A         b           c    Instant Information Architecture    November 2011
Kahn+Associates | 2   Outline— What is Information Architecture— Categories and Classification— Visualizing Structure
Kahn+Associates | 3  What is Information Architecture   Information is   — a difference that makes a difference   — a patt...
Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 4  The role of visualization / mapping   — Visualization follows analysis   — Visualiza...
Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 5Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual ...
Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 6Information and MindThe mind operates with hierarchies and networks to create gestalte...
Kahn+Associates | 7Lenk/Kahn Communication Model                                — Mapping Websites,                       ...
Kahn+Associates | 8  Jesse James Garrett: 5 Layer Process Model— The Elements of User Experience,  Jesse James Garrett (20...
Our framework                       1. Opportunity   2. Concept   3. Experience   4. Go to marketSlide 10 © Fjord 2010 | C...
Kahn+Associates | 11Where we fit in your Internet projects
Kahn+Associates | 12   The Information Architect must understand   user research   — personas and user scenarios   — user-...
Kahn+Associates | 13   The Information Architect must mediate   — the requirements of a client, who wants to present     i...
Kahn+Associates | 14Category and ClassificationCategorization is— the mental process of grouping things by perceptible  si...
Kahn+Associates | 15— Categorization of  music— Categories of music are  an expression of  listener’s perception  and as c...
Categorization of books
Kahn+Associates | 17   Category and Classification— Categorization is  the mental process of grouping things  by perceptib...
Kahn+Associates | 18— Classification of  biology— Each living organism is  classified in the Tree of  Life taxonomy
Kahn+Associates | 19— MESH Classification of human diseases— Each disease is located in one or more places in the  Medical...
Kahn+Associates | 20    UNSPSC— The United Nations Standard Products and Services Code is a hierarchical  convention that ...
Kahn+Associates | 21Examples of “categories” that are classificationsHigh-level category          Continuous category/scal...
Kahn+Associates | 22   Category vs. Classification— 3 Categories of hair color     — Classification of hair color
Kahn+Associates | 23  LATCH (+):  Five ways to organize information for ease of use (+ One)          Location          Alp...
Kahn+Associates | 24    Location   “Location is chosen when the information who you are comparing   comes from several dif...
Kahn+Associates | 25
Kahn+Associates | 26
Kahn+Associates | 27  Alphabet   — “Alphabet is best used when you have enormous amount of data. For     example words in ...
Kahn+Associates | 29Metropolitan Museum Timeline of Art History
Kahn+Associates | 30  Time       “Time is the best form of categorization for events that happen over       fixed duration...
Kahn+Associates | 31  Horizontal: time  Vertical: categories  Result: co-existence of Categories in Time
Kahn+Associates | 34  Category   — “Category is an organization type often used for goods and industries.     Shops and se...
New YorkTimes BlogDirectory,November 2010
Kahn+Associates | 36Library of Congress American Memory: category as topic
Kahn+Associates | 37
Kahn+Associates | 38   Hierarchy      “Hierarchy organizes by magnitude. From small to large, least      expensive to most...
Kahn+Associates | 39   Great Chain of Being— God & angels— Mankind— Creatures of the Air— Creatures of the Sea— Creatures ...
Kahn+Associates | 40
Kahn+Associates | 41   A Sixth Method: Common Focus— Organizing information based on user interaction— Currently viewed— M...
Kahn+Associates | 42  Le Monde: Most commented / Most emailed
Kahn+Associates | 43Amazon.com:encouraging related purchasing +exposing common purchase behavior
Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 44  Visualizing structures   The role of visualization / mapping   — Visualization foll...
Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 45   What is a map?— « La Carte est un secours que lon fournit par les yeux à  limagina...
Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 46— Sequentielle : organiser les éléments selon une séquence temporelle.  Corporate intra...
Comparaison de sites Internet | Dec 2003 | 49
Site Internet de la BnF | mars 2004 | 50Production etcontenu :
Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 53
Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 54
Kahn+Associates | 55
Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 56
Company Overview | April 2002 | 57
Kahn+Associates | 59  Foursquare one week of checkin data
Kahn+Associates | 60   Assignment: Diagram a “typical” Gmail user session— Create 6 groups of 4 students— Select a version...
Kahn+Associates | 61   Assignment: Diagram a “typical” Gmail user session— Create a diagram or series of diagrams that rep...
