The Electric Cow 
If livestock’s emissions came from electricity, would most 
environmentalists listen? 
Paul Mahony, 26th...
The Electric Cow 
If cows ran on electricity, how much would we use in 
order to produce a beef steak? 
© Paul Mahony 2014
First, some background 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Key reasons for livestock’s impact 
Inherent inefficiency 
Scale 
Greenhouse gases and other warming agents 
Land clearing...
Key reasons for livestock’s impact 
Inherent inefficiency 
Scale 
Inter-related 
Greenhouse gases and other warming agents...
We’ll focus on the inefficiency of livestock as a 
food source 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Inherent inefficiencies 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion factor of, ...
Inherent inefficiencies 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion factor of, ...
Inherent inefficiencies 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion factor of, ...
Inherent inefficiencies 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion factor of, ...
What if we wanted to feed the same number of people 
under each system? 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Inherent inefficiencies 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion factor of, ...
Inherent inefficiencies 
More land 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
Even a conversion ...
Inherent inefficiencies 
More land 
More fertiliser 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. 
E...
Inherent inefficiencies 
More land 
More fertiliser 
More energy 
The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry...
Inherent inefficiencies 
Chicken meat is better, but . . . still a poor feed conversion ratio 
© Paul Mahony 2014
1.7 
Inherent inefficiencies 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Yield (meat from live 
weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat Inherent inefficiencies 
1.7 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Yield (meat from live 
weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
1.7
Yield (meat from live 
weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat 
= a return of 43% (or nutrition loss of 57%) 
© Paul Mah...
Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% 
= 2.35 kg feed per kg meat 
= a return of 43% (or nutrition loss of 57%) 
Any manage...
Livestock 
Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively 
omitted from official figures in Australia and els...
Livestock 
Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively 
omitted from official figures in Australia and els...
Livestock 
Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively 
omitted from official figures in Australia and els...
Livestock 
Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively 
omitted from official figures in Australia and els...
Back to the electric cow 
© Paul Mahony 2014
Back to the electric cow 
If cows ran on electricity, how much would we use in 
order to produce a beef steak? 
© Paul Mah...
Specifically, what figure would we arrive at if it was based 
on their current level of greenhouse gas emissions? 
© Paul ...
To get some idea, we’ll compare their emissions 
performance to: 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
• Australian aluminium smelting, whi...
Firstly, aluminium 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
“Aluminium is the ultimate proxy 
for energy” 
Marius Kloppers, former CEO of 
BHP...
Aluminium smelting has at times consumed 16% 
of Australia’s electricity 
. . . for less than 1% of gross domestic product...
That percentage may have reduced due to smelter 
closures and a reduction in emissions intensity from 
20 tonnes of greenh...
The emissions intensity of Australian aluminium 
smelting has been 2.5 times the global average, as 
the electricity is pr...
The emissions intensity of Australian aluminium 
smelting has been 2.5 times the global average, as 
the electricity is pr...
Let’s compare the emissions intensity of 
aluminium smelting to that of various plant-based 
food products, i.e.: 
- sugar...
© Paul Mahony 2014 Here are emissions intensity figures for various 
plant-based food sources 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0....
Let’s then see how steel production and 
aluminium smelting compare 
(rounded up to zero decimal places). 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from sugar to so...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from sugar to...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from suga...
We’ll now consider beef production, but first we 
need to change the scale of the chart. 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 ...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from suga...
© Paul Mahony 2014 
45
46 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
47 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
48 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
The first figures are global average figures based on 
carcass weight, published by the Food & Agriculture 
Organization o...
50 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
51 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, ...
52 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
102 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based fo...
Now let’s consider emissions intensity based on the weight 
of the retail product (representing the yield), rather than 
5...
© Paul Mahony 2014 The emissions relating to the cow haven’t changed, but the “end 
product”, retail meat obtained from th...
55 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
102 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based fo...
56 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foo...
57 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
102 
140 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant...
58 
Now let’s adjust for a 20-year “global warming 
potential” (GWP) for methane, but first an 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0....
The emissions of different gases can be aggregated by 
converting them to carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e). It 
is like ...
60 
CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 
20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) 
Traditional reporting of ...
61 
CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 
20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) 
Methane’s shorter-term 
i...
62 
CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 
20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) 
Methane’s shorter-term 
i...
63 
CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 
20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) 
To repeat: Methane’s shor...
So now we’ll insert figures based on a 20-year GWP © Paul Mahony 2014 
64 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
102 ...
65 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
102 
140 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant...
66 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
160 
102 
140 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
...
67 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
160 
102 
140 
291 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg prod...
68 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
160 
102 
140 
291 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg prod...
intensity of beef from grass-fed cows is more than 
18 times that of Australian aluminium smelting. 
69 
On that basis, th...
70 
As mentioned, Australian aluminium smelting has 
been 2.5 times as emissions intensive as the 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8...
percentage split of the various factors contributing to beef’s emissions 
71 
The “20-year GWP” figures are based on the g...
As methane’s percentage contribution would be lower in mixed 
systems than in grazing systems, they may be over-stated for...
73 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
56 
77 
160 
102 
140 
291 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg prod...
74 
Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily 
sheep & goats) compares 
© Paul Mahony 2014
75 
Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily 
sheep & goats) compares 
3 
16 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
...
76 
Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily 
sheep & goats) compares 
3 
23 24 
16 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
3...
77 
Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily 
sheep & goats) compares 
3 
23 
35 
24 
16 
36 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
...
78 
Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily 
sheep & goats) compares 
3 
23 
35 
24 
86 
16 
84 
36 
100 
90 
80 
...
79 
Some of the emissions from small ruminants are 
attributed to milk and fibre, reducing the meat figure 
3 
23 
35 
24 ...
Let’s see how the global emissions intensity of chicken and 
pig meat compares, based on retail weight and a 20-year 
80 
...
81 
SOME FURTHER COMPARISONS 
Let’s see how the global emissions intensity of chicken and 
pig meat compares, based on ret...
