Abrasive Cleaners – Use these cleaners to remove heavy accumulations of soil that are difficult to remove with
detergents. Some abrasive cleaners also disinfect. If they are not properly cleaned, food that comes into contact with
these surfaces could become contaminated.
Accident - an unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity, and that may (or may not) include injury
or property damage.
Accident Reporting and Investigation – a structured process of uncovering the sequence of events that
produced or had the potential to produce injury, death, or properly damage to determine the causal factors and
Acid Cleaners – Use periodically on mineral deposits and other soils that detergents cannot remove. These
cleaners are often used to remove scale in washing machines and steam tables.
Administration - as used in the context of government differs according to jurisdiction.
Aflatoxin - is a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus molds. Aflatoxin is probably the most well known
mycotoxin, besides trichothecene, and the most researched. This is because aflatoxins are very toxic and highly
Aluminium – is the best for all-around use. It is the most popular, lightweight, attractive and less expensive.
Antioxidant - a substance that inhibits the destructive effects of oxidation, e.g. in the body or in foodstuffs or
Appetizer - a small dish of food served at the beginning of a meal to stimulate the appetite
Aroma - refers to a "pleasant" smell as opposed to odor which refers to an unpleasant smell or possible wine fault
Aspurchase – see Purchase.
Auxiliary Equipment – like griddles, tilting skillets, broilers/grills, steamers, coffee makers, deep-fat fryers, wok,
crockery, cutting equipment (meat slicer, food choppers, grinders) mixers and bowls, pots and pans are utilized most
commonly in big food establishments, some with specialized uses and some are optional.
Bake – To cook by indirect heat, usually in the oven.
Baking – is the process of cooking food by dry heat in an oven.
Baking is very popular dry cooking technique. Bread and chicken are foods that are commonly
baked. Fish, vegetables, fruits, breads, and pastry items can also be baked.
Baking Pans – may be made of aluminum, stainless, copper, or heat resistant glass.
Baking Products – The different products were selling in bakery includes brad, cookie, cakes, etc.
Basting – Involves moistening foods with melted fats, pan drippings, or add another liquid during cooking time.
Batter – is a semi-liquid mixture that contains ingredients such as flour, milk, eggs, and seasonings.
A fluid mixture of flour, egg, and milk or butter, thin enough to beat with a spoon and classified as pour or drop
Beat – To make a mixture smooth or to introduce air by using a brisk, regular motion that lifts, the mixture over and
Bibingka Espesyal (Rice Cake) – or Bibingka Royale or simplify just bibingka to many, is very popular during
Christmas season. It’s like a pancake with cheese and salted egg, sugar and grated fresh coconut topping-if only it’s
as easy as pancake to make at home. Bibingka is a special rice cake made of rice dough called galapong.
Blend – To mix two or more ingredients until they are well combined.
Blenders – used to chop, blend, mix, whip, puree, grate, and liquefy all kinds of food. A blender is a very useful
appliance. They vary in the amount of power (voltage/wattage). Others vary and do the same job.
Boiling – cooking food in steaming liquid.
Boning Knife – used to fillet fish and to remove raw meat from the bone.
Bottles - a container, typically made of glass or plastic and with a narrow neck, used for storing drinks or other
Botulism - a serious form of food poisoning caused by eating preserved food that has been contaminated with
botulinum organisms. The toxin affects the central nervous system and causes progressive muscular paralysis.
Brand Name - a name given by the maker to a product or range of products, esp. a trademark.
Bread – A staple food made from flour, water, salt, leaves and other ingredients. There are yeast breads where
yeast is the biological leavening and quick breads where chemical agents are uses as leavening.
Breading – from the term of Bread - a food typically made by mixing flour, water, and yeast and allowing it to rise
before baking it.
Brine - water containing a significant amount of salt, used for curing, preserving, and developing flavor in food.
Broiling – cooking which is similar to roasting except that it applies to small piece of food.
Broiling is to cook directly under a primary heat source.
Bulglary - the crime of entering a building to commit a felony, usually theft.
an act of entering a building illegally to commit theft.
Bun – A round roll that can be variety of any of the sweet or plain small yeast breads.
Buster – is handy for returning some of the meat or poultry juices from the pan, back to the food. Basting brushes
can be used for the same purpose, but they are also convenient for buttering the tops of breads and baked goods
after they come out of the oven.
Butcher Knife – Used to section raw meat, poultry, and fish. It can be used as a cleaver to separate small joints or
to cut bones. Butcher knives are made with heavy blade with a sabre or flat grind.
Butter – The product of ripened cream that is churned until the butter fat separates from the buttermilk. It contains at
least 80% fat with or without salt of coloring matter.
Butter Cake – A cake leavened by air incorporated in the fat – sugar mixture and in the beaten eggs. Sometimes
referred to as yellow cake.
