 35. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematics Mathematics
  36. 36. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematicsMeta-analysis showed causally… (Vaughn 2000) 1. Students who play music  higher mathematical achievement
  37. 37. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematicsMeta-analysis showed causally… (Vaughn 2000) 1. Students who play music  higher mathematical achievement 2. Background music during math problems  small enhancement
  38. 38. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematicsMeta-analysis showed causally… (Vaughn 2000) 1. Students who play music  higher mathematical achievement 2. Background music during math problems  small enhancement 3. Individuals exposed to music curriculum  higher mathematical achievement*
  39. 39. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematicsMeta-analysis showed causally… (Vaughn 2000) 1. Students who play music  higher *three of the six achievement no effect of mathematical studies showed 2. Background music during math problems  music on mathematical achievement small enhancement 3. Individuals exposed to music curriculum  higher mathematical achievement*
  40. 40. LONG-TERM EFFECTSMathematics Take Away: modest connection between music and mathematics
  41. 41. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Mathematics Take Away: modest connection between music and mathematicsWhy? Shared cognitive operations common to both fields
  42. 42. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Mathematics Take Away: modest connection between music and mathematicsWhy? Shared cognitive operations common to both fields (attention to numbers, repeating patterns, and ratios)
  43. 43. LONG-TERM EFFECTSSpatial-Temporal Ability Spatial-Temporal Ability
  44. 44. LONG-TERM EFFECTSSpatial-Temporal Ability Spatial-Temporal Ability
  45. 45. LONG-TERM EFFECTSSpatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning?
  46. 46. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units”
  47. 47. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units” (think: Cooper & Meyer)
  48. 48. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units” (think: Cooper & Meyer) 2. Ability to detect, appreciate, and respond to patterns similar to math, chess, physics, etc.
  49. 49. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units” (think: Cooper & Meyer) 2. Ability to detect, appreciate, and respond to patterns similar to math, chess, physics, etc. 3. Ability to hold mental images and use models in applications
  50. 50. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units” (think: Cooper & Meyer) 2. Ability to detect, appreciate, and respond to patterns similar to math, chess, physics, etc. 3. Ability to hold mental images and use models in applications (think: melody & variations on melody)
  51. 51. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityReasoning: Music & spatial-temporal abil. invol… 1. Complex patterns perceived and remembered as “structural units” (think: Cooper & Meyer) Neurological support (Leng, Shaw, & 2. Ability to detect, appreciate, and respond to Wright, 1990) patterns similar to math, chess, physics, etc. 3. Ability to hold mental images and use models in applications (think: melody & variations on melody)
  52. 52. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityResult: Meta-analysis of 15 studies w/ 701 children (3-12 yrs old)  musical instruction had higher scores in spatial-temporal tasks (Hetland, 2000)
  53. 53. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityResult: Meta-analysis of 15 studies w/ 701 children (3-12 yrs old)  musical instruction had higher scores in spatial-temporal tasks (Hetland, 2000)Problems: Modest effect & not consistent (Gromko & Poorman, 1998; Costa-Giomi, 1999)
  54. 54. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Spatial-Temporal AbilityResult: Meta-analysis of 15 studies w/ 701 children (3-12 yrs old)  musical instruction had higher scores in spatial-temporal tasks (Hetland, 2000)Problems: Modest effect & not consistent (Gromko & Poorman, 1998; Costa-Giomi, 1999)Take Away: No real conclusion
  55. 55. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal Skills Verbal Skills
  56. 56. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsReasoning?