82 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
83 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 
16 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods, stee...
Emissions Intensity 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-...
© Paul Mahony 2014 To make some room, we’ll remove soy beans and steel 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
16 
18 
16 
14 
1...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 0.9 
3 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from suga...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from sugar to ap...
© Paul Mahony 2014 Now we’ll add pig and chicken meat. 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
k...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from sugar to ap...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
7.6 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from sugar ...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
7.6 
13.6 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from ...
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
0.8 
7.6 
13.6 
16 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
kg CO2-e / kg product 
Plant-based foods from ...
The emissions intensity of chicken and pig meat is very 
poor relative to plant-based alternatives. 
0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 
...
94 
The emissions intensity of Australian beef 
production is lower than the global average due 
primarily to higher produ...
95 
The land clearing may increase following the 
recent overturning by the current Queensland 
government of a ban impose...
96 
The land clearing may increase following the 
recent overturning by the current Queensland 
government of a ban impose...
97 
The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity 
figures for specialised beef in Australia. 
© Paul Mahony 2014
98 
The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity 
figures for specialised beef in Australia. 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
For ou...
99 
The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity 
figures for specialised beef in Australia. 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
For ou...
Background: Around 90 per cent of Australia’s electricity 
is generated from traditional fossil fuels, with 69 per cent 
f...
In terms of gross domestic product, Australia’s economy 
was ranked number 12 of 214 nations by The World Bank 
as at 8th ...
Australia’s per capita emissions are amongst the highest 
in the world. 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
a includes wind, hydro, solar...
Around 90 percent of Australia’s emissions from fossil fuel 
electricity generation come from black and brown coal. 
© Pau...
104 
CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: 
Coal-fired electricity 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
215,725 
175,000 
250,000 
200,000 
150,000 
...
105 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: 
Coal-fired electricity 
and methane from animal agriculture based 
on...
106 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: 
All electricity generation 
and methane from animal agriculture based...
107 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
On this basis, if the newly developed electric cows, sheep, 
chickens, pigs and other livestock a...
108 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
The reported methane emissions are from: enteric 
fermentation (released primarily through belchi...
109 
Methane’s share of beef’s global average emissions is 44% 
(Enteric fermentation 42.6% and manure management 1.4%) 
E...
110 
Buying locally hardly helps 
Postfarm 
emissions 
(transport and 
processing) only 
account for 0.5% 
of the total. 
...
James Hansen – Essential Measures © Paul Mahony 2014
James Hansen – Essential Measures © Paul Mahony 2014 
Massive reforestation and action on soil carbon will be critical
Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) 
Chicken 200g 
Broccoli 50g 
Carrot 50g 
Potato 150g 
Almonds 50g 
Banana 150g 
O...
Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) 
Chicken 200g 
Broccoli 50g 
Carrot 50g 
Potato 150g 
Almonds 50g 
Banana 150g 
O...
Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) 
Emissions: 
2.00 kg 
Chicken 200g 
Broccoli 50g 
Carrot 50g 
Potato 150g 
Almond...
Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) 
Greenhouse gas emissions (kg per day) 
Key distinguishing ingredients shown 
Pla...
What about chickens and fish? 
While emissions from diets featuring chicken and 
fish are comparable to the plant-based al...
What about chickens and fish? 
They also involve other massive environmental 
problems, including destruction of oceanic 
...
Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National 
University 
119 
Some thoughts to conclude © P...
Some thoughts to conclude 
“Contrarian claims by sceptics, 
misrepresenting direct observations in 
nature and ignoring th...
Some thoughts to conclude 
“Contrarian claims by sceptics, 
misrepresenting direct observations in 
nature and ignoring th...
Some thoughts to conclude 
“Contrarian claims by sceptics, 
misrepresenting direct observations in 
nature and ignoring th...
Some thoughts to conclude 
“Contrarian claims by sceptics, 
misrepresenting direct observations in 
nature and ignoring th...
Some thoughts to conclude 
“Contrarian claims by sceptics, 
misrepresenting direct observations in 
nature and ignoring th...
125 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
References 
Methane GWP Chart: Smith, K., cited in World Preservation Foundation, “Reducing Short...
126 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
References 
Australian Government Department of Industry, “The Australian Aluminium Industry”, 
h...
127 
© Paul Mahony 2014 
Supplementary slides 
Land clearing 
Nutrition
128 
Land Clearing in Australia 
Total area cleared since European settlement approx. 1 million sq. km. 
Approx. 70% or 70...
129 
Land clearing in Australia 
Original Map: Copyright 2010 Melway Publishing Pty Ltd. Reproduced from Melway Edition 38...
130 
Land clearing in Australia © Paul Mahony 2014 
10 km 
Original Map: Copyright 2010 Melway Publishing Pty Ltd. Reprodu...
131 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
132 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
133 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
134 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
135 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
136 
Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 
Approximately 78,000 square kilometres 
Source: 
Derived from Bis...
Rainforest destruction in Africa 
The vertical lines primarily 
represent the Guinea Savanna, 
which was once forest and i...
Rainforest destruction in Africa 
Sources: Mahesh Sankaran, et al, “Determinants of woody cover in African savannas”, Natu...
Rainforest destruction in Africa 
Sources: Mahesh Sankaran, et al, “Determinants of woody cover in African savannas”, Natu...
140 
Rainforest destruction in South America 
Winds transport black carbon 
from the Amazon to the Antarctic 
Peninsula. 
...
Burning in Australia 
To put Australian savanna burning into context, the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in the state of 
V...
142 
Protein © Paul Mahony 2014 
Bull elephant © William Manning | Dreamstime.com
143 
Protein Content 
0 
500,000 
1,000,000 
1,500,000 
2,000,000 
2,500,000 
3,000,000 
3,500,000 
Wheat 
Lupins 
Field p...
144 
Protein © Paul Mahony 2014
Trophic levels “represent a synthetic metric of species’ diet, which describe 
the composition of food consumed and enable...
