RFID Simulation of the US Pharmaceutical Supply Chain


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Modeling Registry Network Traffic in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
joint project - MIT Auto-ID Labs and SAP

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RFID Simulation of the US Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

  1. 1. Modeling Registry Network Traffic in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain A State Machine Approach to Supply Chain Simulation John R. Williams, Abel Sanchez1, Paul Hofmann, Tao Lin, Ph.D., Michael Lipton, Krish Mantripragada21 MIT Auto-ID Laboratory2 SAP Research Labs, Palo Alto© Auto-ID Labs 1
  2. 2. SummaryIn the future, when the Internet of Things becomes reality, serialized data (typically RFIDand/or barcode, based on EPCglobal, DOD/UID and other standards) can potentially be storedin millions of data repositories world wide. In fact, large data volumes of serializedinformation may be coming soon, as the global healthcare industry moves towards deployinganti-counterfeiting standards as soon as 2009. Those data will be sent to enterpriseapplications through the EPC Network Infrastructure. The data volume, message volume,communication and applications with EPC Network Infrastructure will raise challenges to thescalability, security, extensibility and communication of current IT Infrastructure. Severalarchitectures for EPC Network Infrastructure have been proposed. So far, most pilots havefocused on the physical aspects of tag readings within a small network of companies. The lackof data quantifying the expected behavior of network message traffic within the future EPCNetwork Infrastructure is one of the obstacles inhibiting industry moving to the next level.This paper presents a simulator aimed at quantifying the message flows within various EPCNetwork architectures in order to provide guidance for architecting a scalable and securenetwork.© Auto-ID Labs 2
  3. 3. 1. Introduction and MotivationRFID/EPC technology enables the tracking of physical objects through their lifecycle withoutdirect human involvement. Through the wide range of initiatives, such as the one with retailgiants (Wal-Mart and Target), with Food and Drug Administration (FDA), numerous stateBoards of Pharmacy, aerospace (Airbus and Boeing), and Department of Defense (DoD) [1],RFID/EPC/UID has demonstrated its great value for business operation automation. Takingan airplane part as an example, it has the potential to be in any place of the world. Therefore,the data for tracking this part can be recorded from any location. Considering the diversity oforganizations potentially dealing with this part: manufacturer, airline, maintenance and repair,there could be thousands of data repositories that might record the information related to thispart.The data stored in the data repositories and also on RFID tags with the new IT infrastructuretogether form the EPC Network Infrastructure for the Internet of Things. Considering dataoperations with an airplane part, the number of data repositories, the data volume, the numberof messages through the network, the business operations and business applications involvedare potentially far beyond the capacity of today’s IT infrastructure.With the joint effort by academia and industry, RFIDEPC technology has made greatprogress in the past few years. Up to now, most pilots have focused on the physical aspects of© Auto-ID Labs 3
  4. 4. tag readings within a small network of companies. No quantified data has been collected forthe potential EPC Network Infrastructure. Several architectures for the EPC NetworkInfrastructure have been proposed. However, due to the lack of the mechanism for evaluatingthese architectures with quantified data, no common criteria can be researched.This paper presents a supply chain simulator in order to obtain the quantified data of themessage flow in the future EPC Network Infrastructure. The design and development of sucha simulator is a complicated task as a number of dimensions needs to be considered, such asscalability, extensibility, security, privacy, communication frequency, and in-time response.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 analyzes the requirements of thesimulator through a Pharmaceutical use case. Section 3 presents the software architecture forthis simulator environment. Section 4 discusses a few implementation issues and gives someinitial results. Section 5 concludes this paper.2. Requirements2.1 The Pharmaceutical Supply ChainCounterfeit and compromised drugs are increasingly making their way into the publichealthcare system and are considered a threat to the public health by the Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) [2]. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals are a $32 billion dollar industryrepresenting 10 percent of the global market, according to the FDA. The recent increase in© Auto-ID Labs 4
