Pathways through the Avebury landscape A study of spatial relationships associated with the Beckhampton Avenue, Avebury, W...
Introduction - the Avebury landscape <ul><li>Monumental complex developed by Later Neolithic. </li></ul><ul><li>Many monum...
Introduction - The Beckhampton Avenue <ul><li>The focus for the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovered in 2000 (Gil...
Dynamic and static spatial relationships <ul><li>Dynamic relationships are those constantly formed and broken as an observ...
Introduction - the right tools for the job <ul><li>The analytical viewshed capabilities of GIS. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualis...
Technical part I <ul><li>Enhanced contour data used to produce DEM in GRASS. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewsheds calculated using ...
Technical part II <ul><li>GRASS DEM output as ASCII raster. </li></ul><ul><li>Converted to VRML TIN. </li></ul><ul><li>Val...
Technical part III <ul><li>Sources included CAD files of archaeological features, modern and historic OS maps, excavation ...
Aerial view of the reconstruction
Technical part IV <ul><li>Aim: a dynamic two-way link. </li></ul><ul><li>Java program used to take input from GIS and cont...
Moving and experiencing I <ul><li>Viewsheds calculated along hypothesised paths. </li></ul><ul><li>Views generated using t...
Moving and experiencing II <ul><li>Cumulative viewshed analysis along hypothesised paths. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of high ...
Other observations from improbable angles <ul><li>Alignment of the Cove with Silbury Hill, observed in CAD plan, elucidate...
Future work <ul><li>Improved data sources: higher resolution DTM (from LiDAR?) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental data </li><...
For more information, please see:  Thanks to Dave Alexander, Alistair Carty, Graeme Earl, Mark Gillings, Pete Glastonbury ...
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Pathways through the Avebury landscape

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A study of spatial relationships associated with the Beckhampton Avenue, Avebury, Wilts.

The results of my MSc dissertation presented whilst I was working for English Heritage

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Pathways through the Avebury landscape

  1. 1. Pathways through the Avebury landscape A study of spatial relationships associated with the Beckhampton Avenue, Avebury, Wilts Paul Cripps, English Heritage Centre for Archaeology
  2. 2. Introduction - the Avebury landscape <ul><li>Monumental complex developed by Later Neolithic. </li></ul><ul><li>Many monuments in the landscape: the Henge, Silbury Hill, the West Kennet and Beckhampton Avenues, the Sanctuary to name but a few. </li></ul><ul><li>The multiple entrance henge and avenues may be related to movement…? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction - The Beckhampton Avenue <ul><li>The focus for the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovered in 2000 (Gillings et al.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Longstones shown to be part of a Cove (ibid.) </li></ul><ul><li>Also an earlier enclosure. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Dynamic and static spatial relationships <ul><li>Dynamic relationships are those constantly formed and broken as an observer moves around the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Static relationships are those inherent in the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>These will be investigated using the concept of visibility. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction - the right tools for the job <ul><li>The analytical viewshed capabilities of GIS. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualisations using three-dimensional reconstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and presentation using dynamic media. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technical part I <ul><li>Enhanced contour data used to produce DEM in GRASS. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewsheds calculated using customized Avenue script in ArcView. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewshed parameters output to text file and converted to VRML camera parameters. </li></ul>Building the GIS
  7. 7. Technical part II <ul><li>GRASS DEM output as ASCII raster. </li></ul><ul><li>Converted to VRML TIN. </li></ul><ul><li>Validated, cleaned & split using Chisel. </li></ul><ul><li>Decimated using 3DS Max and exported as dxf. </li></ul><ul><li>Georeferenced in three-dimensions using AutoCad. </li></ul>Building the reconstruction: the land-surface
  8. 8. Technical part III <ul><li>Sources included CAD files of archaeological features, modern and historic OS maps, excavation plans, modern and antiquarian written references. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireframe megaliths. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid barrows and earthworks. </li></ul><ul><li>Assembled using 3DS Max: megaliths placed onto land-surface, solids conformed to land-surface. </li></ul>Building the reconstruction: the archaeology
  9. 9. Aerial view of the reconstruction
  10. 10. Technical part IV <ul><li>Aim: a dynamic two-way link. </li></ul><ul><li>Java program used to take input from GIS and control camera nodes in VRML world and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: a manual one-way link. </li></ul><ul><li>Output from GIS converted and used to set up cameras manually. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, being the lowest priority, this aspect of the project was not completed. </li></ul>Linking the two applications
  11. 11. Moving and experiencing I <ul><li>Viewsheds calculated along hypothesised paths. </li></ul><ul><li>Views generated using the same parameters, passed between applications. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Moving and experiencing II <ul><li>Cumulative viewshed analysis along hypothesised paths. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of high frequency are particularly visible from hypothesised path. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other observations from improbable angles <ul><li>Alignment of the Cove with Silbury Hill, observed in CAD plan, elucidated using the reconstruction. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Future work <ul><li>Improved data sources: higher resolution DTM (from LiDAR?) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental data </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced visibility analysis: three-dimensional raycasting and/or probablistic approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Tighter integration between applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate other prehistoric landscapes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. For more information, please see: Thanks to Dave Alexander, Alistair Carty, Graeme Earl, Mark Gillings, Pete Glastonbury , Tom Goskar, Becky Poole, Anton Prowse, and Dave Wheatley.Thanks also to NERC, the funding body for my MSc, and English Heritage, my current employer.

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