Butter Compound – A butter substitute made by mixing at least 40% milk fat and edible vegetable oil, such as
corn, coconut or soy bean.
Butter Fat – The product that remains after the fat has been removed from milk or cream in the processes of
churning. It contains not less than 8.5% milk solids.
Cake – Baked batter with a variety of ingredients. This could be either shortened (has fat, like butter cake) or
shortened (no fat, like sponge cake).
Cans, bottles, cartoons opener – Use to open a food tin, preferably with a smooth operation, and comfortable
grip and turning knob.
Caramel – The brown, sticky substance that remains after sugar is heated to about 200OC. It has a distinct flavor
but is less sweet than the original sugar.
Casserole – cooking pot - a deep heavy cooking pot suitable for use in an oven.
Cooked dish - a stew or other moist food dish, cooked slowly at a low heat in a covered pot or dish.
Cast Iron – is sturdy but must be kept seasoned to avoid rust. Salad oil with no salt or shortening can be rubbing
inside and out and dry. Wash with soap (not detergent) before using.
Ceramic and Heat Proof Glass – is used especially for baking dishes, casseroles, and measuring cups. Glass
and ceramic conduct the heat slowly and evenly. Many of these baking dishes are decorated and can go from stove
or oven to the dining table.
Cereals – Grains that are widely used as a staple food. They include rice, wheat and corn.
Cereals are made of cultivated plants of the grass family that are used for food.
Chemicals – Approved chemicals sanitizers are chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium. Different factors
influence the effectiveness of chemicals sanitizers.
Chlorine – chemical agent use to kill germs. A gaseous poisonous corrosive greenish yellow element of the halogen
group that is highly reactive and is a product of the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Use: water purification,
Chopping – Cutting into fine or coarse piece alone in meat and vegetables.
Citrus Knife – used to section citrus fruits. The blade has two-sided, serrated edge.
Cleaning – a physical removal of visible soil and food.
The process of removing food and other types of soil from the surface, such as a dish, glass, or cutting
Clean-up – make something clean or neat. ransitive and intransitive verb to make somebody or something clean
Coat – To cover with a thin layer of flour, sugar, nuts, butter, etc.
Cocoa – The product that remains after chocolate is processed to remove some cocoa batter.
Coffee Cake – This gets its name from the fact that it is often served with a coffee as a breakfast roll. It is actually a
sweetened and flavored yeast bread shaped into a roll that certain a filling for topping such as raisins or dozed fruits.
Colanders – Also called a vegetable strainer is essential for various tasks from cleaning vegetables to straining
pasta or tin contents.
Color – The cooking process also affect s the color of food. For example, certain ingredients that are commonly
used to cook vegetables, such as lemon juice, vinegar and baking soda can change the color of vegetables. There
are cooking techniques, such as balancing.
Combination Cooking – uses both moist and dry cooking techniques. This kind of cooking is a two-step process.
You start by using one technique and finishing with the other. For example, for stew, you brown the meat, a dry
cooking technique. Then, you simmer the meat and vegetables with seasonings a moist technique. The objective of
combination cooking is to build upon flavors
Commercial Cooking – Depending on the context, but is generally refers to any cooking of food production that
happens on a large scale where the product is intended to be sold at a restaurant or a factory.
Competitive formal or Informal Bid Buying – This is used almost exclusively by large Hospitals, Institutions
Schools, and Government agencies, speculations of required food items are advertized in several forms.
Cookie Sheets – are flat rectangular pans with very low edges used for baking cookies.
Cookies – Small sweet chiefy used as snaks.
Cooking – see cooking food.
Cooking Food – This is the process of heating the food to make it ready for consumption. Cooking kills the germs,
enhances the taste, and improves the digestibility of food cooking foods in different ways to make the people enjoy
Cooking Techniques – Suppose the restaurant where you work offers chicken for dinner. There can be many
different results, depending on how you choose to cook the chicken. You use very different cooking techniques to
cook an egg, grill a steak, or stew tomatoes. Although, each technique involves heating the food, they all use a
different process to transfer heat the food. The degree of change that occurs during the cooking process depends on
the length of cooking time, the temperature, and the cooking techniques you use. Some methods will produce a great
deal of change, while others will not produce very much change. The three cooking techniques are dry, moist, and a
combination of both.
Corridor/Gallery Kitchen – This style kitchen makes the most out of a smaller space. : Great for smaller kitchens,
Appliances are close to one another, Easy for one cook to maneuver and Can easily convert to a U-shaped by
closing of one end.
Cream – A milk product that is separated from whole milk by centrifugal force. It may be in the form of light
cream(coffee cream with 18% fat), median cream (whipping cream with 30% to 36% fat), heavy cream (with 36% to
40% fat), sour cream (light cream with at least 1% lactic acid).
Cream (mixing terms) – to beat to a smooth consistency as in creaming of butter and sugar to incorporate air and
to make the mixture light and fluffy.