  5. 5. patients in the U.S. receiving fake or diluted drugs is focusing more attention on the need fordrug authenticity. In 2003, 18 million tablets of the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor, theworld’s best-selling prescription drug in 2004, were recalled by Pfizer in the United Statesafter fake pills were found in pharmacies [3]. In 2004, the FDA reported 58 counterfeit drugcases, a 10-fold increase since 2000 [4].Supply chains consist of several kinds of enterprises, such as manufacturers, transportationcompanies, wholesalers, and retailers. The pharmaceutical supply chain is one of the mostcomplex supply chains and can have as many as a dozen or more enterprises between themanufacturer and the customer. Recently, the growth of counterfeiting has led to a number ofstates in the United States of America considering laws that require the pedigree of everysaleable unit of drugs be tracked. To date, over 30 states have proposed or passed pedigreelegislation. In the case of California a digital document tracking each saleable unit with aunique identifier must be initiated by the manufacturer, transmitted downstream step by stepto the dispensing pharmacy, and appended to by each enterprise along the way, with digitallysigned details of every shipping and receiving event. There are several proposals beingconsidered for how this digital document should be produced. The FDA Counterfeit DrugTask Force has recommended “a combination of rapidly improving ‘track and trace’technologies and product authentication technologies” to protect the pharmaceutical drugsupply (Combating Counterfeit Drugs, Feb 18, 2004).Four feature characteristics are paramount to widespread adoption and impact:• Automated – the high volume and high variance of pharmaceutical packages makes it impractical for supply chain participants to economically authenticate packaging manually. Therefore, there is a need for authentication that is automated – needing little to no human© Auto-ID Labs 5
  6. 6. involvement or interpretation to authenticate the packaging. Automated Strong Authentication requires electronic acquisition of information from product packages in mass and without special handling.• Secure – In order to have high confidence that the product is authentic, the expected features of the package, either physical, electronic or the combination of both, must be difficult or economically impractical to duplicate and simulate.• Private - Concerns for consumer privacy must be respected. Response in-time – As companies cannot ship or use product until pedigrees are received and authenticated, timely response for all pedigree-related transactions is required2.2 Options for e-PedigreeIn varying degrees, all of the state and federal legislative initiatives require a document to bepassed along the supply chain along with the physical product. Many of these states, such asCalifornia, require an electronic document tied to unique serial numbers. The e-Pedigreestandard recently ratified by EPCGlobal Inc. provides a ratified XML schema for such adocument (see Figure 7.1).© Auto-ID Labs 6
  7. 7. Safe & Secure  Supply Chain Is the  Is the Chain  Product  Authentication Pedigree of Custody  Genuine? Intact? Is the EPC  associated with the  Product  Where is the  item valid? Track product and where  Identity is it headed? Does the item have  Where was the  Physical  expected covert or  Trace product? (Locations  overt features? Features and Custodians)Figure 1 Base Reference Model for Secure Supply Chain (EPCGlobal Inc. E-Pedigree)Thus, when the manufacturer makes a shipment of say N items a pedigree document willaccompany the shipment listing the manufacturer, the date of shipment, the type of product,and the EPC codes of all the items. A hash of this document is then computed and signed withthe manufacturer’s private key (using the public key infrastructure). Upon, receiving thegoods the wholesaler will add to the e-Pedigree details of the receipt and will again hash andsign the document. The wholesaler will then add further to the document upon shipment.This, process is repeated at every receipt and shipment event until the goods reach thedispensing pharmacy. At each level, the signed inbound e_Pedigree documents must beembedded into the outbound document, creating a complex nested document.One disadvantage of this system is that downstream customers may gain knowledge ofupstream enterprises business practices. For example, if the manufacturer produces only one© Auto-ID Labs 7
  8. 8. e-Pedigree document for say 500 items then everyone downstream can see that themanufacturer shipped this quantity of goods. To obviate this issue, manufacturers may chooseto produce a separate e-Pedigree document for every item (or case) shipped.There is concern in the industry that the size and number of e-Pedigree documents will belarge resulting in a problem as the system scales. 2.1.1. The Registry conceptSeveral alternatives to the document passing scheme have been proposed. One alternative isthat e-Pedigree “fragments” remain with the “owner” and that the “fragments” be assembled“on the fly” only if required by some authority. Thus, instead of passing on the actual e-Pedigree document, a link to this “fragment” would be either passed along the supply chain orpossibly passed to some third party registry. Within this concept there are numerousvariations, with more or less information stored in the registry, implying more or less effortto assemble the pedigree when required.© Auto-ID Labs 8