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The Electric Cow

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Most climate change campaigners focus on the fossil fuel sector.

While it's essential that we move away from fossil fuels if we're to avoid an ongoing climate catastrophe, we must also move away from animal agriculture.

The concept of the electric cow aims at providing some context to livestock's greenhouse gas emissions by comparing such emissions to those of: (a) electricity generated by fossil fuels; and (b) aluminium smelting, known within the industry as "congealed electricity" due to its enormous energy requirements.

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The Electric Cow

  1. 1. The Electric Cow If livestock’s emissions came from electricity, would most environmentalists listen? Paul Mahony, 26th May 2014 terrastendo.net © Paul Mahony 2014
  2. 2. The Electric Cow If cows ran on electricity, how much would we use in order to produce a beef steak? © Paul Mahony 2014
  3. 3. First, some background © Paul Mahony 2014
  4. 4. Key reasons for livestock’s impact Inherent inefficiency Scale Greenhouse gases and other warming agents Land clearing and degradation © Paul Mahony 2014
  5. 5. Key reasons for livestock’s impact Inherent inefficiency Scale Inter-related Greenhouse gases and other warming agents Land clearing and degradation © Paul Mahony 2014
  6. 6. We’ll focus on the inefficiency of livestock as a food source © Paul Mahony 2014
  7. 7. Inherent inefficiencies The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  8. 8. Inherent inefficiencies The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  9. 9. Inherent inefficiencies The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  10. 10. Inherent inefficiencies The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  11. 11. What if we wanted to feed the same number of people under each system? © Paul Mahony 2014
  12. 12. Inherent inefficiencies The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  13. 13. Inherent inefficiencies More land The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  14. 14. Inherent inefficiencies More land More fertiliser The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  15. 15. Inherent inefficiencies More land More fertiliser More energy The figures depicted have been provided in beef industry material. Even a conversion factor of, say, 7 or 8 kg of grain per kg of end product would represent a grossly inefficient system. © Paul Mahony 2014
  16. 16. Inherent inefficiencies Chicken meat is better, but . . . still a poor feed conversion ratio © Paul Mahony 2014
  17. 17. 1.7 Inherent inefficiencies © Paul Mahony 2014
  18. 18. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat Inherent inefficiencies 1.7 © Paul Mahony 2014
  19. 19. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat © Paul Mahony 2014 1.7
  20. 20. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat © Paul Mahony 2014
  21. 21. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat © Paul Mahony 2014
  22. 22. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat = a return of 43% (or nutrition loss of 57%) © Paul Mahony 2014
  23. 23. Yield (meat from live weight) 72.25% = 2.35 kg feed per kg meat = a return of 43% (or nutrition loss of 57%) Any management team promoting this level of efficiency for a conventional business would be shown the door! © Paul Mahony 2014
  24. 24. Livestock Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively omitted from official figures in Australia and elsewhere because relevant factors are: © Paul Mahony 2014
  25. 25. Livestock Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively omitted from official figures in Australia and elsewhere because relevant factors are: (a) omitted entirely from official figures e.g. tropospheric ozone and black carbon © Paul Mahony 2014
  26. 26. Livestock Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively omitted from official figures in Australia and elsewhere because relevant factors are: (a) omitted entirely from official figures e.g. tropospheric ozone and black carbon (b) classified under non-livestock headings e.g. livestock-related land clearing reported under “land use, land use change and forestry” © Paul Mahony 2014
  27. 27. Livestock Certain livestock-related emissions figures are effectively omitted from official figures in Australia and elsewhere because relevant factors are: (a) omitted entirely from official figures e.g. tropospheric ozone and black carbon (b) classified under non-livestock headings e.g. livestock-related land clearing reported under “land use, land use change and forestry” (c) considered but with conservative calculations e.g. methane’s impact based on a 100-year, rather than 20-year, “global warming potential” © Paul Mahony 2014
  28. 28. Back to the electric cow © Paul Mahony 2014
  29. 29. Back to the electric cow If cows ran on electricity, how much would we use in order to produce a beef steak? © Paul Mahony 2014
  30. 30. Specifically, what figure would we arrive at if it was based on their current level of greenhouse gas emissions? © Paul Mahony 2014
  31. 31. To get some idea, we’ll compare their emissions performance to: © Paul Mahony 2014 • Australian aluminium smelting, which consumes vast amounts of electricity • Australian electricity generation, which comes largely from coal
  32. 32. Firstly, aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014 “Aluminium is the ultimate proxy for energy” Marius Kloppers, former CEO of BHP Billiton “To phrase it in terms of the industry joke, aluminium is congealed electricity.” Mining Weekly.com
  33. 33. Aluminium smelting has at times consumed 16% of Australia’s electricity . . . for less than 1% of gross domestic product . . . and less than 0.1% of jobs. © Paul Mahony 2014
  34. 34. That percentage may have reduced due to smelter closures and a reduction in emissions intensity from 20 tonnes of greenhouse gas per tonne of product in 1999 to 15.6 tonnes in 2011, but its contribution is still extremely significant. © Paul Mahony 2014
  35. 35. The emissions intensity of Australian aluminium smelting has been 2.5 times the global average, as the electricity is primarily coal-fired, including brown coal from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria. © Paul Mahony 2014
  36. 36. The emissions intensity of Australian aluminium smelting has been 2.5 times the global average, as the electricity is primarily coal-fired, including brown coal from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria. © Paul Mahony 2014 Emissions intensity represents the unit weight of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gases per unit weight of end product for any given commodity.