Cream Puff – A round pastry shell leavened chiefly by steam and filled with cream or soft custard.
Cuchinta (kutsinta) – is a type of kakanin (Philippines’ native delicacies these are snaks usually made with or
containing any or combination of these: coconut, coconut milk, rice flour, glutinous rice, cassava).
Cup Cake – A small cake baked in a cup like mold.
Custard – A cooked or baked mixture of sugar, milk and eggs.
Cut and Fold – To combine ingredients by using two motions: Cutting vertically through the mixture and turning
over the sliding the rubber scrapper across the bottom of the mixing bowl with each turn.
Cutting Boards – a wooden or plastic board where meats and vegetables can be cut.
Damage - physical injury that makes something less useful, valuable, or able to function.
a harmful effect on somebody or something.
Deep-Frying – is to cook foods by completely submerging them in herded fat or or oil with the temperatures
between 350OF and 375OF (117OF to 191OF).
Dessert - a sweet course eaten at the end of a meal
Detergents – Use detergents to routinely wash tableware, surfaces, and equipment. Detergents can penetrate soil
quickly and soften it. Examples include dishwashing detergents and automatic dishwasher detergents.
Dietetic Scale – It is a small spring-operated scale with graduations and numbers that are easy to read.
Directing - transitive verb to focus attention or concentrate activities on something too cooking food.
Disinfect - to clean something so as to destroy disease-carrying microorganisms and prevent infection.
Disinfectant – a substance use to destroy germs and diseases.
Double Boiler – Used when temperatures must be kept below boiling, such as for egg sauces, puddings, and to
keep foods warm without overcooking.
Dough – A flour-liquid mixture sliff enough to be kneaded or cut into shapes.
Dough Thermometer – A digital thermometer used to monitor the temperature inside the dough while being
Dredge – To sprinkle or to coat with flour or other finely ground ingredients.
Dredgers – used to shake flour, salt, and pepper on meat, poultry, and fish.
Dredging – One way to prepare foods for frying is to dredge them. Dredging means to eaten foods with flour or
finely ground crumbs.
Dry Cooking – dry cooking techniques use oil, fat, the radiation of hot air, or metal to transfer heat. No moisture is
used in this cooking process. Any moisture that comes from the food evaporates into the air. To evaporate means
that a liquid escapes from a pan as a vapor. Baking and sautéing are good example of dry cooking techniques.
Drying – process of Dry Cooking.
Edible Portion - is remaining part of food that can be eaten after it has been trimmed or waste has been removed.
It is also used during competitions to indicate the part of food that is eaten.
Electric Hand Mixer – It is used to cream butter and sugar, beat egg whites, prepare cake icings, and mix cake
batters and many other ingredients that need mixing.
Electrical Faults - is any abnormal electric current
Electricity - electric current, especially when used as a source of power
Emery Boards/sharpening steel – used to sharpen long knives.
Equipment – More complicated tools are called equipment. They may refer to a small electrical appliance, such as
a mixer, or a large, expansive, power-operated appliance such a range or a refrigerator. Equipment like range, ovens,
refrigerators (conventional, convection and microwave) is mandatory pieces in the kitchen or in any food
Evisceration - to remove an essential part of something and so weaken it.
Extensibility – The degree to which the dough can be extended without breaking.
Exterminate – to destroy totally.
Fat – refers to edible fat that are solid at room temperature.
FATTOM – Abbreviation of: Food, Acidity, Temperature, True, Oxygen, Moist.
Fermentation – The process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Filth – anything that is dirty.
Fire - a situation in which something such as a building or an area of land is destroyed or damaged by burning.
Fire Safety – this organization were teach to how escape fire safety from the building.
Fish and Fish Product – refers to the group of animals used as food.
Flaking – separating food in layers as in cooked chicken + fish.
Flipper – use for turning hamburgers and other food items.
Floods - a very large amount of water that has overflowed from a source such as a river or a broken pipe onto a
previously dry area. It can destroy the important things and become disaster.
Flour – The powdery product that is formed when cereal grains, root crops, and other starchy tubers are milled.
Flour Mixtures – A blend of flour, liquid, and either ingredients resulting in either batter or dough.
Flour Sifter or Sieve – This is a stainless steel mesh or screen through which food is passed. There are several
types of sifters are available. An ordinary strainer with medium sized mesh is a good substitute to a flour sifter.
Food - material that provides living things with the nutrients they need for energy and growth.
Food Service - those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the
home. This industry includes restaurants, school and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other
Food Service Establishment - Any facility, where food is prepared and intended for individual portion service,
and includes the site at Which individual portions are provided.
Food Storage – storing food safety, included refrigerators.
French Knife – use to chop, dice, or mince food. Heavy knives have a sabre or flat grind.
Fruit and Salad Knife – used to prepare salad greens, vegetables, and fruits.