  9. 9. 3. Supply Chain Network SimulatorIn order to explore the implications of various approaches to granularity, security, andalternative pedigree models, a simulator is being developed. The simulator is composed ofN supply chain tiers, such as Manufacturer, Wholesaler or Retailer, where each tier may havean arbitrary number of facilities. Each facility is modeled as a state machine running in itsown thread of execution.Just like the links in a metal chain the members of a supply chain may only have businessrelationships with their immediate neighbors. They may or may not know about more distantmembers of the chain and even if they are aware of their existence they may not have abusiness relationship with them.The supply chain functions by executing business events between trading partners. One partyinitiates an event by sending a message to the other party, such as a Purchase Order (P.O.message).The state of a facility is determined by the number of Purchase Orders it has pending and howmuch stock it has accumulated in its Warehouse. The simulation is driven by Purchase Ordersthat are submitted “upstream” by the retail tier. Goods are manufactured in response topurchase orders and are shipped “downstream”. Initial results show the simulator is capable ofmodeling 100,000 facilities and 100 million items of product being injected into the systemper day. The load on the registry can vary by a factor of over 1000 in peak to average loadwith around 200 messages per second being the peak load for a 1 million per day flow.© Auto-ID Labs 9
  10. 10. 3.1 Softwa Arch are hitectur reThe system is desig gned to run on a single machine in a massivel threaded environmen Each n ly nt. ndependent o all other facilities an interacts by receivin messages onfacility is totally in of nd ng s“Ports”. Facilities a known b their “Fa . are by acilityID” an the Sche nd eduler maint tains a regis of stry“endpoi ints” that ca be either references to facility objects on th same machine or We an o he ebService endpoints o a differen machine. on nt .Figure 2 Simulator Layers wit Scheduler and Regis Services r th r stry sThe ph hysical supp chain i organized into Tier such as Manufact ply is rs, s turing Tier, Tier 1 ,Wholesaler, Tier 2 Wholesale and so o with the Retailer Tier being the final Tier (Figure er, on r© Auto-ID Labs 10
  11. 11. 2). The physical g e goods flow downstrea from th manufact w am he turer to the retailer. Purchase e Porders a propagat upstream until a fac are ted m cility is able to satisfy t e them.Figure 3 The Supp Chain O 3. ply Organized in Tiers and Facilities nto dThere are two spec Facilitie in our mo that are not in the physical su cial es odel e upply chain, namely ,the Sou urce and Sin These a named from the perspective of the prod nk. are p duction of physicalgoods b because the Source act as the un ts niversal prod ducer of go oods. The Sink is the universal upurchas of good and also simulates purchaser demand by issuin Purchas Order ser ds o s rs’ ds ng seRequest into the system. tsBoth the source an the sink c be used to control the flow of goods throu the syst e nd can t ugh tem. Forexample the flow of goods t e, through the system ca be contr e an rolled by th Sink issu he uing PORequest to the Re ts etail Tier. F example if the Sin issues re For e, nk equests for 1 million it tems perday the once the purchase orders hav reached the manufa en e ve acturers and enough time has d telapsed to reach st teady state the average flow of physical goo through any tier will be 1 e p ods h wmillion items per day. This can be easily seen since on the uni r s n nly iversal Sou urce canmanufac cture goods and there is no loss of goods in the sys s e stem, and t capacity of the the ywarehou is finite. uses© Auto-ID Labs 11
  12. 12. 3.2 Purchase Order RequestWhen a purchase order request message is posted to a facility the facility checks itswarehouse for the items required. If the warehouse can fulfill the order then the items are sentto “shipping” were they are stored until shipped. If the warehouse cannot fulfill the order thenthe order is sent to the PO Consolidation Store and a copy is sent to the PO PendingFulfillment Store. The items sent to the PO Consolidation Store are aggregated by SKU IDand held there until a trigger from the Scheduler initiates sending the new consolidated POsupstream. The facility therefore generates new PORs and these may be issued in “bursts” atvarious times of the day. These bursts do not generate event traffic to the Registry but to addvariability to the supply chain.The facility is able to aggregate purchase orders and hold them for some period of time. In areal supply chain a distributer may apply various strategies to manage their inventory,including pre-ordering items based on past history. The simulator is able to accommodatesuch strategies.3.3 Purchase Order FulfilmentWhen physical goods representing a filled inbound purchase order arrive at a facility they areimmediately moved to the Warehouse. When new stock arrives in the warehouse the store ofoutbound POs Pending Fulfillment are scanned to see if any can now be filled. If an outboundPO Request can now be filled the items are removed from the warehouse and sent to Shippingwhere they await a shipping event trigger from the Scheduler.© Auto-ID Labs 12