  37. 37. Let’s compare the emissions intensity of aluminium smelting to that of various plant-based food products, i.e.: - sugar, - wheat, - other grains, - carrots, - potatoes, - apples and - soy beans. 37 © Paul Mahony 2014
  38. 38. © Paul Mahony 2014 Here are emissions intensity figures for various plant-based food sources 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans
  39. 39. Let’s then see how steel production and aluminium smelting compare (rounded up to zero decimal places). 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans © Paul Mahony 2014
  40. 40. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans © Paul Mahony 2014
  41. 41. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel © Paul Mahony 2014
  42. 42. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  43. 43. We’ll now consider beef production, but first we need to change the scale of the chart. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  44. 44. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  45. 45. © Paul Mahony 2014 45
  46. 46. 46 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  47. 47. 47 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  48. 48. 48 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Grass-fed beef Mixed-grazing beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  49. 49. The first figures are global average figures based on carcass weight, published by the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Dec, 2013. 49 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Grass-fed beef Mixed-grazing beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  50. 50. 50 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Grass-fed beef Mixed-grazing beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  51. 51. 51 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  52. 52. 52 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 102 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  53. 53. Now let’s consider emissions intensity based on the weight of the retail product (representing the yield), rather than 53 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 102 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef the weight of the carcass. © Paul Mahony 2014
  54. 54. © Paul Mahony 2014 The emissions relating to the cow haven’t changed, but the “end product”, retail meat obtained from the carcass, is lighter than 54 the carcass itself, so the emissions intensity increases. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 102 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef
  55. 55. 55 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 102 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  56. 56. 56 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef 102 © Paul Mahony 2014
  57. 57. 57 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 102 140 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  58. 58. 58 Now let’s adjust for a 20-year “global warming potential” (GWP) for methane, but first an 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 102 140 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef explanation. © Paul Mahony 2014
  59. 59. The emissions of different gases can be aggregated by converting them to carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e). It is like a common denomination for greenhouse gases. 59 © Paul Mahony 2014 They are converted by multiplying the mass of emissions by the appropriate global warming potentials (GWPs). GWPs represent the relative warming effect of a unit mass of the gas when compared with the same mass of CO2 over a specific period.
  60. 60. 60 CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) Traditional reporting of methane’s global warming potential has understated its shorter-term impact, as it breaks down in the atmosphere much faster than carbon dioxide. The IPCC’s 100-year GWP for methane was increased to 34 (with carbon cycle feedbacks) in 2013. The figure for a 20 year timeframe is 86. NASA reports figures of 33 for 100 years and 105 for 20 years. © Paul Mahony 2014
  61. 61. 61 CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) Methane’s shorter-term impacts can become long-term to the extent that they contribute to us reaching climate change tipping points with catastrophic and irreversible consequences. © Paul Mahony 2014
  62. 62. 62 CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) Methane’s shorter-term impacts can become long-term to the extent that they contribute to us reaching climate change tipping points with catastrophic and irreversible consequences. © Paul Mahony 2014 Meaningful action in regard to key sources of methane can represent a significant mitigation measure with a relatively fast response time.
  63. 63. 63 CO2-e equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from livestock 20-year “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) To repeat: Methane’s shorter-term impacts can become long-term Methane’s shorter-term impacts can become long-term to the extent that they contribute to us reaching climate change to the extent that they tipping points with catastrophic and irreversible consequences. contribute to us reaching climate change tipping points with catastrophic and irreversible consequences. © Paul Mahony 2014 Meaningful action in regard to key sources of methane can represent a significant mitigation measure with a relatively fast response time.
  64. 64. So now we’ll insert figures based on a 20-year GWP © Paul Mahony 2014 64 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 102 140 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef
  65. 65. 65 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 102 140 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  66. 66. 66 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  67. 67. 67 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  68. 68. 68 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  69. 69. intensity of beef from grass-fed cows is more than 18 times that of Australian aluminium smelting. 69 On that basis, the global average emissions 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  70. 70. 70 As mentioned, Australian aluminium smelting has been 2.5 times as emissions intensive as the 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef global average. © Paul Mahony 2014
  71. 71. percentage split of the various factors contributing to beef’s emissions 71 The “20-year GWP” figures are based on the global average 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef intensity. © Paul Mahony 2014
  72. 72. As methane’s percentage contribution would be lower in mixed systems than in grazing systems, they may be over-stated for the 72 former (160 kg) and under-stated for the latter (291 kg). They are intended to be approximations only. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef © Paul Mahony 2014
  73. 73. 73 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 56 77 160 102 140 291 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium Mixed-grazing beef Grass-fed beef The figures also vary by region. As stated, those shown here are the global average. © Paul Mahony 2014
  74. 74. 74 Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily sheep & goats) compares © Paul Mahony 2014
  75. 75. 75 Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily sheep & goats) compares 3 16 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Steel & Aluminium Sheep from grazing systems Sheep from mixed systems Steel Aluminium Sheep - Mixed - Carcass Sheep - Mixed - Retail Sheep Mixed Retail - 20 Yr GWP Sheep - Grazing - Carcass Sheep - Grazing - Retail Sheep Grazing Retail - 20 Yr GWP © Paul Mahony 2014
  76. 76. 76 Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily sheep & goats) compares 3 23 24 16 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Steel & Aluminium Sheep from grazing systems Sheep from mixed systems Steel Aluminium Sheep - Mixed - Carcass Sheep - Mixed - Retail Sheep Mixed Retail - 20 Yr GWP Sheep - Grazing - Carcass Sheep - Grazing - Retail Sheep Grazing Retail - 20 Yr GWP © Paul Mahony 2014