Frying – It is hard for most people to resist crispy foods, such as fried chicken and French fries. Foods like these are
prepared using a dry-heat cooking technique called a frying. During frying, foods are cooked in larger amounts of hot
fat or oil. The outside of the food becomes sealed when it comes in a contact with the hot oil during frying. The
natural moisture that is in the food turns to to steam, which bubbles up to the surface. Because the outside of the
food is sealed. Fries food are often moist and juicy on the inside. Foods are usually coated before frying. To do this,
foods can be dredged, breaded or buttered.
Funnels – used to fill jars, made of various sizes of stainless steel, aluminum, or of plastic.
Garlic Press – a kitchen tool which is specially designed for the purpose of pulping garlic for cooking.
Glass – is good for baking but no practical on top or surface cooking. Great care is needed to make sure for long
Glaze – To coat with a thin syrup, clear jelly, caramel, or glucose to give a shiny surface to the product.
Gluten – An elastic rubbery substance formed after kneading flour with liquid. It gives adhesiveness and strongth to
Graters – Used to grate, shred, slice and separate foods such as carrots, cabbage and cheese.
Grates – frames of iron bars for holding fuel while it burns.
Grating – rubbing against a grater as in coconut and cassava.
Grease – To rub a thin film or fat or oil over the surface of a baking pan or griddle before using it. This is to prevent
the dough from sticking to the pan.
Griddle – is a flat, solid plate of metal with gas or electric heat source.
Grilling – is often used for tender foods that cook relatively quickly.
Grinding – cutting or crushing the food in a grinder as in meat and rice.
G-Shaped Kitchen – Built very much like the U-Shaped kitchens with the addition of an elongated partial wall, the
G-Shaped kitchen offers a great deal of space. : Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space, Plenty of
counter and cabinet space, Multiple cooks can function well in this layout and, Can convert one cabinet leg into a
breakfast bar or entertaining area.
Handy Poultry and Roasting Tools – make it easier to lift a hot roasted turkey from the roaster to the serving
platter without it falling apart.
Heat – There are three methods of using heat to sanitize surfaces – steam, hot water, and hot air. Hot water is the
most common method used in restaurants. If hot water is used in the third compartment of a three-compartment sink,
it must be at least 171 degrees Fahrenheit (77 degrees Celsius). If a high-temperature ware washing machine is used
to sanitize cleaned dishes, the final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180 degrees Fahrenheit (82 degrees Celsius).
For stationary rack, single temperature machines, it must be at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit (74 degrees Celsius).
Cleaned items must be exposed to these temperatures for at least 30 seconds.
Household Scales – are use to weigh large quantity of ingredients in kilos, commonly in rice, flour, sugar, legumes
or vegetables and meat up to 25 pounds.
Icings – Also called frosting. It is cooked or uncooked sugar mixed use to cover and decorates cakes.
Infestation – the state of being infested as will parasites or vermin.
Infestation Kitchen – see Infestation.
Island Option – Islands are extremely popular in homes today and are most often seen in L-shaped kitchens.
Islands can not only keep work areas traffic-free, but also create a wealth of extra counter and storage spaces. An
island can be an Indispensable food preparation station or act as a butcher blocks area. The island is also an ideal
place to add an extra sink or an island grills.
Jelly Roll Pans – look like cookie sheets but with sides that are about one inch higher. They are used for baking
Kakanin – or native delicacies, are snacks usually made with or containing any or combination od coconut milk, rice
flour, glutinous rice, cassava and sugar. Kakanin are usually prepared whenever there ia a special occasion like
fiesta, birthday, Christmas, anniversary, or just enjoy an afternoon of kakanin party with your family and friends.
Kitchen – a room especially set apart and containing the necessary utensils for cooking.
Kitchen Knives – often referred to as cock’s or chef’s tools, knives are a must for all types of kitchen tasks, from
peeling an onion and slicing carrots, to carving a roast or turkey.
Kitchen Shrears – they are practical for opening food packages, cutting tape or string to package foods or simply
to remove labels or tags from items. Other cutting tools such as box cutters are just as handy, especially for opening
Knead – To mix a pressing motion accompanied by folding and stretching.
Leavening – The process of producing gas in dough or batter.
Legistration That May Affect Business
Loaf Pans – are narrow and deep pans which may or may not have a cover. They are used for baking white pan
L-shaped Kitchen – This kitchen shape is one of the most flexible and most popular, providing a compact triangle.
: Very flexible design lay out, Major appliance can be placed in a variety of areas, Work areas are close to each other
and: Can easily convert to a U-shape with a cabinet leg addition.
Maja Blanca – is a Filipino dessert made primarily from coconut milk. Also known as coconut pudding, it is usually
served during fiestas and during the holidays, especially Christmas. Maja Blanca has the consistency of thick gelatin
with a delicate flavor, and is creamy white in color.