  13. 13. 4. Implementation4.1 Modelling Facilities as State MachinesEach facility is represented as a state machine running in its own thread of execution. Thestate of the facility is modified by two kinds of events, namely Purchase Order RequestMessages (POR) that represent purchase orders and Purchase Order Filled Messages (POF)that accompany goods being received. These messages are received on two external messageports, one for each kind of message. The state of the facility is represented by the following: 1. The number and type of goods stored in the Warehouse as a result of goods received, 2. The Unfulfilled POR Store that keeps track of purchase order requests that have been sent upstream but have not yet been filled. ie goods are not yet available in the Warehouse to fill these orders.There are also two temporary stores, namely the Shipping Store, where goods areaccumulated before being shipped downstream and the Consolidated PO Store whereincoming POs that cannot be filled locally by the Warehouse are aggregated and then sentupstream as new POR messages. These temporary stores are “emptied” and the messagesfired upon receipt of trigger messages from the global “Scheduler”. The Scheduler allows usto inject delays into the facility that represent the time taken by the facility to say ship goodsfrom the Warehouse.These two stores, one for digital documents (POs) and the other for physical goods(Warehouse) allow us to add rules and strategies into how purchase orders are aggregated andthe timing of their submittal. For example, we might consolidate all purchase orders for one© Auto-ID Labs 13
  14. 14. day and only subm them ups d mit stream ever 24 hours. Similarly we can var the way in which ry ry iwarehou fulfill i uses incoming pu urchase ord ders.Figure 7 The Fac 7.4 cility State M Machine Sh howing Inco oming and O Outgoing Ev vents 4.2 The S Schedu ulerThe Sch heduler keep track of all the facil ps lities. It also provides a number of control par o f rametersthat dete ermine the r at whic manufact rate ch tured goods are injected into the su s upply chain and the nrate at w which purch hase orders are injected by the ret tailers in re esponse to g goods being sold. It galso pro ovides “Tim mers” that s send trigger events to the facilitie that contr when go r t es rol oods areshipped downstream and when POs are se upstream d m n ent m.© Auto-ID Labs 14
  15. 15. The messages for POR and POF are inherited from the base POMessage class shown below.Each message contains a PO and the address of the sender of the message. The Scheduler isresponsible for translating FacilityIDs to actual endpoints to which the message is delivered.These endpoints are called “Ports” and are the building blocks of our simulator.public class PO { public FacilityID nextDestination; public int skuID; public int numItems; }public class POMessage { public PO body; public FacilityID senderFacilityID; } 4.2.1 The Port Abstraction One novel aspect of the simulator is that it is built upon the Microsoft Coordination and Concurrency Runtime [4]. The runtime provides support for multi-threaded programming. It provides an abstraction called a Port that deals with messages of a single type. A port allows messages to be “Posted” to it and there is a buffer that stores the messages. A multi-cast delegate can be attached to the Port and when messages arrive on the Port they are passed to the delegate for processing. There is the concept of “Activating” a port which triggers the passing of the messages to the delegate© Auto-ID Labs 15
  16. 16. fun nction(s). T way in which me The n essages are buffered c be con e can ntrolled so that for exa ample, we c wait unt N messag have arr can til ges rived before passing th to the function. e hem fuFigure 5 The Port Abstraction Showing t Buffer and the Dele n the a egate Functi ionA port with no me essages in i buffer co its onsumes ar round 175 b bytes of me emory, so that on alaptop it is possible to create a t e around 7 million ports.Since th hese “intern ports” co nal orrespond c closely to so ockets it is q quite easy t arrange for a port to foto pass on its mes ssages to a external Web Servi for proc an ice cessing. Th hus, to simu ulate themessage to the R es Registry we can easily push mess sages repres senting ship pment or re eceipt ofgoods to or from a Facility to a Registry W Service on a remo machine o Web ote e.The CC arranges for every Port to run in its own thread of e CR s n n Thus, once POR or execution. TPOF m messages are injected into the s simulator th facilities respond to these messages he s mindepen ndently (as a autonomous state mach s hines). 4. .2.2 The RegistryThe sim mulator is ca apable of sim mulating the message traffic both b e t between fac cilities and also to athird pa registry. There are two kinds o message traffic to the registry, n arty of t namely “I’v ve© Auto-ID Labs 16