Kahn+Associates | 63
Kahn+Associates | 64
Kahn+Associates | 65
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
Instant information architecture   ensad
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Lecture for ENSAD, 28 November 2011

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Instant information architecture ensad

  1. 1. A b c Instant Information Architecture November 2011
  2. 2. Kahn+Associates | 2 Outline— What is Information Architecture— Categories and Classification— Visualizing Structure
  3. 3. Kahn+Associates | 3 What is Information Architecture Information is — a difference that makes a difference — a pattern that provides a structure for understanding Information Architecture is — discovering the kinds of information the site contains — matching this information to the needs of the users — determining the appropriate metadata structure
  4. 4. Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 4 The role of visualization / mapping — Visualization follows analysis — Visualization unites the members of the team — Visualization comes before wireframes — Visualization comes before design
  5. 5. Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 5Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist,semiotician and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many otherfieldsMajor BooksSteps To An Ecology of the Mind, 1972Vers une Ecologie de lEspritMind and Nature: A Necessary Unity, 1979Une unité sacrée
  6. 6. Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 6Information and MindThe mind operates with hierarchies and networks to create gestalten.Hierarchies are nested containersNetworks are links connecting discrete nodesInformation architecture is the re/shaping of information into hierarchies and networks we search for and visualize the patterns that connectThe pattern that connects is the pathways for accessing differences
  7. 7. Kahn+Associates | 7Lenk/Kahn Communication Model — Mapping Websites, Kahn & Lenk, 2000
  8. 8. Kahn+Associates | 8 Jesse James Garrett: 5 Layer Process Model— The Elements of User Experience, Jesse James Garrett (2000)
  9. 9. Our framework 1. Opportunity 2. Concept 3. Experience 4. Go to marketSlide 10 © Fjord 2010 | Confidential
  10. 10. Kahn+Associates | 11Where we fit in your Internet projects
  11. 11. Kahn+Associates | 12 The Information Architect must understand user research — personas and user scenarios — user-based design methodology the data — text coding systems: SGML/XML — database storage & information retrieval interaction models — principals of user interface design
  12. 12. Kahn+Associates | 13 The Information Architect must mediate — the requirements of a client, who wants to present information — the needs of the user, who needs to find and consume that information — balance between the desirable and the possible
  13. 13. Kahn+Associates | 14Category and ClassificationCategorization is— the mental process of grouping things by perceptible similarity within a given context.— Creating groups through direct experience (bottom-up)
  14. 14. Kahn+Associates | 15— Categorization of music— Categories of music are an expression of listener’s perception and as communities emerge (bottom-up)
  15. 15. Categorization of books
  16. 16. Kahn+Associates | 17 Category and Classification— Categorization is the mental process of grouping things by perceptible similarity within a given context.— Classification is a set of classes assigned according to a predetermined set of principles used to impose order on a set of entities.— Taxonomic classification establishes stability by applying a set of rules to one domain (top-down)— Classification system offer inter-operability benefits across applications
  17. 17. Kahn+Associates | 18— Classification of biology— Each living organism is classified in the Tree of Life taxonomy
  18. 18. Kahn+Associates | 19— MESH Classification of human diseases— Each disease is located in one or more places in the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) maintained by the National Library of Medicine in Washington DC
  19. 19. Kahn+Associates | 20 UNSPSC— The United Nations Standard Products and Services Code is a hierarchical convention that is used to classify all products and services.—
  20. 20. Kahn+Associates | 21Examples of “categories” that are classificationsHigh-level category Continuous category/scaleThree Categories of Drugs Categories of Hurricanes: • Depressants Category 1: 74-95 mph winds • Stimulants Category 2: 96-110 mph winds • Hallucinogens Category 3: 111-130 mph winds Category 4: 131-155 mph winds Category 5: 155+ mph winds
  21. 21. Kahn+Associates | 22 Category vs. Classification— 3 Categories of hair color — Classification of hair color
  22. 22. Kahn+Associates | 23 LATCH (+): Five ways to organize information for ease of use (+ One) Location Alphabet Time Category Hierarchy From Richard Saul Wurman, INFORMATION ANXIETY 2 plus Common Focus
  23. 23. Kahn+Associates | 24 Location “Location is chosen when the information who you are comparing comes from several different sources or locales. Doctors use different locations of the body to group and study medicine. Concerning an industry you might want to know where on the world goods are distributed.” WSW— Location is the X/Y position in the context of a representation— In the most abstract sense, the X and Y positioning of any object on a plane is a purely visual distinction— Location can be used to organize information a geographical region (states, countries)— Location can be used in relation to an object (such as the body)