Manual Handling/Lifting - using your body to exert force to handle, support or restrain any object, including
people or animals.
Margarine - a yellow fat that usually consists of a blend of vegetable oils or animal fats mixed with water, flavoring,
and other ingredients
Marinating – letting the food stands in mixture for added flavor as in meat and fish.
Marmalade - a clear thick preserve made with citrus fruits, usually containing the shredded rind of the fruit.
Measuring Cup for Dry Ingredients – Use to measure solids and dry ingredients, such as flour, fat and sugar. It
is commonly made of aluminium or stain less material. Sizes range from 1, ½, ¾, and ¼. (nested cups) to one gallon.
There are cups made of plastic and come in different colours, but could only be used for cold ingredients. They could
warp, causing inaccurate measure.
Measuring Cups for Liquid Ingredients – commonly made up of heat-proof glass and transparent so that liquid
can be seen. Quantity of measure of liquid ingredient is different in a dry measuring cup.
Measuring Cups/Spoons – Measuring tools are among the most important items found in any kitchen, since
consistently good cooking depends upon accurate measurements. Measuring tools should be standarilized,
measuring cups and spoons are also in the home kitchen. Scales are used to weight materials of bigger volumes.
These are delicate and precision instruments that must be handled carefully and are more dependable in terms of
They come in sets of individual spoons measuring 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, ½ teaspoon, ¼ teaspoon, and
Meat – meat and variety cuts are general terms which refer to animal flesh such as cattle, carabao, swine, and
poultry. Carcass meat is the term used to call the meat of a slaughtered animal. When the carcass is divided into
portions, each portion is called “cut”.
Meringue – Egg-white foam with sugar, either soft-baked for a few minutes, or hard-baked and dried in a slow oven
Microwave Ovens – have greatly increased their use in the food industry. Foods can be prepared ahead of time,
frozen or refrigerated during the slack periods, and cooked or beaten quickly in microwave ovens.
Mixing Bowls – They are usually available in sets of different size.
Mixing Machine – The mixing machine has a bowl and various other attachments such as wire whip (for whipping
eggs or cream), dough arm (for kneading bread), and paddle (for equal mixing). The sixe of bowl limits the capacity or
the amount of dough that can be mixed in it.
Mixing Spoons – Mixing spoons made of wood with long handles are preffered.
Moist Cooking – a moist cooking techniques uses liquid instead of oil to create the heat energy that is needed to
cook the food. Boiling and simmering are good example of moist cooking techniques.
Mold – To form into the desire consistency or shape.
Muffin – A light quick bread that looks like a pancake but is of course texture, slightly heavier, has a pebbly crust, is
less sweet and made from drop batter.
Muffin Pans – is a one-piece metal sheet consisting of several molders in uniform size. This gives the muffin its
round and cup-like shape.
Native Delicacies – are well-loved by Filipino people. Each region in the Philippines has its own way of preparing
suman, puto, biko, kutsinta, bibingka, kalamay and other delicacies.
Negotiate buying – This is used for purchasing, grades, varieties, style and count size in seasonal, limited, and
Nutritive Value – The length of time food is cooked and the cooking technique you use determine how much
nutrition a food will retain. Raw foods lose more nutritive value the longer they cook. In fact, certain cooking
techniques can actually speed-up nutrient loss. For example, boiling green beans extracts nutrients in two ways.
Nutrients are destroyed simply because they are diluted in the liquid. You might think that if you steam the green
beans, you will maintain all of the nutrients although steaming is one of the best ways to minimize nutrient loss,
exposure to heat will still extract some nutrients from the green beans. However, because the vegetables are cooked
by the steam and naot in water, they will not lose nearly as many nutrients as if they had been boiled.
Onion – is used as a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
Open Market Buying – Commercial operations request for quotations informally from one or more convenient
sources of supply. The order is placed in terms most advantageous to the buyer especially with regard to price,
quality, delivery, and other.
Open-Split Roasting – Many cooks prefer to roast food oven an open fire. This is called open-split roasting.
Oven - a compartment warmed by a heat source and used for baking, roasting, or drying.
Oven Thermometer – A long thin glass tube with graduations used to keep track of the temperature inside the
Oxidant - a substance that oxidizes other substances.
Oxidation - the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized
Oxide - a compound containing oxygen, especially in combination with a metal
Oxygen - a colorless odorless gas that is the most abundant element, forms compounds with most others, is
essential for plant and animal respiration, and is necessary in most cases for combustion.
Pair – usually in foodparing, is a method for identifying which foods go well together.
Palitaw – is a Philippine dessert and snack made of rice flour dough that is boiled and then coated with coconut and
sesame seeds. The small, flat rice cakes are traditionally eaten during holiday festivities but can be enjoyed any time.