  17. 17. touched EPC X” messages, and query messages of the kind “Who has seen EPC X?” Thefirst kind of message traffic results from shipments received (incoming POFs) and fromshipments shipped (outgoing POFs). This traffic places into the registry notification events foreach EPC code involved. A typical message might contain the following: EventType, EPC,Shipper, DateTime, Receiver, PedigreeHash, PedigreeURIAccording to the EPCIS 1.0 specification this traffic is likely to aggregate together all EPCsread at one time (we note that there is as yet no specification for these messages). It is likelythat these messages will conform either to the EPCIS 1.0 specification or something quitesimilar. (Appendix I shows an EPCIS 1.0 conformant Ship Order Event)The Registry will probably respond to such messages with a simple acknowledgement, andtherefore the incoming messages can be buffered by the Registry to smooth any peaks in themessage traffic.The second kind of message traffic results from queries, such as Pedigree queries, whichrequire a more elaborate response and which are likely to be time sensitive. Thus, thesequeries should be answered in a “timely” manner by the Registry. The query response timewill depend on the volume of data to be searched (EPC data must be stored for several years)and therefore partitioning of the Registry data may be critical. MIT and SAP are presentlyworking on strategies for partitioning in-memory databases spread over many machines(based on the Google model). 4.2.3 Security and Authorization© Auto-ID Labs 17
  18. 18. One element affecting the latency of the Registry responses is how authentication andauthorization will be achieved. If there is a single Registry and all supply chain participantshave security credentials pre-established then there are a number of standard methods fordealing with both authentication and authorization. Authentication (who is making the query)can be established by using X.509 certificates and the PKI [999] infrastructure. Authorizationrequires the Registry to answer the question, “Does this person have permission to retrievedata related to this EPC?” This is a more complex question because to answer it the Registrymust have knowledge of the kind of item to which the EPC is attached. For example, the EPCmight be attached to a packet of cornflakes or to a cruise missile. In the latter case, evendetails about what companies are involved in the supply chain might be secret, let alonedetails about the present location of the missile. Thus, the Registry must have “business rules”that depend on the type of item (its SKU) and on the roles associated with that item.If there are multiple Registries with multiple security boundaries (i.e. Registries operated bydifferent enterprises) then the problem becomes more complex, since standards forcommunicating queries between Registries need to be established. This problem is presentlybeing researched by EPCGlobal Inc and the Architectural Review Committee and by theAuto-ID Laboratories.5 Simulator PerformanceMIT and SAP are currently working on applying the simulator to analyze potential networktraffic of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Inputs for this model consist of item throughput© Auto-ID Labs 18
  19. 19. statistics and queries to the Registry. Based on this model we expect to be able to developenvelopes for the capabilities necessary for the various kinds of registry.The present simulator, running on a Dell Latitude 620, is able to represent around one millionfacilities, which consume around 1 GByte of memory. The CCR is very efficient in that onlythose facilities that are “actively” processing messages consume resources. The performanceof the simulator is ultimately limited by the message traffic. Initial runs have simulated avolume of 1million items per day with the simulator running in real time.© Auto-ID Labs 19
  20. 20. APPENDIX I <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes" ?><epcis:EPCISDocument xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:epcis="urn:epcglobal:epcis:xsd:1" xmlns:epcglobal="urn:epcglobal:xsd:1" xsi:schemaLocation="urn:epcglobal:epcis:xsd:1 EPCglobal-epcis-1_0.xsd" xmlns:hls="http://schema.hls.com/extension" creationDate="2006-06-25T07:15:00Z" schemaVersion="1.0"><EPCISBody><EventList><TransactionEvent><eventTime>2006-06-25T07:16:00Z</eventTime><bizTransactionList> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:po">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:po:0614141073468.1</bizTransa ction> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:bol">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:bol:0614141073468.A</bizTran saction> </bizTransactionList><epcList> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107340.1</epc> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107340.2</epc> </epcList> <action>ADD</action> <bizStep>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bizstep:shipping</bizStep> <disposition>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:disp:sellable_available</disposition><readPoint> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.RP-3</id> </readPoint><bizLocation> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.3</id> </bizLocation> </TransactionEvent><TransactionEvent> <eventTime>2006-06-25T07:17:00Z</eventTime><bizTransactionList> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:po">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:po:0614141073468.2</bizTransa ction> © Auto-ID Labs 20