  77. 77. 77 Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily sheep & goats) compares 3 23 35 24 16 36 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Steel & Aluminium Sheep from grazing systems Sheep from mixed systems Steel Aluminium Sheep - Mixed - Carcass Sheep - Mixed - Retail Sheep Mixed Retail - 20 Yr GWP Sheep - Grazing - Carcass Sheep - Grazing - Retail Sheep Grazing Retail - 20 Yr GWP © Paul Mahony 2014
  78. 78. 78 Here’s how meat from small ruminants (primarily sheep & goats) compares 3 23 35 24 86 16 84 36 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Steel & Aluminium Sheep from grazing systems Sheep from mixed systems Steel Aluminium Sheep - Mixed - Carcass Sheep - Mixed - Retail Sheep Mixed Retail - 20 Yr GWP Sheep - Grazing - Carcass Sheep - Grazing - Retail Sheep Grazing Retail - 20 Yr GWP © Paul Mahony 2014
  79. 79. 79 Some of the emissions from small ruminants are attributed to milk and fibre, reducing the meat figure 3 23 35 24 86 16 84 36 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Steel & Aluminium Sheep from grazing systems Sheep from mixed systems Steel Aluminium Sheep - Mixed - Carcass Sheep - Mixed - Retail Sheep Mixed Retail - 20 Yr GWP Sheep - Grazing - Carcass Sheep - Grazing - Retail Sheep Grazing Retail - 20 Yr GWP © Paul Mahony 2014
  80. 80. Let’s see how the global emissions intensity of chicken and pig meat compares, based on retail weight and a 20-year 80 GWP. © Paul Mahony 2014 SOME FURTHER COMPARISONS
  81. 81. 81 SOME FURTHER COMPARISONS Let’s see how the global emissions intensity of chicken and pig meat compares, based on retail weight and a 20-year GWP. Firstly, we’ll revert to the original scale on the chart. © Paul Mahony 2014
  82. 82. 82 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  83. 83. 83 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods, steel & aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  84. 84. Emissions Intensity 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  85. 85. © Paul Mahony 2014 To make some room, we’ll remove soy beans and steel 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium
  86. 86. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 3 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to soybeans Steel & Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  87. 87. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  88. 88. © Paul Mahony 2014 Now we’ll add pig and chicken meat. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Aluminium
  89. 89. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  90. 90. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 7.6 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Chicken Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  91. 91. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 7.6 13.6 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Chicken Pig Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  92. 92. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 7.6 13.6 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Chicken Pig Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  93. 93. The emissions intensity of chicken and pig meat is very poor relative to plant-based alternatives. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 7.6 13.6 16 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 kg CO2-e / kg product Plant-based foods from sugar to apples Chicken Pig Aluminium © Paul Mahony 2014
  94. 94. 94 The emissions intensity of Australian beef production is lower than the global average due primarily to higher productivity (more meat per cow), relatively high feed digestibility and a reduction in livestock-related land clearing since the end of 2006. © Paul Mahony 2014
  95. 95. 95 The land clearing may increase following the recent overturning by the current Queensland government of a ban imposed by the previous government on broad scale land clearing. © Paul Mahony 2014
  96. 96. 96 The land clearing may increase following the recent overturning by the current Queensland government of a ban imposed by the previous government on broad scale land clearing. © Paul Mahony 2014
  97. 97. 97 The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity figures for specialised beef in Australia. © Paul Mahony 2014
  98. 98. 98 The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity figures for specialised beef in Australia. © Paul Mahony 2014 For our next comparison, we’ll consider figures produced by Australia’s Department of the Environment.
  99. 99. 99 The UNFAO has not produced emissions intensity figures for specialised beef in Australia. © Paul Mahony 2014 For our next comparison, we’ll consider figures produced by Australia’s Department of the Environment. Let’s see how the aggregate emissions of cows and other livestock animals compare to those of Australian electricity generation, taking into account only methane emissions in respect of the animals.
  100. 100. Background: Around 90 per cent of Australia’s electricity is generated from traditional fossil fuels, with 69 per cent from coal and 19 per cent from natural gas. © Paul Mahony 2014 a includes wind, hydro, solar PV and bioenergy; b includes multi-fuel power plants
  101. 101. In terms of gross domestic product, Australia’s economy was ranked number 12 of 214 nations by The World Bank as at 8th May, 2014. © Paul Mahony 2014 a includes wind, hydro, solar PV and bioenergy; b includes multi-fuel power plants
  102. 102. Australia’s per capita emissions are amongst the highest in the world. © Paul Mahony 2014 a includes wind, hydro, solar PV and bioenergy; b includes multi-fuel power plants
  103. 103. Around 90 percent of Australia’s emissions from fossil fuel electricity generation come from black and brown coal. © Paul Mahony 2014 Electricity emissions: Australian Government, Dept of the Environment, “National Inventory Report 2012 Volume 1”, Fig. 3.2 CO2-e emissions from electricity generation by fossil fuels, 1990-92, p. 50.
  104. 104. 104 CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: Coal-fired electricity © Paul Mahony 2014 215,725 175,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Coal-fired electricity
  105. 105. 105 © Paul Mahony 2014 CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: Coal-fired electricity and methane from animal agriculture based on 20-year GWP 215,725 175,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Coal-fired electricity Methane from animal agriculture
  106. 106. 106 © Paul Mahony 2014 CO2-e emissions (Gg) 2012: All electricity generation and methane from animal agriculture based on 20-year GWP 193,000 215,725 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Total electricity Methane from animal agriculture
  107. 107. 107 © Paul Mahony 2014 On this basis, if the newly developed electric cows, sheep, chickens, pigs and other livestock animals were to require the amount of electricity that would create their current level of greenhouse gas emissions, then we would not be generating enough for them to operate, even if all other activities using electricity ceased! 193,000 215,725
  108. 108. 108 © Paul Mahony 2014 The reported methane emissions are from: enteric fermentation (released primarily through belching); manure management; and savanna burning. There appears to be no allowance in Australia’s livestock-related greenhouse gas inventory for the following non-methane factors that are considered by the FAO: manure applied to feed crops (N2O); Fertilizer and crop residues (N2O); feed (CO2); and land use change (pasture expansion) 193,000 (CO2). 215,725 Australia’s greenhouse gas inventory does include N20 emissions from manure management and savanna burning. Notes: - CO2 = carbon dioxide; CH4 = methane; N2O = nitrous oxide - The UN FAO treats “manure management” and “applied and deposited manure” as separate categories. It appears the Australian figures included “deposited manure” in “manure management”. - We have applied 57% of savanna burning to livestock production, in line with material commissioned by the former Australian Greenhouse Office.