  57. 57. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsReasoning: Music & verbal skills involve… 1. Memory for visual information
  58. 58. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsReasoning: Music & verbal skills involve… 1. Memory for visual information 2. Conversion of visual symbols into motor commands (visio-motor processing)
  59. 59. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsReasoning: Music & verbal skills involve… 1. Memory for visual information 2. Conversion of visual symbols into motor commands (visio-motor processing) 3. Conversion of visual symbols into cognitive representations
  60. 60. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsReasoning: Music & verbal skills involve… 1. Memory for visual information 2. Conversion of visual symbols into motor commands (visio-motor processing) 3. Conversion of visual symbols into cognitive representations 4. Auditory system
  61. 61. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsResults 1. Music skills correlated with reading skills in 4 & 5 year olds (Lamb & Gregory, 1993)
  62. 62. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsResults 1. Music skills correlated with reading skills in 4 & 5 year olds (Lamb & Gregory, 1993) 2. Verbal memory enhanced in 5-16 year olds with music training (Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003)
  63. 63. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal SkillsResults 1. Music skills correlated with reading skills in 4 & 5 year olds (Lamb & Gregory, 1993) 2. Verbal memory enhanced in 5-16 year olds with music training (Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003) 3. Song lyrics memorized better in musically- trained people (Kilgour, Jakobson, & Cuddy, 2000)
  64. 64. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Verbal Skills Musically-trained peopleResults 1. Music remember song lyrics skills skills correlated with reading in 4 & 5 year olds (Lamb & Gregory, 1993) sense better…this makes 2. Verbal memory enhanced in 5-16 year olds with music training (Ho, Cheung, & Chan, 2003) 3. Song lyrics memorized better in musically- trained people (Kilgour, Jakobson, & Cuddy, 2000)
  65. 65. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsProblems
  66. 66. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsProblems 1. Musicians have greater phonological awareness (Anvari, Trainor, Woodside, & Levy, 2002)
  67. 67. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsProblems 1. Musicians have greater phonological awareness (Anvari, Trainor, Woodside, & Levy, 2002) 2. Musicians have a better ability to determine the temporal order of acoustic input (Jakob son, Cuddy, & Kilgour, 2003)
  68. 68. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsProblems 1. Musicians have greater phonological awareness (Anvari, Trainor, Woodside, & Levy, 2002) 2. Musicians have a better ability to determine the temporal order of acoustic input (Jakob son, Cuddy, & Kilgour, 2003) 3. Not causal studies
  69. 69. LONG-TERM EFFECTSVerbal SkillsProblems 1. Musicians have greater phonological awareness (Anvari, Trainor, Woodside, & Levy, 2002) 2. Musicians have a better ability to determine the temporal order of acoustic input (Jakob son, Cuddy, & Kilgour, 2003) 3. Not causal studies Take Away: Could be related, but not demonstrated
  70. 70. LONG-TERM EFFECTSEmotional Sensitivity & Speech Prosody Emotional Sensitivity & Speech Prosody
  71. 71. LONG-TERM EFFECTSEmotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyReasoning?
  72. 72. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyReasoning 1. Speech prosody = melody (intonation) & rhythm (stress and timing)
  73. 73. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyReasoning 1. Speech prosody = melody (intonation) & rhythm (stress and timing) 2. Emotional meaning shares similar structure as music (timbre, amplitude, pitch, stress, etc.)
  74. 74. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyReasoning 1. Speech prosody = melody (intonation) & rhythm (stress and timing) 2. Emotional meaning shares similar structure as music (timbre, amplitude, pitch, stress, etc.) 3. Music conveys emotional meaning
  75. 75. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyResults 1. Music and speech prosody share similar neural paths in right hemisphere (Zatorre, Evans & Meyer, 1994; Joseph, 1988; Shapiro & Danly, 1985)
  76. 76. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyResults 1. Music and speech prosody share similar neural paths in right hemisphere (Zatorre, Evans & Meyer, 1994; Joseph, 1988; Shapiro & Danly, 1985) 2. Musical students better than law students at detecting depressed individuals (Nilsonne & Sundberg, 1985)
  77. 77. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyResults 1. Music and speech prosody share similar neural paths in right hemisphere (Zatorre, Evans & Meyer, 1994; Joseph, 1988; Shapiro & Danly, 1985) 2. Musical students better than law students at detecting depressed individuals (Nilsonne & Sundberg, 1985) 3. Music students  increased EI [causal] (Thompson., 2004)
  78. 78. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyResults 1. Music and speech prosody share similar neural paths in right hemisphere (Zatorre, Evans & Meyer, 1994; Joseph, 1988; Shapiro & Danly, 1985) 2. Musical students better than law students at detecting depressed individuals (Nilsonne & Sundberg, 1985) 3. Music students  increased EI [causal] (Thompson., 2004) 4. Piano lessons enhance sensitivity to emotion in vocal prosody (Thompson, 2004)
  79. 79. LONG-TERM EFFECTS Emotional Sensitivity & Speech ProsodyTake Away: Music students may have superior abilities in emotional sensitivity and EI, but no evidence that they actually use it.
  80. 80. LONG-TERM EFFECTSGeneral Intelligence General Intelligence
  81. 81. LONG-TERM EFFECTSGeneral IntelligenceReasoning? Maybe music students are just “smarter”
  82. 82. LONG-TERM EFFECTSGeneral IntelligenceLots of studies, both correlational and causal
  83. 83. LONG-TERM EFFECTSGeneral Intelligence Take Away: Kinda-sorta, maybe, maybe not (Morrison, 1994; Schellenberg, 2004; Costa-Giomi, 1999; Wolfe, 1997)
  84. 84. FINAL VERDICT?A Mixed BagMusical training allowsmusicians to developother subskills that helpthem in other areas of life.(Plus, it can’t hurt.)

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