The textureof the finished cakes range from very moist and delicate to chewy and rubbery, depending on the
preferences of the cook. Although thereaare a few variations, palitaw is usually prepared according to the same
basics recipe without any changes.
Palatability – see Palatable.
Palatable - having a good enough taste to be eaten or drunk
Pan - a cooking pot, usually metal and with a handle, for use on the burner of a stove.
Pan-Frying – is to heat a moderate amount of fat in a pan before adding food.
Parbroil - partly cook (food) by broiling.
Paring – taking off the skin of fruits and vegetables using a knife as in potatoes and papaya.
Paring Knife – used to core, peel, and section fruits and vegetables. Blades are short concave with hallow ground.
Parts Per Million (PPM) – is commonly used as measure of small levels of pollutant in air, water, body fluids, etc.
PPM is the mass ratio between the pollutant components and the solution usually describes the concentration of
something in water or soil. One PPM is equivalent to 1 mg. of something per litre of water (mg/1) or 1 mg of
something per kg of soil (mg/kg).
Pasta Spoon Server – Use to transfer a little or much cooked pasta to a waiting plate, without mess. Pasta spoons
are best used with spaghetti-style or other long pasta noodles; you can use a large slotted serving spoon for short
Pasteurization - to make a food product, especially milk, safer to drink or eat and improve its keeping qualities by
heating it in order to destroy harmful bacteria.
Pastry – A sweet baked goodie with a crust made of rich dough.
Pastry Blender – It has rounded stainless steel blades with a wooden handle. It is used to cut in solid fat into flour
to achieve the flaky texture of pies and pastries.
Pectic Substances – see Pectin.
Pectin - is a natural gelling agent which is found in fruits.
A mixture of polysaccharides found in plant cell walls. Use: gelling agent.
Pedestal – a base or support.
Peeler - a device for removing the skin from fruit or vegetables, usually a hand-held utensil with a blade
Peeling – removing the skin of fruits and vegetables using a hand as in oranges and bananas.
Pie – A dish baked with crust with avarious fillings: It be open-faced or topped with a full crust.
Pizza – A pie, Italian in origin, with a spread of tomato sauce and with toppings such as cheese, sausages, peppers,
mushrooms, an chivies, an the like.
Plastic and Hard Rubber – are used for cutting and chopping boards, table tops, bowls, trays, garbage pails and
canisters. They are much less dulling to knives than metal and more sanitary than wood. Plastics are greatly durable
and cheap but may not last long.
Popping – is heating the food in a covered pan causing them to burst.
Portion Scales – used to weigh serving portions from one ounce to one pound.
Potato Masher – Used for mashing cooked potatoes, turnips, carrots, or other soft cooked vegetable.
Poultry – refer to domesticated birds use as food. They includes chicken, geese, pigeons, turkeys, and quails.
Pounding – pulverizing ingredients as in pepper or peanut.
Preparation - the action or process of making ready or being made ready for use or consideration.
Proofing – It is the period after kneading in w/c molded dough is left at a favorable temperature for a certain time to
give the desired volume in yeast breads.
Punch – To hit the dough with a fist to expel air and reduce air sacs and to supply fresh air to the yeast for better
Punching – synonym is “Pressing” in the food.
Purchase - the act of buying something using money or its equivalent.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds any of a class of salts derived from ammonium in which the nitrogen atom is attached to four organicgroups, as in benzalkonium chloride; the salts are cationic surface-active compounds used as antisepticsand disinfectants.
Rancidity – from the word Rancid, having the strong disagreeable smell or taste of decomposing fats or oils
Range – or Kitchen Range, a kitchen appliance used for cooking food; "dinner was already on the stove"
Rectangular Pan – Have sides that are tilted and are not perpendicular to its base.
Refrigerators/Freezers – are necessary in preventing bacterial infections from foods. Most refrigerators have
special compartment for meat, fruits and vegetables to keep the moisture content of each type food. Butter
compartment holds butter separately to prevent food odors from spoiling its flavor. Basically, refrigerator or freezers
an insulated box, equipped with refrigeration unit and a control to maintain the proper inside temperature for food
Riot - a public disturbance during which a group of angry people becomes noisy and out of control, often damaging
property and acting violently. In law, a riot is typically defined as a group of three or more persons disturbing the
peace for private purposes.
Roast Beef Slicer – used to slice roasts, ham, and thick, solid cuts of meat.
Roasting – cooking foods over live coals.
Like baking, roasting uses dry heat in a closed environment to cook food. Foods commonly roasted include
meat and poultry.
Roll Out – To flatten the dough into a sheet to prepare it for shaping into various forms.
Rolling Pin – It is usually made of wood with handles to allow a comfortable grip. It can also be made of marble
which is heavier but definitely better since it can give the dough a smoother texture.
Rotary Egg Beater – Used for beating small amount of eggs or batter. The beaters should be made up on
stainless steel, and gear driven for ease in rotating.