  109. 109. 109 Methane’s share of beef’s global average emissions is 44% (Enteric fermentation 42.6% and manure management 1.4%) Enteric 42.6% Manure (3 categories) 23.1% Feed & fertiliser 17.4% LUC – Pasture 14.8% Energy 0.9% LUC – Soybean 0.7% Postfarm 0.5% Total 100% © Paul Mahony 2014
  110. 110. 110 Buying locally hardly helps Postfarm emissions (transport and processing) only account for 0.5% of the total. Enteric 42.6% Manure (3 categories) 23.1% Feed & fertiliser 17.4% LUC – Pasture 14.8% Energy 0.9% LUC – Soybean 0.7% Postfarm 0.5% Total 100% © Paul Mahony 2014
  111. 111. James Hansen – Essential Measures © Paul Mahony 2014
  112. 112. James Hansen – Essential Measures © Paul Mahony 2014 Massive reforestation and action on soil carbon will be critical
  113. 113. Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) Chicken 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef mixed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef grass fed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Fish 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Tofu 100g Soy Nuts 50g Kidney Beans 50g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Soymilk 400g Plant foods’ emissions for this and subsequent slides are from an Oxford study released in June, 2014. Some are slightly higher than figures used in earlier slides but still significantly below the animal-based figures.
  114. 114. Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) Chicken 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef mixed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef grass fed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Fish 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Tofu 100g Soy Nuts 50g Kidney Beans 50g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Soymilk 400g Plant foods’ emissions for this and subsequent slides are from an Oxford study released in June, 2014. Some are slightly higher than figures used in earlier slides but still significantly below the animal-based figures.
  115. 115. Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) Emissions: 2.00 kg Chicken 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef mixed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Beef grass fed 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Fish 200g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Cow’s milk 400g Emissions: 3.24 kg Emissions: 3.68 kg Emissions: 34.17 kg Emissions: 60.34 kg Tofu 100g Soy Nuts 50g Kidney Beans 50g Broccoli 50g Carrot 50g Potato 150g Almonds 50g Banana 150g Orange 150g Oats 80g Quinoa 100g Spinach 100g Dried Apricots 65g Avocado 50g W'meal Bread 130g Soymilk 400g Plant foods’ emissions for this and subsequent slides are from an Oxford study released in June, 2014. Some are slightly higher than figures used in earlier slides but still significantly below the animal-based figures.
  116. 116. Alternative Diets (updated October 2014) Greenhouse gas emissions (kg per day) Key distinguishing ingredients shown Plant foods’ emissions for this and subsequent slides are from an Oxford study released in June, 2014. Some are slightly higher than figures used in earlier slides but still significantly below the animal-based figures.
  117. 117. What about chickens and fish? While emissions from diets featuring chicken and fish are comparable to the plant-based alternative, those two commodities in their own right are around three to four times as emissions intensive. Fish photo© Furzyk73 | Dreamstime.com - Tinca Tinca, Doctor Fish, The Tench Photo; Chicken photo courtesy of aussiechickens.com.au
  118. 118. What about chickens and fish? They also involve other massive environmental problems, including destruction of oceanic ecosystems and waste from around 60 billion chickens bred and slaughtered annually. Fish photo© Furzyk73 | Dreamstime.com - Tinca Tinca, Doctor Fish, The Tench Photo; Chicken photo courtesy of aussiechickens.com.au
  119. 119. Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University 119 Some thoughts to conclude © Paul Mahony 2014
  120. 120. Some thoughts to conclude “Contrarian claims by sceptics, misrepresenting direct observations in nature and ignoring the laws of physics, have been adopted by neo-conservative political parties.” 120 © Paul Mahony 2014 Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University
  121. 121. Some thoughts to conclude “Contrarian claims by sceptics, misrepresenting direct observations in nature and ignoring the laws of physics, have been adopted by neo-conservative political parties.” 121 “A corporate media maintains a ‘balance’ between facts and fiction.” © Paul Mahony 2014 Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University
  122. 122. Some thoughts to conclude “Contrarian claims by sceptics, misrepresenting direct observations in nature and ignoring the laws of physics, have been adopted by neo-conservative political parties.” “The best that governments seem to do is devise cosmetic solutions, or promise further discussions, while time is running out.” 122 “A corporate media maintains a ‘balance’ between facts and fiction.” © Paul Mahony 2014 Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University
  123. 123. Some thoughts to conclude “Contrarian claims by sceptics, misrepresenting direct observations in nature and ignoring the laws of physics, have been adopted by neo-conservative political parties.” “The best that governments seem to do is devise cosmetic solutions, or promise further discussions, while time is running out.” 123 “A corporate media maintains a ‘balance’ between facts and fiction.” “GOOD PLANETS ARE HARD TO COME BY!” © Paul Mahony 2014 Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University
  124. 124. Some thoughts to conclude “Contrarian claims by sceptics, misrepresenting direct observations in nature and ignoring the laws of physics, have been adopted by neo-conservative political parties.” “The best that governments seem to do is devise cosmetic solutions, or promise further discussions, while time is running out.” 124 “A corporate media maintains a ‘balance’ between facts and fiction.” © Paul Mahony 2014 Dr Andrew Glikson, earth and paleoclimate scientist at Australian National University References and supplementary slides follow
  125. 125. 125 © Paul Mahony 2014 References Methane GWP Chart: Smith, K., cited in World Preservation Foundation, “Reducing Shorter-Lived Climate Forcers through Dietary Change: Our best chance for preserving global food security and protecting nations vulnerable to climate change“, http://www.worldpreservationfoundation.org/Downloads/ReducingShorterLivedClimateForcersThroughDietaryChange.pdf Shindell, D.T., Faluvegi, G., Koch, D.M., Schmidt, G.A., Unger, N., Bauer, S.E., “Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions“, Science 30 October 2009: Vol. 326 no. 5953 pp. 716-718 DOI: 10.1126/science.1174760, https://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5953/716.figures-only Sanderson, K., “Aerosols make methane more potent”, Nature, Published online 29 October 2009 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2009.1049, http://www.nature.com/news/2009/091029/full/news.2009.1049.html Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report, 2014, http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/, cited in Romm, J., “More Bad News For Fracking: IPCC Warns Methane Traps More Heat”, The Energy Collective, 7th October, 2013, http://theenergycollective.com/josephromm/284336/more-bad-news- fracking-ipcc-warns-methane-traps-much-more-heat-we-thoughtSanderson, K., “Aerosols make methane more potent”, Nature, Published online 29 October 2009 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2009.1049, http://www.nature.com/news/2009/091029/full/news.2009.1049.html Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “Tackling