  21. 21. <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:bol">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:bol:0614141073468.B</bizTran saction> </bizTransactionList><epcList> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107342.1</epc> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107342.2</epc> </epcList> <action>ADD</action> <bizStep>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bizstep:shipping</bizStep> <disposition>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:disp:sellable_available</disposition><readPoint> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.RP-3</id> </readPoint><bizLocation> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.3</id> </bizLocation> </TransactionEvent><TransactionEvent> <eventTime>2006-06-25T07:18:00Z</eventTime><bizTransactionList> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:po">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:po:0614141073468.3</bizTransa ction> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:bol">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:bol:0614141073468.C</bizTran saction> </bizTransactionList><epcList> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107344.1</epc> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614141.107344.2</epc> </epcList> <action>ADD</action> <bizStep>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bizstep:shipping</bizStep> <disposition>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:disp:sellable_available</disposition><readPoint> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.RP-3</id> </readPoint><bizLocation> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.3</id> </bizLocation> </TransactionEvent><TransactionEvent> <eventTime>2006-06-25T07:19:00Z</eventTime><bizTransactionList> © Auto-ID Labs 21
  22. 22. <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:po">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:po:0614141073468.4</bizTransa ction> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:bol">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:bol:0614141073468.D</bizTran saction> </bizTransactionList><epcList> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614142.107346.1</epc> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614142.107346.2</epc> </epcList> <action>ADD</action> <bizStep>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bizstep:shipping</bizStep> <disposition>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:disp:sellable_available</disposition><readPoint> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.RP-3</id> </readPoint><bizLocation> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.3</id> </bizLocation> </TransactionEvent><TransactionEvent> <eventTime>2006-06-25T07:20:00Z</eventTime><bizTransactionList> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:po">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:po:0614141073468.5</bizTransa ction> <bizTransaction type="urn:epcglobal:fmcg:btt:bol">urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bti:bol:0614141073468.E</bizTran saction> </bizTransactionList><epcList> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614142.107348.1</epc> <epc>urn:epc:id:sgtin:0614142.107348.2</epc> </epcList> <action>ADD</action> <bizStep>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:bizstep:shipping</bizStep> <disposition>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:disp:sellable_available</disposition><readPoint> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.RP-3</id> </readPoint><bizLocation> <id>urn:epcglobal:fmcg:loc:0614141073468.3</id> </bizLocation> </TransactionEvent> © Auto-ID Labs 22
  23. 23. </EventList> </EPCISBody></epcis:EPCISDocument> © Auto-ID Labs 23
  24. 24. REFERENCES[1] Available at http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/UID/[2] Combating Counterfeit Drugs: A Report of the Food and Drug Administration AnnualUpdate, May 18, 2005, page 1. Available athttp://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2005/NEW01179.html[3] Cracks in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain, January 15, 2006, page 1. Available athttp://www.cio.com/article/16565/Cracks_in_the_Pharmaceutical_Supply_Chain/1[4] Ibid [2], page 2[5] Giorgio Chrysanthakopoulos and Satnam Sing, “An Asynchronous Messaging Library forC#” Microsoft Research Paper, http://research.microsoft.com/~tharris/scool/papers/sing.pdf© Auto-ID Labs 24