Round Pans – are used for baking layers cakes. A straight-sided layer pan is recommended.
Sanitizer – a chemical agent used for cleansing and sanitizing surfaces and equipment.
Sanitizing – a process of reducing number of harmful organisms to safe level on food contact service.
Sapin-sapin – is a layered glutinous rice and coconut dessert which is Philippine cuisine. It is made from rice flour,
coconut milk, sugar, water, and coloring. It has coconut flakes springkled on top. Sapin-sapin means “layers” and the
dessert is recognizable for its layer, each colored separately. It has been referred to as “a blancmange of several
colored layers, sweetened and flavored with coconut milk”.
Sautéing – cooking food in a little fat with some seasoning.
Is a quick, dry cooking technique that uses a small amount of fat or oil in a shallow pan to cook foods.
Sautéing is generally used with delicate, or fragile, foods that cook relatively quickly. These foods include
fish fillets, scallops, and tender cuts of meat, vegetables, and fruit. Most sautéed foods are served with
Scoops or Dippers – used to measure serving of soft foods, such as fillings, ice cream, and mashed potato.
Scraper – a rubber or silicone tools to blend or scrape the food from the bowl; metal, silicone or plastic egg turners
It is also used to remove sticky ingredients from a container, to scrape down the sides of bowls, and to turn
batters in baking pans. It can also be used to mix cream or blend mixtures.
Seafood Serving Tools – make the task of cleaning seafood and removing the shell much easier. For cooking
seafood, utensils will vary depending on what you are cooking.
Searing – Roasting differs from baking in that sometimes the outside of the food product is seared. To sear means
to quickly brown the outside of food at the start of the cooking process. Searing enhances flavours and add colour. It
is also helps to build body in juice drippings that can later be used to make sauce. Searing can be done two different
ways: in a pan on the range top or in the oven.
Serving Spoons – A utensil consisting of a small, shallow bowl on a handle, used in preparing, serving, or eating
Serving Tongs – enables you to more easily grab and transfer larger food items, poultry or meat portions to a
serving platter, to a hot skillet or deep fryer, or a plate. It gives you a better grip and the longer the tongs, the better
especially when used with a deep fryer, a large stock pot or at the barbecue.
Shape – To form into desired patterns with or without the aid for a tool such as cutter.
Sharpening Steel – or honing steel, is a rod of steel, ceramic or diamond coated steel used
to hone or sharpen blade edges.
Shredding – the process of scooping cut the edible portion as in buko and melon.
Simmering – Cooking food before water reaches the boiling part.
Single Wall/Pullman Kitchen Shape – Designed for homes or apartments, the single wall kitchen offers a very
open and airy feel. : Ideal for apartments and smaller homes, Works well with the open designs found in many
contemporary homes, Small moveable table can provide eating space and, Can be enhanced with the addition of an
Slicing – the process of cutting food into piece an in cabbage and chayote.
Slips/Strips/Falls - Slip –too little friction or traction between a person’s feet and the walking surface. Trip – a
person’s foot contacting an object causing them to lose balance. Fall – the result of a slip or trip, to come down freely
from a higher to a lower position, moved by the force of gravity.
Smoking – smoking is usually done with meats, but also can be done with other foods, such as nuts, vegetables,
and cheeses. Smoking is a form of cooking that uses low heat, long cooking time, and wood smoke for flavor
Solvent Cleaning – Use periodically on surfaces where grease has burned on. Solvent cleaners are often called
Soup Ladle – used for serving soup or stew, but can also be used for gravy, dessert sauces or other foods. A soup
ladle also works well to remove or skim off fat from soups and stews.
Sour Milk – A milk product stored naturally by the action of lactic acid bacteria and prepared by adding lemon juice
Spatula – used to level off ingredients when measuring and to spread frostings and sandwich fillings.
Special blank check buying – Buyer place orders with purveyors (suppliers) for specified productionsfor their
entire equipments at actual purveyors cost plus a fixed fee for service.
Spillage - the act of spilling something.
Sponge and Dough – A process where fermented sponge is combined with the remaining ingredients.
Sponge Cake – A light, fluffy cake containing beaten egg white, egg yolks, and flavors with shortening.
Spoons solid, slotted, or perforated. Made of stainless steel or plastic, the solid ones are used to spoon liquids over
foods and to lift foods, including the liquid out of the pot.
Square Pans – usually measure 8 inches by 8 inches and is used for baking batter-type cakes.
Stack – a case compose of several rows of shelves.
Stailing – The dying up of baked goods. Freshness and lost and starch molecules change.
Stainless Steel – is the most popular material used for tools and equipment, but is more expensive.
Starch – A carbohydrate stored in plants and detained chiefly from cereals and potatoes. It is an important
component of humandiet: It is a white, powdery, tasteless, odorless food product.
Steaming – cooking food big means of steam.