climate change through livestock: A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities”, Nov 2013, http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/en/publications/tackling_climate_change/index.htm; http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3437e/i3437e.pdf Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant supply chains: A global life cycle assessment”, Nov 2013, http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/en/publications/tackling_climate_change/index.htm; http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3461e/i3461e.pdf United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Agricultural Handbook No. 697, June, 1992 (website updated 10 September, 2013), “Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products”, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ah-agricultural-handbook/ ah697.aspx#.U0ihR6Ikykw Hamilton, C, “Scorcher: The Dirty Politics of Climate Change”, (2007) Black Inc Agenda, p. 40 Australian Aluminium Council Ltd, “Climate Change: Aluminium Smelting Greenhouse Performance”, http://aluminium.org.au/climate-change/smelting-greenhouse- performance (Accessed 14th April, 2014) Turton, H. “Greenhouse gas emissions in industrialised countries Where does Australiastand?”, The Australia Institute, Discussion Paper Number 66, June 2004, ISSN 1322-5421, p. viii, https://www.tai.org.au/documents/dp_fulltext/DP66.pdf Carlsson-Kanyama, A. & Gonzalez, A.D. “Potential Contributions of Food Consumption Patterns to Climate Change”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5, pp. 1704S-1709S, May 2009, http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/5/1704S George Wilkenfeld & Associates Pty Ltd and Energy Strategies, “National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990, 1995, 1999, End Use Allocation of Emissions Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, 2003, Volume 1”, Table S5, p. vii Glikson, A., “As emissions rise, we may be heading for an ice-free planet”, The Conversation, 18 January, 2012, http://theconversation.edu.au/as-emissions-rise-we-may-be-heading-for-an-ice-free-planet-4893 (Accessed 4 February 2012)
  126. 126. 126 © Paul Mahony 2014 References Australian Government Department of Industry, “The Australian Aluminium Industry”, http://www.innovation.gov.au/INDUSTRY/AUSTRALIANALUMINIUMINDUSTRY/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 18th April, 2014) (Industry output 2010/11 1,938,000 tonnes) Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, “Australian food statistics 2011–12”, Table 2.4 Supply and Use of Australian Meats, p. 58, http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/2269762/daff-foodstats-2011-12.pdf (Beef and veal production 2010/11 2,133,000 tonnes) Australian Government, Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, “2013 Australian Energy Update”, Fig. 3 Australian electricity generation, by fuel type, p. 10, http://www.bree.gov.au/sites/default/files/files//publications/aes/2013-australian-energy-statistics.pdf Electricity emissions: Australian Government, Dept of the Environment, “National Inventory Report 2012 Volume 1”, Fig. 3.2 CO2-e emissions from electricity generation by fossil fuels, 1990-2012, p. 50. Campbell, K., "Energy crunch constraining aluminium expansions”, 27 February, 2006, www.miningweekly.com, http://www.miningweekly.com/article/energy-crunch- constraining-aluminum-expansions-2006-02-27 The World Bank, GDP Ranking, 8th May, 2014, http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/GDP-ranking-table Pie chart: Figure 7, p. 24, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “Tackling climate change through livestock: A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities”, Nov 2013, http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/en/publications/tackling_climate_change/index.htm; http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3437e/i3437e.pdf Beef’s efficiency diagram derived from W.O. Herring and J.K. Bertrand, “Multi-trait Prediction of Feed Conversion in Feedlot Cattle”, Proceedings from the 34th Annual Beef Improvement Federation Annual Meeting, Omaha, NE, July 10-13, 2002, www.bifconference.com/bif2002/BIFsymposium_pdfs/Herring_02BIF.pdf, cited in Singer, P & Mason, J, “The Ethics of What We Eat” (2006), Text Publishing Company, p. 210 Chicken’s feed conversion figures: Australian Chicken Meat Federation, Industry facts and figures, http://www.chicken.org.au/page.php?id=4 (accessed 7th May, 2014). Chicken yield figure: USDA Agricultural Handbook # 697 “Weights, Measures and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products”, June 1992, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ah-agricultural-handbook/ah697.aspx, updated 10 Sep, 2013 Hansen, J; Sato, M; Kharecha, P; Beerling, D; Berner, R; Masson-Delmotte, V; Pagani, M; Raymo, M; Royer, D.L.; and Zachos, J.C. “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”, 2008. Acknowledgement: An earlier comparison between electricity generation and methane emissions was reported by Prof. Barry Brook and Geoff Russell in “Meat’s Carbon Hoofprint”, Australasian Science, Nov/Dec 2007, pp. 37-39, http://www.control.com.au/bi2007/2810Brook.pdf Australian Government, Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, “2013 Australian Energy Update”, Fig. 3 Australian electricity generation, by fuel type, p. 10, http://www.bree.gov.au/sites/default/files/files//publications/aes/2013-australian-energy-statistics.pdf Electricity emissions: Australian Government, Dept of the Environment, “National Inventory Report 2012 Volume 1”, Fig. 3.2 CO2-e emissions from electricity generation by fossil fuels, 1990-92, p. 50. Scarborough, P., Appleby, P.N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs, A.D.M., Travis, R.C., Bradbury, K.E., & Key, T.J., "Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK", Climatic Change, DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1169-1 Cover images: Plug © Antonio Mirabile | Dreamstime.com; Cow © Pavelmidi1968 | Dreamstime.com
  127. 127. 127 © Paul Mahony 2014 Supplementary slides Land clearing Nutrition
  128. 128. 128 Land Clearing in Australia Total area cleared since European settlement approx. 1 million sq. km. Approx. 70% or 700,000 sq km (9% of Australia’s land area) is due to livestock. Cleared native vegetation and protected areas Cleared native vegetation Native vegetation Protected areas Sources: Map - National Biodiversity Strategy Review Task Group, “Australia’s Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2020”, Figure A10.1, p. 91 Other figures derived from Russell, G. “The global food system and climate change – Part 1”, 9 Oct 2008, www.bravenewclimate.com, which utilised: Dept. of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, State of the Environment Report 2006, Indicator: LD-01 The proportion and area of native vegetation and changes over time, March 2009; and ABS, 4613.0 “Australia’s Environment: Issues and Trends”, Jan 2010; and ABS 1301.0 Australian Year Book 2008, since updated for 2009-10, 16.13 Area of crops © Paul Mahony 2014
  129. 129. 129 Land clearing in Australia Original Map: Copyright 2010 Melway Publishing Pty Ltd. Reproduced from Melway Edition 38 with permission. 10 km How far north would we go to clear as much land as was cleared in Queensland If we assumed that the land north of a 10 km line running east from the middle of Melbourne was covered by forest and other wooded vegetation. between 1988 and 2008? © Paul Mahony 2014
  130. 130. 130 Land clearing in Australia © Paul Mahony 2014 10 km Original Map: Copyright 2010 Melway Publishing Pty Ltd. Reproduced from Melway Edition 38 with permission.