  24. 24. Kahn+Associates | 25
  25. 25. Kahn+Associates | 26
  26. 26. Kahn+Associates | 27 Alphabet — “Alphabet is best used when you have enormous amount of data. For example words in a dictionary or names in a telephone. As usually everybody is familiar with the Alphabet, categorizing by Alphabet is recommendable when not all the audience is familiar with different kind of groupings or categories you could use instead.” WSW — Reference to the order sequence of the letters in an alphabet — Common 26 letter European alphabet — Alphabetic order varies according to language
  27. 27. Kahn+Associates | 29Metropolitan Museum Timeline of Art History
  28. 28. Kahn+Associates | 30 Time “Time is the best form of categorization for events that happen over fixed durations. Meeting schedules or our calendar are examples. The work of important persons might be displayed as timeline as well. Time is an easily framework in which changes can be observed and comparisons made.” WSW — Absolute reference to actual event in time — Sequence of events in linear time, hours, days, months, years, decades, centuries — Potential for cycle as well as sequence
  29. 29. Kahn+Associates | 31 Horizontal: time Vertical: categories Result: co-existence of Categories in Time
  30. 30. Kahn+Associates | 34 Category — “Category is an organization type often used for goods and industries. Shops and services in the yellow pages are easy to find by category. Retail stores are divided into e.g. men- and woman-clothing. This mode works well to organizing items of similar importance.” Wurman — Categories are determined by similar content — Each category is at the same level (“similar importance”)
  31. 31. New YorkTimes BlogDirectory,November 2010
  32. 32. Kahn+Associates | 36Library of Congress American Memory: category as topic
  33. 33. Kahn+Associates | 37
  34. 34. Kahn+Associates | 38 Hierarchy “Hierarchy organizes by magnitude. From small to large, least expensive to most expensive, by order of importance, etc. Hierarchy is to be used if you want to assign weight or value to the ordered information.” WSW — Organized by sequence of importance — Recursive sequence of whole to part, largest to smallest — Organizing in nested containers: 1st thing contains 2nd thing leads to 3rd thing
  35. 35. Kahn+Associates | 39 Great Chain of Being— God & angels— Mankind— Creatures of the Air— Creatures of the Sea— Creatures of the Land— Plants— Satin & the Damned
  36. 36. Kahn+Associates | 40
  37. 37. Kahn+Associates | 41 A Sixth Method: Common Focus— Organizing information based on user interaction— Currently viewed— Most discussed— Most popular— People who bought this item also bought…— Based on what you looked at before…
  38. 38. Kahn+Associates | 42 Le Monde: Most commented / Most emailed
  39. 39. Kahn+Associates | 43Amazon.com:encouraging related purchasing +exposing common purchase behavior
  40. 40. Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 44 Visualizing structures The role of visualization / mapping — Visualization follows analysis — Visualization unites the members of the team — Visualization comes before wireframes — Visualization comes before design
  41. 41. Maps & Diagrams | September 2011 | 45 What is a map?— « La Carte est un secours que lon fournit par les yeux à limagination. » (The map is a help provided to the imagination through the eyes.) Henri Abraham Châtelain, Atlas historique, 1705— “The map is not the territory.” Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity, 1933— “Information is a difference that makes a difference.” Gregory Bateson
  42. 42. Maps & Diagrams | January 2011 | 46— Sequentielle : organiser les éléments selon une séquence temporelle. Corporate intranet management process for Schlumberger
  43. 43. Comparaison de sites Internet | Dec 2003 | 49
  44. 44. Site Internet de la BnF | mars 2004 | 50Production etcontenu :
  45. 45. Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 53
  46. 46. Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 54
  47. 47. Kahn+Associates | 55
  48. 48. Information Architecture | Paul Kahn| 56
  49. 49. Company Overview | April 2002 | 57
  50. 50. Kahn+Associates | 59 Foursquare one week of checkin data
  51. 51. Kahn+Associates | 60 Assignment: Diagram a “typical” Gmail user session— Create 6 groups of 4 students— Select a version of the Gmail UI on any web browser and mobile device— Each group will create one persona and user scenario— Example persona/scenario: 1) Web Browser: Jean-Francois looks to see if Svetlana is on Gmail, calls her using video chat, invites her to see a film and sends her a link to the a movie trailer. 2) Iphone Gmail: Nicolas reads his email on the bus, archives the unwanted messages, reads a message from Danielle, replies with a photograph. 3) Web Browser: James wants to sort his email. He searches for all messages from or about ENSAD, chooses messages, creates and assigns a new label.
  52. 52. Kahn+Associates | 61 Assignment: Diagram a “typical” Gmail user session— Create a diagram or series of diagrams that represent the interactions between the persona and the software application.— Your diagram must show how the persona accomplishes this series of tasks.— Your diagrams should communicate • User input • Types of user interaction: • checkbox, click, drag, type, etc. • Types of application response: • user feedback, change in screen content, highlighting, etc.
  53. 53. Kahn+Associates | 63
  54. 54. Kahn+Associates | 64
  55. 55. Kahn+Associates | 65

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