Stir Frying – Is a dry cooking technique that is similar to sautéing. When stir-fry, you use a wok. A wok is a larger
pan with sloping sides. Stir-fried foods require less cooking time than sautéed foods. Vegetables and tender,
boneless meats are often stir fried.
Storm Stalling – Stalling relief goods to a safety place to give the victims of storm
Straight Dough Process – A process whereby dough is obtained by mixing ingredients all at the same time.
Tart – A small pie or pastry filed with sweets.
Teflon – is a special coating applied to the inside of some aluminium or steel pots and pans. It helps food from not
sticking to the pan. It is easier to wash and clean, however, take care not to scratch the Teflon coating with sharp
instrument such as knife or fork. Use wooden or plastic spatula to turn or mix food inside.
Temperature Scales – used to measure heat intensity. Different thermometers are used for different purposes in
food preparation for meat, candy or deep-fat frying. Other small thermometers are hanged or stand in ovens or
refrigerators to check the accuracy of the equipment’s thermostat.
Texture – if you have ever overcooked vegetables, you have seen how cooking can change the texture of food.
During cooking moisture is lost, food tissue breaks down, and proteins coagulate. All of these factors change the
texture of cooked food. When heat is applied, the proteins in food coagulate. This means that they change from a
liquid or semi-liquid state to drier, solid states. The longer that you subject, or expose, the proteins to heat the firmer
and more solid they become.
The Food Storage – Your refrigerator and pantry are the major items here. Cabinetry like Lazy Suman or swingout pantry units adds function and convenience. Options like wine racks, spice racks, and roll-out trays help to
organize your groceries.
The Preparation/cooking – Your range, oven, microwave, and smaller appliances are found in this area. Counter
space is important in this section. Conserve space by moving appliances off the counter with appliance garage
cabinets and space-saving ideas like towel rods and pot lid racks.
The Clean-up – Everyone’s least favorite activity is one of the kitchen’s most important – clean-up. This area is
home to the sink, waste disposal, and dishwasher. Cabinetry for this station is designed to organized the trash bin
cabinet and roll-out tray baskets for storage convenience.
Theft of Money - the act or crime of stealing somebody else's property, or stealing money.
Thermovolumes – or thermal expansion, is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change
Toasting – cooking food on an oven.
Torte – A rich cake made from crumbs, eggs and can be of any shape or filling-round, rectangular, square or petal.
Tube Pan – is round with a tube in the middle used for baking chiffon cakes.
Turnover – A small pie or tart made by folding a slice of pastry over a filling.
Two Line Fork – used to hold meats while slicing, and to turn solid pieces of meat while browning or cooking. Made
of stainless steel and with heat-proof handle.
Ube Halaya – is basically a dessert made from purple yam. It’s sweet and usually has milk and sugar.
U-Shaped Kitchen – Named for the “U” shape it resembles, this kitchen is popular in large and small homes alike:
Perfect for families who use their kitchens a great deal, Provides plenty of counter space, Efficient work triangle, and
Can convert one cabinet leg into an breakfast bar
Vectors – a disease-transmitting organisms, an organism such as a mosquito or tick that transmits disease-causing
microorganisms from an infected person or animal to another.
Vegetable – are any of various plants, especially herbaceous plants used partly or wholly for food.
Vegetable Peeler – used to scrape vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes and to peel fruits. The best ones are
made of stainless steel with sharp double blade that swivels.
Washing – that process that removing soil on equipment tools.
Waste Disposal Area – An area that proper disposition of a discarded or discharged material in accordance with
local environmental guidelines or laws.
Water Escape – Escape safety from the water flood.
Water Leakages - Non revenue water is water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer.
Losses can be real losses or apparent losses. High levels of NRW are detrimental to the financial viability of water
utilities, as well to the quality of water itself.
Whip – To incorporate air into a mixture by beating with a brisk, oven, rotary mation.
Whisks for Blending Mixing – used for whipping eggs or batter, and for blending gravies, sauces, and soups.
The beaters are made of looped steel piano wires which are twisted together to form the handle.
Winnow - the process of separating grain from chaff.
Wooden Spoons – continue to be kitchen essentials because of their usefulness for used for creaming, stirring
and mixing. They should be made of hard wood.
Work Centers – focused around major appliances-refrigerators-freezers, range, or sink. Theirs centers make
possible an orderly flow of activities connected with food storage, preparation, cooking serving, and clean-up.
Work Flow – where work is done most efficiently when it flows in a natural progression either from left to right or
right to left.
Work Simplification – means doing the job in the easiest, simplest and quickest way.
Work Station – simplify means a specific work area where a particular kind of food is produced or specific job is
Work Triangle – an imaginary line drawn from each of three primary work stations in the kitchen, to avoid traffic
Yeast - a small single-celled fungus that ferments sugars and other carbohydrates and reproduces by budding.