  131. 131. 131 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns © Paul Mahony 2014
  132. 132. 132 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns © Paul Mahony 2014
  133. 133. 133 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns © Paul Mahony 2014
  134. 134. 134 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns © Paul Mahony 2014
  135. 135. 135 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns © Paul Mahony 2014
  136. 136. 136 Land clearing in Australia – Queensland 1988 -2008 Approximately 78,000 square kilometres Source: Derived from Bisshop, G. & Pavlidis, L, “Deforestation and land degradation in Queensland - The culprit”, Article 5, 16th Biennial Australian Association for Environmental Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 26-30 September 2010 Original map: www.street-directory.com.au. Used with permission. (Cairns inserted by this presenter.) Cairns 78,000 sq km © Paul Mahony 2014
  137. 137. Rainforest destruction in Africa The vertical lines primarily represent the Guinea Savanna, which was once forest and is maintained as savanna through regular burning, primarily to enable cattle grazing. Sources: Mahesh Sankaran, et al, “Determinants of woody cover in African savannas”, Nature 438, 846-849 (8 December 137 2005), cited in Russell, G. “Burning the biosphere, boverty blues (Part 2)”, www.bravenewclimate.com © Paul Mahony 2014
  138. 138. Rainforest destruction in Africa Sources: Mahesh Sankaran, et al, “Determinants of woody cover in African savannas”, Nature 438, 846-849 (8 December 138 2005), cited in Russell, G. “Burning the biosphere, boverty blues (Part 2)”, www.bravenewclimate.com MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/firemaps/ © Paul Mahony 2014
  139. 139. Rainforest destruction in Africa Sources: Mahesh Sankaran, et al, “Determinants of woody cover in African savannas”, Nature 438, 846-849 (8 December 139 2005), cited in Russell, G. “Burning the biosphere, boverty blues (Part 2)”, www.bravenewclimate.com MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/firemaps/ © Paul Mahony 2014
  140. 140. 140 Rainforest destruction in South America Winds transport black carbon from the Amazon to the Antarctic Peninsula. 47% to 61% of black carbon in Antarctica comes from pasture management in the Amazon and Africa. Black carbon melts ice rapidly by absorbing heat from sunlight. http://www.world-maps.co.uk/continent-map-of-south-america.htm http://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/amazon_map.html MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/firemaps/ Black carbon information: Presentation by Gerard Bisshop, World Preservation Fund presentation to Cancun Climate Summit, Dec, 2010 “Shorter lived climate forcers: Agriculture Sector and Land Clearing for Livestock” (co-authors Lefkothea Pavlidis and Dr Hsien Hui Khoo). MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/firemaps/ © Paul Mahony 2014
  141. 141. Burning in Australia To put Australian savanna burning into context, the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in the state of Victoria burnt around 4,500 hectares. In comparison, each year in northern Australia where 70% of our cattle graze, we burn 100 times that area across the tropical savanna. Source: Modis fire map, NASA 141 © Paul Mahony 2014
  142. 142. 142 Protein © Paul Mahony 2014 Bull elephant © William Manning | Dreamstime.com
  143. 143. 143 Protein Content 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 Wheat Lupins Field peas Chickpeas Rice Mung beans Navy beans Faba beans Lentils Barley Oats Maize Sorghum Triticale Potatoes Onions Carrots Asparagus Broccoli Cauliflower Tomatoes Mushrooms Lettuce Capsicum/chillies Cabbage Beans Other Soy beans Sugar cane Peanuts Apples Pears Nashi Avocado Melons Pineapples Bananas Kiwifruit Mangoes Table and dried grapes Oranges Mandarins Lemons/limes/grapefruit Peaches Nectarines Apricots Plums Cherries Almonds Macadamia Berries Beef Lamb Pig meat Poultry Whole milk Cheese - Cheddar Cheese - Non-Cheddar Butter Eggs Tuna Other fish Prawns Rock lobster Abalone Scallops Oysters Tonnes © Paul Mahony 2014
  144. 144. 144 Protein © Paul Mahony 2014
  145. 145. Trophic levels “represent a synthetic metric of species’ diet, which describe the composition of food consumed and enables comparisons of diets between species”. 145 Trophic levels: a worrying trend Bonhommeau, S. et al., “Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophic level”, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1305827110 (2013), cited in Hoag, H., “Humans are becoming more carnivorous”, Nature, 2 December, 2013 doi:10.1038/nature.2013.14282, http://www.nature.com/news/humans-are-becoming-more-carnivorous-1.14282 © Paul Mahony 2014

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